NON-STATE ACTORS IN EDUCATION

1. Terminology

2. Typology of provision

2.1 State education provision 

2.2 Non-state education provision 

2.3 Other types of schools 

3. Governance and regulations

3.1 Regulations by distinct levels of education

3.2 Multi-level regulations 

3.3 Supplementary private tutoring 

 

  1. Terminology

The 2005 Law on General Education (as amended in 2010) provides the general framework for elementary and secondary education in Georgia. According to the 2005 Law on General Education (as amended in 2010) a ‘private school’ is an entrepreneurial or non-entrepreneurial (non-commercial) legal entity of private law, which carries out general education activities following the National Curriculum and fully includes at least one level of general education.

  1. Typology of provision

2.1 State education provision

State schools

In Georgia, most schools at primary (six years, beginning at age 6), lower secondary (three years, beginning at age 12, called basic education), and upper secondary (three years, beginning at age 15, called secondary education) are public schools (90%). Free and compulsory education covers nine years from primary to lower secondary education; upper secondary, although not compulsory, benefits from state funding. Georgia adopted a decentralized management system at all levels of education, providing School Boards of Trustees, the schools' institutional management, in each state school.

Non-state managed, state schools

There are none.

Non-state funded, state schools

There are none.

2.2 Non-state education provision

Independent, non-state schools

Private schools are owned, managed, and financed by non-state actors established under private law as profit or non-profit organizations. These types of schools must follow the National Curriculum. However, according to the Law on General Education (2005 amended 2010), schools can implement international education programs with which the National Center for Education Quality Enhancement has an agreement. Mentioned programs include the International Baccalaureate (IB), the Quality School International (QSI), the Cambridge Assessment International Education, and the Sabis Educational Holding.

State-funded (government-aided), non-state schools

According to the 2005 Law on General Education (as amended in 2010) the MoES can authorize to fund a private school in the case of a targeted program.

Contracted, non-state schools

No information was found.

2.3 Other types of schools

Homeschooling

The 2005 Law on General Education (as amended in 2010) defines distance learning as receiving general education under the National Curriculum, based on Information and Communication Technologies, and using appropriate teaching methodologies. Home learning can be allowed in situations related to health or disability that prevents the child from attending regular school. Remote learning was adopted as a learning strategy during COVID 19, both for schools and Higher Education Institutions (HEIs).

Market contracted (Voucher schools)

Georgia adopted a "per-student" financing mechanism for general education. The school funding formula uses vouchers per capita base funding and divides schools into seven categories. The amount of standard and increased vouchers is determined according to the maximum workload for the level of achievement provided by the National Curriculum and students' financial capabilities. The voucher funding applies to Georgia's citizens, persons with temporary identity cards, a person in the Registration of Citizens of Georgia and Foreigners Residing in Georgia, a stateless person, and a person with international protection. According to the Law on General Education (2010), the Ministry is authorized to fund a private school following the Government of Georgia's rules and conditions within the relevant, targeted program/programs.

Unregistered/Unrecognised schools

No information was found.

  1. Governance and regulations

The Georgian Parliament and Ministry of Education and Science (MoES)  are responsible for determining the national educational strategy and legal and policy frameworks for all education levels. The National Center for Education Quality Enhancement (NCEQE), an independent unit within the MoES, is responsible for the authorization, accreditation, and monitoring of primary, secondary, and tertiary educational institutions' education with different departments according to level. In Georgia, both state and non-state educational institutions must be authorized to operate and follow the same procedures.

According to the Law on Self-Government, municipal authorities oversee administrating and monitoring state primary and secondary schools and, according to the Law on Self-Government and the Law of Georgia on Early and Preschool Education (2015), for authorization and monitoring of state and non-state Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) facilities.

3.1 Regulations by distinct levels of education
 

In Georgia, most preschool education is delivered by state facilities (86%). Early Childhood Care and Education in Georgia covers children ages from zero to two and it is mostly provided at homes by parents and/or legal representatives and from two-six provided by preschool institutions. Preschool facilities can be established by municipalities or private actors organized as an entrepreneurial (commercial) or non-entrepreneurial (non-commercial) legal entity under private law

All local municipalities are providing early and preschool education services. There are 1,648 kindergartens in Georgia. All early and preschool education services are fully funded by local municipalities.

Entry/Establishment

Registration and approval: According to the Law on Early and Preschool Education (2015), to establish an ECCE institution, providers must apply at the relevant municipality fulfilling all the minimum criteria, including building and infrastructure according to the Georgian regulations, sanitary and hygienic requirements, staff qualifications according to the national standards and learning and teaching process following the state standards of preschool education. According to age and level, every preschool must comply with the established maximum number of children in education groups and teachers or caregiver-pedagogues. For more information, see Multi-level regulations.

