- Early childhood care and education (Entry/Establishment ○ Financial operation ○ Quality of teaching and learning ○ Equitable access ○ Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability)
- Primary and secondary education (Entry/Establishment ○ Financial operation ○ Quality of teaching and learning ○ Equitable access ○ Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability)
- Tertiary education (Entry/Establishment ○ Financial operation ○ Quality of teaching and learning ○ Equitable access ○ Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability)
The 1994 Education Law No. 3 (Art. 2) defines “private education institutions” as “every licenced non-governmental educational institution that applies the curriculum and textbook prescribed in government educational institutions”. This law pertains to every kindergarten, school, or centre, while additionally outlining the rules and regulations governing both the state and private sectors. According to the 2009 Jordanian Universities Law No. 20, universities are defined as “official or private institutions of higher education conferring a university degree”. In the 2018-22 Strategic Report, the Ministry of Education seeks to develop partnerships with civil society and NGOs, especially to support the provision of early childhood services.
The 2018 Nursery Law No. 77 states that the provider can be a legal person. At the primary and secondary level, the 2015 Law No. 130 of Establishment and Licensing of Private and Foreign Education Institutions (Art. 4) stipulates that the provider can be a natural or legal person, including a non-profit company or a licenced association.
In Jordan, state schools are managed, controlled, and financed by the state. They are usually comprised of two stages: “basic education,” which is compulsory and consists of students in grades 1-10 (ages 5-15), and secondary education, which is comprised of grades 11-12 (ages 16-17). Secondary education is not compulsory and some students elect not to attend any form of education beyond grade 10. Approximately half (52.6%) of all schools were managed by the government in 2019, but a larger proportion of students (68.1%) attended a state school relative to the number of state schools. In 2021, the government reported having 184 state schools that were dedicated to Syrians.
Both primary and secondary state schools are free for all citizens. Syrian refugees who meet the requirements and are registered with UNHCR are issued “service cards” (‘MOI-card’) by the Ministry of Interior, which enables them to enrol in a state school free of charge. However, these are usually dedicated evening schools and are only valid in their host community. All other non-Jordanian nationals must pay approximately 56 USD (40 JOD) annually to enrol in state schools.
As of 2019, in addition to these state schools, 46 schools with 17,378 students referred to as “other government schools” exist, which are a mix of schools dedicated to students with special needs and military schools which are run by the Ministries of Social Development and Defense respectively.
The government lists four state Sharia schools in the country, all of which are for boys at the secondary level, while further managed by the Ministry of Endowments and Islamic Affairs. However, they are also supervised by the Ministry of Education and the schools are subject to the laws, systems, and regulations of the Ministry of Education. These schools follow a unique Islamic curriculum with specific educational programs that focus on Sharia.
In the past, state schools were gender-segregated, but this has changed in recent years as more schools have become increasingly co-educational. In 2021, the government reported 1,990 (51.5%) co-educational state schools, 1,407 (36.4%) boys schools, and 468 (12.1%) girls schools.
Non-state managed, state schools
No information was found. See “Public-Private Partnership Schools”.
Non-state funded, state schools
No information was found. See “Public-Private Partnership Schools”.
Independent, non-state schools
In the 2018/19 academic year, Jordan had a total of 3,354 non-state schools, representing 45.1% of all schools with 13,850 students enrolled or 43.1% of all students. In 2021, the government reported fewer non-state schools with a total of 3,285 of which 3,226 (98.2%) were co-educational, 48 (1.5%) were designated for boys, and 11 (0.3%) were for girls. 2,760 (84%) of these schools were in urban areas, and 1,444 (44%) were in the capital of Amman. Non-state schools generally teach the national curriculum in Arabic, with some supplementing the curriculum with English books. The pedagogies in these schools may vary, but they must remain within the broad guidelines of the Ministry of Education, which includes the teaching of national and religious values outlined the 1994 Education Law No. 3. In addition to the non-state schools following the Ministry of Education curriculum, there are some international schools that teach primarily in English and serve wealthy Jordanians and expats, mostly in the capital of Amman. These schools generally offer the American, British, and International Baccalaureate curriculums and are co-educational.
State-funded (government-aided), non-state schools
No information was found.
