• Unless electricity supply and internet connectivity are universal, access will continue to be unequal. 85% of countries have legislation or policies for improving school or learner connectivity. In this regard, some countries are now refocusing their efforts from infrastructure development to enhancing digital skills. While 88% of countries aim to develop digital skills standards in their policies and plans, only 54% have identified or defined such skills for learners in a framework, policy, plan, or strategy.
  • Countries are shifting their policies on devices. In the past, 30% of countries implemented one-to-one technology programmes, but currently, only 15% do so.
  • Education technology has a cost in terms of privacy and online safety. Just 16% of countries enforce data privacy in education through laws, and 29% through policies. Only 16% have laws addressing cyberbullying in education, while approximately 40% have policies or strategies in place.
  • Physical and mental wellbeing are at risk due to excessive technology use. While some countries are recommending negotiation, a quarter of countries are imposing strict limits, implementing bans on smartphones in schools through either laws or policies.
  • Governance of education technology is fragmented. In 82% of countries, a government department or agency is in charge of ICT or education technology. Yet, in only 58% of those countries, the education ministry takes the lead alone; in 36%, the education ministry and another ministry share the responsibility, and in 6%, another ministry is the sole leader.

Explore the policies in your country using the menu on the right.



Drawing on the Concept Note of the 2023 GEM Reportthe 2023 Profiles Enhancing Education Reviews (PEER) on technology in education respond to three general questions:

1. What are the terms used in national laws, acts, policies and strategies to address technology and education?

2. What laws, acts, policies, strategies and frameworks exist on technology in education to: i. provide/enhance equitable access to infrastructure for schools and households ii. support students and teachers in developing digital skills iii. ensure cybersecurity and data privacy for learners iv. deliver quality distance education during the COVID-19 pandemic

3. Who are the main actors in charge of technology in education and which coordination mechanisms exist between them?

The profiles were primarily prepared through desk review by the GEM Report team, complemented by commissioned research to add subnational examples for selected countries with complex institutional structures. For all profiles on the website, when they are drafted, countries are invited through their delegation at UNESCO to review and update the information. When this step of the process is complete, it is indicated on the website on the relevant page of the country’s profile with a blue tick.

The profiles are not intended to examine or discuss implementation. Sources used in the profiles come from official documents (e.g., legislation, policies and statistical sources) and peer-reviewed literature. The profiles on technology in education focus mainly on primary and secondary education.

Available countries: Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Aruba, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, BelgiumBelize, Benin, Bermuda, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, British Virgin Islands, Brunei Darussalam, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cabo Verde, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Republic of Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Eswatini, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong (China), Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Republic of South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macao (China), Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Micronesia, Moldova, Mongolia, Montenegro, Montserrat, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Niue, North Macedonia, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Palestine, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, São Tomé and Príncipe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Sint Maarten, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland, Syrian Arab Republic, Tajikistan, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Togo, Tokelau, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Türkiye, Turkmenistan, Turks and Caicos Islands, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom (England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales), United Republic of Tanzania, United States of America, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, Viet Nam, Yemen, Zambia and Zimbabwe.


Each profile is structured in three parts: Terminology; Laws, Policies, Strategies, Plans and Regulations; and Governance.



2.1. Education technology legislative and policy framework

2.2. Technology Infrastructures, technological capacity of schools and learning environments

2.2.1. Technology infrastructure and digital capacity of schools

2.2.2. Technology and learning environments (distance education)

2.3. Technology competencies of learners and teachers

2.3.1. Learners

2.3.2. Teachers

2.4. Cybersecurity and safety

2.4.1. Data privacy

2.4.2. Online abuse and cyberbullying


3.1. Institutions in charge of technology in education and coordination mechanisms

3.2. Roles of schools