Licence: Upon approval, authorizations will be granted for four years.

Financial operation

Profit-makingAccording to the Law on Early and Preschool Education (2015), preschool institutions can be established as non-profit or for-profit legal entities under private law according to the Civil Code or the Law on Entrepreneurs. For more information, see Multi-level regulations.

Taxes and subsidies: See Multi-level regulations.

Quality of teaching and learning

Curriculum and education standards: All ECCE centres must have their learning and teaching process following the state standards of preschool education.

Teaching profession: All teaching staff must meet the professional standards approved by the state to work in a preschool center.

Equitable access

Fee-setting: According to the Law on Early and Preschool Education and Care(2015, Article 4) the children at the public preschool education institutions of Georgia are ensured free education and catering services as provided for by the legislation of Georgia. The authorization of an institution shall be free of charge. (the Law on Early and Preschool Education (2015, Article 14)

Admission selection and processes: No information was found.

Policies for vulnerable groups: According to the Law on Early and Preschool Education (2015) preschool education shall be provided in Georgian and children's native language in the case of minorities.

Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability

Reporting requirements: No information was found.

Inspection: No information was found.

Child assessment: No information was found.

Sanctions: No information was found.

Entry/Establishment

Registration and approval: See Multi-level regulations.

Licence: Upon approval and payment of the prescribed fee, a license is granted for six years.

Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH): No information was found.

Financial operation

Profit-making: See Multi-level regulations.

Taxes and subsidies: See Multi-level regulations.

Quality of teaching and learning

Curriculum and education standardsThe Law on General Education (2005 amended 2010) specifies that state and non-state educational institutions must follow the National Curriculum guidelines. Teaching in a foreign language is allowed with previous MoES approval with mandatory teaching of the Georgian language, and in the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia - also Abkhazian and Georgian. In the case of foreign education programs, schools are allowed to implement only those in agreement with the National Center for Education Quality Enhancement.

Textbooks and learning materialsTextbooks and learning materials must be in accordance with the school curriculum, whereas National Curriculum guidelines or the approved foreign educational program.

Teaching professionAccording to the Law on General Education (2005 amended 2010), every teacher must meet the minimum professional standards and qualifications established by the MoES to work at a state or non-state school in Georgia. A person convicted of a crime against sexual freedom and inviolability under Georgia's Law on Combating Sexual Freedom and Inviolability may not be employed in any educational institution.

Corporal punishmentThe Law on General Education (2005 amended 2010) specifies that it is inadmissible to use a cruel or disciplinary sanction that violates a student’s honor and dignity. Furthermore, it also includes that violence against a student, or any other person is not allowed in school.

Other safety measures and Covid-19: Georgia Government implemented remote learning both for private and public schools to prevent the novel coronavirus spread (COVID 19). Additionally, to provide universal access to the educational Television program “TV School” was also implemented.

Equitable access

Fee-setting: No information was found.

Admission selection and processesNo specific information was found on regulations on students admission, but the Law on General Education (2005 amended 2010) specifies the prohibition by educational institutions of any discrimination in students admission.

Policies for vulnerable groups: According to the 2005 Law on General Education (amended 2010), the state must ensure every student's right to receive general education as close as possible to their residence or mother tongue. In the case, a student cannot exercise that right; the state can provide an increased voucher and/or additional funding within the relevant target program approved by the MoES.

Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability

School board: No information was found regarding the requirement for non-state educational institutions to have a school management board, contrary to state schools required to be governed by a Board of Trustees.

Reporting requirements: Multi-level regulations.

School inspection: Multi-level regulations.

Student assessment: Multi-level regulations.

Diplomas and degrees: Multi-level regulations.

Sanctions: Multi-level regulations.

Georgia joined the Bologna Process in 2005 and has largely shaped its higher education system. There are three types of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs): University, Teaching University and College. The Orthodox Higher Education Institutions are governed by their specific norms established as a structural unit within Georgia's Patriarchate or individual entity under private law. The Catholicos-Patriarch of All Georgia is responsible for setting the procedures, statutes, structure, and management bodies of the GeorgianOrthodox Theological Higher Education Institutions and is not subject to accreditation. In 2019, private university enrolment represented 34.8% of enrolment in Tertiary Education. Currently, there are 63 higher education institutions in Georgia. Out of which, 34 are universities, 23 are Teaching Universities, 6 are Colleges; Currently, there are 84 VET institutions: 36 state VET Colleges, among them 7 VET colleges with government participation and 48 private Vocational/community colleges.

Entry/Establishment

Registration and approval: Multi-level regulations.