Contracted, non-state schools
No information was found.
Other types of schools
Homeschooling is regulated by the Ministry of Education under its “Programme for Informal Learning” for those in state schools. Under this programme, students follow the same curriculum as those studying in governmental schools but do not need to attend school. Such students may further attend and take an exam at the end of each semester to earn credits, whereby upon passing, they are able to proceed to the following grade.
In light of the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Ministry of Education collaborated with the Ministry of Digital Economy and Entrepreneurship in addition to a few private sector platforms (Mawdoo3, JoAcademy, Abwaab, and Edraak), to establish a platform for distance learning called “Darsak”. This platform provides students from Grades 1-12 with educational videos to enable them to better understand their studies. In addition, two TV channels are offering on-air lectures for students and Jordan’s sports channel is being used to prepare Grade 12 students for their Tawjihi exams (to graduate from high school) to complement students’ remote learning.
Public-Private Partnership Schools
The Jordanian Education Initiative (JEI) was launched in 2003 to support public-private partnerships in education. In practice, this has constituted a collection of schools that are still overseen by the state, but where non-state actors own, finance, and manage them, or undertake some combination of such activities. These types of schools first began in 2008 as collaborations between the Ministry of Education, the Queen Rania Foundation, and over 80 private companies that fund the initiative. The objective behind this collaboration is to identify existing schools that are facing problems, such as with the environment and safety, which are then adopted by the initiative so that civil society, parents, students, teachers, and the private sector can play an active role in addressing the specific needs of a school. The rationale behind this is that this collection of actors together may be able to address the gaps in resources and state capacity that are necessary to support these schools. To date, it is unclear how many schools have been part of JEI, with the exception of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, which put out a call for 15 schools in April 2019, but no further updates could be found.
Market contracted (voucher schools)
No information was found.
No information was found.
UNRWA Refugee Schools
Palestinian refugees are provided with a free education at schools funded and managed by the United Nations Relief and Work Agency (UNRWA). Palestinian refugees are not entitled to the same provisions as Syrian refugees, who can register for a state school in their area. In total, there are 169 UNRWA schools with 120, 163 students. Within these schools, 19 (11.2%) are co-educational, 81 (48%) are for boys, and 69 (40.8%) are for girls. All of these schools offer “basic education” only, which is between Grades 1-10 (ages 6 – 15). 156 (92.3%) of these UNRWA schools operate using a two-shift system (morning and evening shifts).
The 1994 Education Law No. 3 (Art. 6) stipulates that the Ministry of Education is responsible for regulating “all non-state educational institutions to ensure their compliance with the provisions of the law”, where institutions are defined as kindergartens, schools, and centres. Throughout the law, the Ministry of Education is tasked with applying the same standards for non-state schools as those applied to state schools. When appropriate, this also means that a similar standard or equivalent must be provided by the non-state school. The schools managed by the United Nations Relief and Works Agency are outside of the Ministry of Education’s mandate, although this is an exception.
In addition, the Ministry of Social Development is responsible for regulating all kindergarten 1 (KG1/nursery) providers, all of which are non-state schools. Kindergarten 2 (KG2) is made up of state providers, which are regulated by the Ministry of Education and non-state schools are regulated by the Ministry of Social Development. However, the state-run KG2 institutions are generally instated for government employees and school staff members, meaning that they are not open for public enrolment. As such, all KG1 and KG2 institutions that are open to the public are non-state institutions regulated by the Ministry of Social Development. Finally, the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research (MOHESR) regulates all higher education institutions, both state and non-state. Under the 2009 Law No. 23 of Higher Education and Scientific Research, the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research is named as the regulator of non-state and state higher education. The Ministry of Awqaf Islamic Affairs and Holy Places does not seem to take decisions on non-state education.
The 1994 Education Law No. 3 (Art. 15) states that the Ministry of Education is also tasked with regulating both state and non-state schools at the governorate and district level. The Ministry of Education is therefore responsible for appointing a directorate of education for each governorate to directly support the provision of education in the respective district or governorate. In addition, a committee for education must also be established at the centre of each governorate and district (Art. 25). Certain types of education are also administratively overseen by the Directorate of Sharia Education in the Ministry of Endowments and Islamic Affairs, which is responsible for establishing the acceptance conditions, registration requirements, and implementing the curricula and exams in religious schools.
