Education is a right for all and is compulsory from 1st to 9th grade. Primary school is free and no tuitions should be imposed. The education sector expenditure in 2013 was USD 1038 million (6.5% of GDP). The country has approximately 2.8million school aged children in pre-primary school, 6million in primary, 3.7million in secondary, and 2.9million in tertiary school. Households have to pay for diverse aspects of education. In 2014/2015 households spent MZN 77 (USD 1.2) in average per year on education.
The Ministry of Education and Human Development (MINEDH) and the Ministry of Science and Technology, Professional, and Higher Education (MINCTETP) oversee general education and higher and technical education. The central government is responsible for allocating education finances through the National Directorates and Autonomous Departments. There are 11 Provincial Directorates of Education and Culture and at the district level, there are District services of Education, Youth and Technology, in charge of financing education services. In 2017, 57% of education resources were executed at the district level, 15% by Provincial Directorates, 12% by the Ministry of Education and Human Development (MINEDH), 6% by the Eduardo Mondlane University, 8% by the other Education Institutions and 3% by Provincial Pedagogical Universities (UNICEF).
Resources for education come from internal and external resources. Internal resources are collected through taxes, tariffs, duties, and internal credits, and have been, up until 2015, complemented by General Budget Support (GBS), which is un-earmarked development aid to the Mozambican Government from a group of development partners. External resources, on the other hand, comprise non-GBS foreign aid, donations, and external credits.
Additional resources are distributed for 12000 schools in 23 districts, benefiting 5.6 million students (47% of compulsory school-aged children). Amounts are calculated on the basis of a fix amount per student. Schools ensure the acquisition of basic school materials and, in some cases, uniforms and footwear for poor children. The total financial resources for the program in 2015 were MZN 572 million, (USD 8.8 million), corresponding to 0.85% of the 2013 sector expenditure.
Seeks to expand compulsory education to pre-school with the aim of increasing readiness for learning in primary school and promote the entry into the 1st class at the age of six of particularly the most vulnerable children in rural areas. The program had an allocation of MZN 373 million in 2015 (USD 5.7 million) or 0.55% of the 2013 education sector expenditure.
Beginning in 2016, in partnership with UNICEF Mozambique and Save the Children, the MINEHD is implementing this program in two provinces of Mozambique, in communities with low enrollment in pre-primary education and high rates for school dropout. The programme began in Zambézia province with 11,040 children (0.2% of primary school-aged children) aged 5 to 6.
The French Agency for Development has granted US $ 25 million through 10 years (2016-2026) to develop educational excellence in Mozambique, through the financing of the construction of a school of excellence, the Aga Khan Academy. The Academy will actively enroll highly gifted and talented students from disadvantaged backgrounds who will be exempt from paying school fees. It plans to accommodate 750 primary and secondary students by 2026, with 75 graduates per year (750 beneficiaries in 10 years).
The Ministry of Science and Technology, Higher Education and Technical-Professional Training has a National Institute of Scholarships for higher-education, granting around 2,500 scholarships for education within the country and abroad. However, there is no mention of any budget.
There are not social protection programs related to education.