Licence: Authorization is obligatory for all Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in order to be allowed to carry out educational activities and issue a diploma that is recognized by the state. Authorization is determined compliance of an institution with the authorization standards. Authorization and Accreditation standards are complied with ESG standards guidelines.

Financial operation

Profit-making: Multi-level regulations.

Taxes and subsidies: Multi-level regulations.

Quality of teaching and learning

Curriculum and education standardsTo be authorized, higher educational institutions educational programs must follow current legislation on European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS). It is required that specific academic programmes are developed following the updated National Qualifications Framework and Classifier of Learning Fields. Programme accreditation is only mandatory for regulated professions such as Medicine, Law, Teacher Education, Maritime Education, Veterinary, Georgian language training and Doctoral programs as well. However, higher education programmes must be accredited to be eligible for national grants, which means that state funding is given to the student only if he/she is studying for an accredited program.

Teaching professionAll staff must fulfill the state's qualifications on HEI qualification requirements for a higher educational institution to attain authorization. HEI must include in the authorization application procedures and qualification requirements for hiring (electing/appointing) academic, scientific, administrative, and support staff. The requirements for their selection, appointment and qualification are determined by the Law of Georgia "On Higher Education". Each academic staff member defines his/her affiliation with one institution only. Affiliated staff participate in social development and knowledge distribution processes under the name of this institution.Equitable access.

Equitable access

Fee-setting: No information was found.

Admission selection and processesAccording to the Law on Higher Education the basis for admitting students to higher education institutions in Georgia varies according to the levels. At the first and second cycle of higher education, preconditions for admission are the unified admission by Unified Examinations system. At the first and second cycle of higher education:

• Precondition for admission to the First cycle are the Unified National  Examinations;

• Preconditions for admission to the Master's program are the Unified Master’s Examinations.

Additional preconditions for admission are determined by the higher education institution taking into consideration the specifics of the master‘s program - internal exam in the specialty, exam in a foreign language.

As for preconditions for Doctoral program admission, the institution defines the internal test, interview or presentation of the research concept and other activities, which will confirm the student's readiness to develop a scientific product by conducting research activities.

Based solely on the results of centralized exams administered by the state , National Assessment and Examinations Center enrolls students centrally at all universities, both public and private. A fixed tuition grant is available for students enrolling at private or state universities, only private universities can charge more, in which case a student who got a full state funding will need to cover the difference.  In addition, the school-graduates who received secondary general education or education equal to it abroad and during last 2 years have been receiving general education abroad or students who have been living abroad during last two or more years and study at higher educational institution recognized by the legislation of that country are eligible to be admitted at authorized higher education institutions without passing unified national Exams pursuant regulations established by the Ministry of Education and Science of Georgia.  In higher educational institutions of Orthodox theologian direction, students' enrolment is carried out based on a proposal presented by Catholicos-Patriarch of Georgia, according to the Ministry of Education and Science of Georgia's rule. The MoESCS has introduced quotas for linguistic minorities in higher education institutions.

The program, which supports the ethnic minority entrants in receiving a higher education, is one of the initiatives of the Ministry aimed at providing a quality education to ethnic minority students. Quotas are defined specially for Azerbaijanian, Armenian, Abhkazian and  Ossetian entrants for national unified exams, they are asked to take a general ability test in their own languages (Azerbaijani,  Armenian, Abkhazian and Ossetian), on the basis of which the students are enrolled at preparatory programs. Furthermore, Azerbaijani and Armenian students will take up a yearlong intensive course in Georgian Language; afterwards, they will be enrolled at the faculties of their choice. Foreign students are admitted to an educational program according to the special order of the MoES

Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability

Board: No information was found.

Reporting requirements: Multi-level regulations.

Inspection: Multi-level regulations.

Assessment: Multi-level regulations.

Diplomas and degrees: Multi-level regulations.

Sanctions: Multi-level regulations.

3.2 Multi-level regulations

This section covers regulations on the establishment, operation, and quality of non-state institutions from primary to tertiary education level, based primarily on the legal framework of the 2005 Law on General Education (amended in 2010), the Law on Education Quality Improvement (2010), and Regulations on Educational Institution Authorization and additionally guidelines provided by the National Center for Education Quality Enhancement responsible for overseeing the quality of all educational institutions in Georgia.

Although there is a Law on Higher Education (2004), above mentioned laws and regulations rules regulate entry/establishment, financing, and quality of educational institutions at different education levels.