Vision: In the 2018-22 Strategic Report of the Ministry of Education, the private sector is envisioned as a key factor in raising the quality of the education services at the national level. The Ministry of Education sees the private sector and other stakeholders as key assets to support infrastructure, educational processes, and educational growth more generally, while also acknowledging that legislative rules must also be addressed. The key to this growth will be the ability to meet local needs through partnerships with the private sector and other institutions in the community. Finally, the Ministry of Education seeks to leverage collaborations with the private sector to address gender inequality related to certain professions, such as in ICT, and to address discrimination in hiring practices and the work environment.
Early childhood care and education includes non-state nurseries, KG1, and KG2. Many state schools that cover the basic stage (Grades 1-10) also include KG2 (age 5-6) and are regulated by the Ministry of Education (Education Law No. 3, 1994). However, enrolment in KG2 in Ministry of Education schools is not available to all children and is restricted to the children of the teachers that work there. As such, the majority of nurseries and kindergartens are non-state and regulated by the Ministry of Social Development. In addition to non-state schools and individuals who wish to open a nursery or kindergarten, private companies with more than 20 working mothers with 10 or more nursery-aged children must provide a nursery on the premises, although it is suggested that this has now been increased to 15.
Registration and approval: The 2018 Nursery Law No. 77 (Art. 5) provides detailed criteria for the nursery including meeting health, environmental, educational, and public safety requirements. Applications are then reviewed by a technical committee, which then submits them to the city directorate to then be forwarded to the minister. The law also stipulates the procedures for rejection and appeals processes, and the next steps to take should they be accepted, which include paying licensing fees, receiving trade name approval by the Ministry of Industry and Trade, and registering the nursery.
The licence applicant can apply physically or electronically by submitting two copies to the concerned directorate and the Civil Directorate, in addition to a number of documents, including (among others): a copy of his/her ID or passport; three passport pictures of the licence applicant; a certificate proving that the applicant has no criminal record along with a registration certificate if the founder is a legal person; a proof of initial agreement from the Greater Amman Municipality or the concerned municipality; a verified rental contract or an ownership deed of the building; and the number of children who can be enrolled in the nursery and how much space has been allocated for them (at least two square meters per child in the nursery and two square meters externally) (Nursery Law No. 77, 2018, Art. 3).
Licence: As The owner of the nursery must renew the licence annually by submitting this request to the Civil Directorate 30 days before the licence expires. If the licence is not renewed within these 30 days, the Minister can decide to close the nursery based on the [report of the] Directorate. A renewal can only take place based on the decision of the Director of the Civil Directorate after a field inspection is carried out by a technical committee. The Director must then decide whether to renew the licence or close the institution within 30 days of the field inspection (Nursery Law No. 77, 2018, Art. 19).
Profit-making: Non-state pre-primary schools and nurseries are allowed to make profit and charge a monthly fee per child.
Taxes and subsidies: No additional information was found.
Curriculum and education standards: According to the amended 2019 version of the 2008 Nursery Law No. 77 (Art. 22), the Ministry requires “programmes and activities prepared in accordance with the development standards approved by the Ministry.” Recognition of alphabets and words, shapes and colours, storytime, dancing to music, playing with other children, and understanding directions are some of the activities children completed in a non-state pre-primary school.
Teaching profession: A childcare provider must be provided in the nursery according to the following: a caregiver for every (6) children under one year; a caregiver for every (8) children between the ages of one and two; A caregiver for every (10) children between two and four years old. The caregiver of the children in the nursery needs to meet the following requirements be available full-time to work in a nursery, to be at least 20 years old and hold a high school diploma and a training certificate approved by competent authorities. One of the childcare providers must be academically qualified in the field of special education or have received special training for this (Nursery Law No. 77, 2018, Art. 9). In addition, as part of the documents submitted to obtain a licence, the childcare providers must have received certificates from one of the centres of the Ministry of Health indicating that they do not have contagious or communicable diseases (Art. 3(N)). In addition, the nursery must have a dedicated employee who takes care of the internal hygiene issues of the nursery and is not involved in the actual caretaking of the children therein (Art. 10). Furthermore, the academic qualifications and years of experience of childcare providers are taken into account when determining their monthly salaries as well as their compensation during their leave/holidays. In pre-primary education institutions, a teaching licence can be awarded to professionals with an education-related bachelor’s degree which further encompasses certain educational certifications for those who are teaching (Art. 34).
Fee-setting: No information was found.
Admission selection and processes: No information was found.
Policies for vulnerable groups: No information was found.
Reporting requirements: No information was found.
Inspection: At least three members from a local committee comprising directorate representatives of the Ministry of Social Development, the Ministry of Education, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Public Works and Housing, local municipality, and Civil Defense Department are “responsible for field visits, including annual inspection and licensing renewal. Many nursery administrators reported that the Ministry of Social Development also visited their nurseries on a more frequent basis than the annual licensure inspection”.
Child assessment: No information was found.
Sanctions: According to the Ministry of Social Development bylaw, if a non-state nursery commits a violation, it is given a written warning. An owner is allocated a certain time frame to correct the violation and if not, the owner will be informed that his/her licence will be revoked, and the nursery will be closed within 7 days to provide some time for the staff to inform the parents (Nursery Law No. 77, 2018, Art. 32). The next steps the Ministry of Social Development is to take if the nursery is found to be operating past the final deadline, including that the matter is referred to the Minister (Art. 33).
Registration and approval: The 2015 Law No. 130 outlines the process and documents to be provided for any application to open a non-state institution. Under Article 3, these documents include a copy of the identity card of the founder, a non-conviction certificate of the founder, a statement detailing the source of funding, a certificate of the trade name for the institution, a list of the director’s previous experience, a preliminary contract with a doctor to provide health services for students, a valid work permit, a certified building and land site plan, approval of the relevant municipality, a copy of the property title deed or rental contract, a pledge not to announce the opening of student registration and not to collect any fees until initial approval is obtained, and the approval of the investment authority if the founder is not Jordanian.
Within each non-state school building, each student must be allocated at least one square meter within a classroom and two square meters in the courtyard. In addition, the institution must be established in a separate building and the courtyard of the school must not be less than 200 meters squared (Law No. 130, 2015, Art. 5).
The applicant must apply for initial approval between January and June. Once initial approval is granted by the Ministry of Education, the applicant then has six months to complete the necessary steps to obtain the licence. The fee schedule includes approximately 70 USD (50 JOD) to submit the initial application and approximately 353 USD (250 JOD) for the engineering examination fee, amongst others, depending on the circumstances (Art. 4).
Licence: The Ministry of Education grants a licence to the applicant within six months if the applicant completes “the procedures for establishing and contracting with members of the administrative and educational body, registering students, licensing buses, and announcing the educational institution”. The first licence costs approximately 1,400 USD (1000 JOD), and must be renewed annually at a rate of approximately 280 USD (200 JOD) (Law No. 130, 2015, Art. 3). Additional fees may need to be paid, depending on the circumstances of the school, as outlined in the law. In addition, any changes, including after the licence has been issued, must be reported and approved by the Ministry of Education and the respective fees must be paid, as outlined in the law.
Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH): No law mentioning WASH or hygiene and sanitation more generally could be located. Jordan launched the national WASH standards in December of 2017.
Profit-making: Profit-making is allowed. The Ministry of Education prohibits for-profit non-state schools from increasing their tuition fees during the school year or from increasing their tuition fees at the start of the new academic year in excess of the inflation rate of the previous year (while also following the stipulations of the minister in relation to this) (Law No. 130, 2015, Art. 11).
Taxes and subsidies. No information was found.
Curriculum and education standards: Non-state schools may teach other curricula, including foreign ones, but they must have received approval from the Education Council formed under the law in question (Education Law No. 3, 1994). In addition to the Council, the National Center for Curriculum Development was created by the 2017 Bylaw No. 33 to further support the development of curricula, textbooks, and examination methods. The bylaw outlines the objectives, responsibilities and organizational structure of the centre.