Entry/Establishment

Registration and approval: According to the Law on Education Quality Improvement and the Regulations on Educational Institution Authorization, to establish an educational institution in Georgia, providers must apply to the National Center for Education Quality Enhancement for approval. All applications must include a self-evaluation including the institution's material resources, educational programs, human resources, and infrastructure information, specifying the premises, laboratories, and classroom equipment. Upon the application submission, a visit will follow to ensure the information veracity and premises inspection. Authorization (higher education application) is granted based on fulfilling the authorization standards based on the applicant's documentation, site visit, oral hearing, and expert board's opinion. The maximum number of student capacity is determined by the respective Authorization Board of each educational level based on the application and institutional capacity.

Higher education institutions need to apply for accreditation of Doctoral program in order to attain the academic status of "university." University carries out the Master's and Doctoral higher educational programs or all three levels of higher educational programs and scientific researches and Doctoral program can be implemented through accreditation.

Financial operation

Profit-making: The Law on General Education (2005 amended 2010) enacts for non-state educational institutions to be legally organized under private law as a Non-Profit Organization (NGO) following the Civil Code of Georgia or as a commercial organization under Georgia's Law on Entrepreneurs. When an educational institution is established as a non-profit organization, the revenues must be exclusively utilized in the institution's maintenance. Under the Law of Georgia on Entrepreneurs, educational institutions may be organized as for-profit organizations.

Taxes and subsidiesThe Tax Code includes educational institutions within the category of tax exemptions. Accredited educational institutions are eligible to receive government funds according to specific regulations.

The sources of the financing of higher education institutions are:  

  • tuition fees paid by state education grants and state education grants for Master's Programmes (only for accredited higher educational programmes),  
  • income from grants,  
  • donations and bequests,  
  • scientific research grants allocated by the State on the basis of a competition,  
  • financing allocated by the ministries according to the disciplines,  
  • other income, including the income from economic activities, permitted by the legislation of Georgia. 

Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability

Reporting requirements: According to the Law on Education Quality Improvement, the National Center for Education Quality Enhancement is the government entity responsible for Georgia's educational institutions' external quality assurance. Educational institutions are subject to internal and external quality assurance mechanisms. External mechanisms include mandatory authorization and accreditation processes, and internal quality assurance consists of self-assessment reports to verify compliance with the authorization terms.

Inspection: The National Center for Education Quality Enhancement (NCEQE) is in charge of authorization/ accreditation and monitoring all the HEIs, including non-state educational institutions'  (Orthodox Theological Higher Education Institutions follow specific conditions) compliance with the authorization/accreditation requirements through planned or unplanned inspection or requesting documentation or information to ensure compliance with the authorization /accreditation conditions. Educational institutions must submit an interim self-assessment report every three years in order for the NCEQE to check the conditions of the authorization/accreditation.

According the article 59 paragraph 51 of 2005 Law on General Education, the state schools that were established / reorganized by the MoESCS before January 1 of 2014, were obliged to carry on general education activities, as schools. Additionally, before the start of 2026-2027 academic year the MoESCS should ensure the stepwise authorization of these schools.   According to the above mentioned, at the present time only those state schools that were established / had added level/s of general education, were included in authorization procedures by the National Center for Education Quality Enhancement (NCEQE).

Assessment: The National Assessment and Examination Center is responsible for the university entrance examination for students to access tertiary education and national learning assessment.

Diplomas and degrees: Once authorization is granted to an educational institution ensuring that the necessary standards are met, they can issue state-recognized educational certificates following the MoESCS template.

Sanctions: According to the Law on Education Quality Improvement, educational Institution founders can request the institution's closure, or the state can revoke the license due to noncompliance with the authorization requirements. Educational Institutions created under private law can be liquidated according to their legal organization under the Civil Code of Georgia or the Law on Entrepreneurs.

3.3 Supplementary private tutoring

No regulation was found regarding the establishment, financial operation, or teaching profession requirements for supplementary private tuition or information specific to private schools' regulation on supplementary tutoring or regulation on their teachers. The Law on Education Quality Improvement established that an entity providing educational activities, which do not imply a document certifying qualifications, is not subject to authorization. According to Law on General Education (2005), teachers can offer students additional paid educational services in agreement with parents in public schools. Paid services must be under certain specifications, such as not providing the service to a relevant student. Teachers must be employed at the student's specific school, and it will not be provided during lesson hours.

World Bank report on Georgia: Technical Assistance to Support Preparation of Education Sector Strategy (2014), in Georgia, private tutoring is widespread which mainly affects secondary education. Families often resort to private tutoring to compensate and prepare for university admission exams. 

Entry/Establishment

No information was found. 

Financial operation and quality

No information was found. 

Teaching profession

No information was found. 

 

It has been revised with the support of the Ministry of Education and Science of Georgia

Last modified:

Mon, 02/05/2022 - 17:23