Textbooks and learning materials: Non-state institutions are approved to teach the curriculum, including textbooks, set by the Council under the Ministry of Education, but are allowed to teach additional materials if they have already been approved by the Council or once they have been approved upon request (Education Law No. 3, 1994, Art. 34). In addition to approving the textbooks used, the Ministry of Education further regulates the costs of textbooks and how much they can be sold for as used books (after one year) by non-state schools and stipulates that these transactions must be reported to a special account under the Ministry of Finance (Art. 27).
Teaching profession: Basic education and secondary schools require teachers to have university degrees to obtain a licence. Furthermore, secondary school teachers must also have an educational qualification that was obtained within one year of their first university degree or a second university degree. Teachers who are currently working but do not meet these requirements are given leave until they complete these qualifications. In addition, the Minister of Education is able to issue additional or alternative instructions (Education Law No. 3, 1994, Art. 14). The Ministry of Education also regulates all teachers’ salaries both in the non-state and state sectors (Art. 32). Any teacher in an educational institute, be it state or non-state, must have acquired a professional teaching licence. In primary education institutions, a teaching licence can be awarded to someone with an (education-related) bachelor’s degree which further encompasses certain educational certifications for those who are teaching. In relation to those teaching secondary students, a teaching licence can be awarded to those with an (education-related) bachelor’s degree who have also studied for at least one year to become certified to teach or to those who have obtained a master’s degree or higher qualification (Art. 20).
The country adopted the 1996 Labour Code which covers all employees in both the public and private sectors.
Corporal punishment: Corporal punishment is expressly forbidden (Law No. 130, 2015, Art. 12). The 2017 Regulation No. 5 further expands on this in Articles 3 and 4 where schools are required to use preventative and therapeutic methods to modify students’ behaviour in a positive way. Furthermore, this regulation provides a set of instructions on how students should be disciplined for common infractions.
Other safety measures and COVID-19: Due to the outbreak of COVID-19, many non-state and state schools have been reopening and closing once again over 2021. During the re-opening of schools in February 2021, specific measures were adopted in non-state schools to ensure the safety and health of the staff and students, including the provision of non-state schools with health inspectors in schools and kindergartens.
Fee-setting: Non-state institutions are required to provide parents with a ministry-approved, unified contract detailing all costs and institutions are not allowed to collect funds in excess of this amount (Law No. 130, 2015, Art. 11). Should the school wish to increase fees, detailed regulations are also included in Article 12, which stipulate that fees cannot be waived within the calendar year and that fee increases beyond the inflation rate published by the Department of Statistics must be approved by the Ministry of Education and submitted to the Ministry of Education for approval between January 2 and April 20. In addition, the Ministry of Education has an amendment to the 2019 Instructions for the Conditions for Collecting Licensing Fees for Educational Institutions. Under Article 7, appeals for increasing tuition fees are subject to additional requirements, which include that 1% of students attend the institution free of charge and that schools must prove that they have not received any gifts, grants, or donations.
Admission selection and processes: Non-state institutions must adhere to the legal age of admission for all stages of education. Beyond regulations around age, other conditions for admission and the selection process could not be located in official sources (Education Law No. 3, 1994, Art. 36). The government determines the requirements for entry to a non-state or state school, especially in the case in which a student is switching between the two types of institutions or from a school organized by UNRWA. First, the student must provide proof of acceptance to the school he or she is moving to. Second, the student must return to his/her former school and receive documentation of the school transfer and his/her school file. Third, the student must get the school transfer document verified by the concerned education directorate (for non-state or state schools) or UNRWA’s education directorate. Lastly, the student can then join his/her new school. The documents that are required include the proof of acceptance to the desired school, the school file, and a certified proof of transfer document.
Policies for vulnerable groups: The amendment on the 2019 Instructions for the Conditions for Collecting Licensing Fees for Educational Institutions for the Year 2019 (Art. 4) stipulates that in order for non-state institutions to be approved for a fee increase, 1% of the students should be on scholarships and that the institution should attempt to accommodate students with disabilities at a rate of at least 1% of the student body. In addition, Article 7 states that all non-profit schools are required to provide at least 1% of students with a scholarship in order to be licenced.
School board: The organisational structure of a non-state school, including the board of directors, along with other essential information about the school, be on display at the entrance of the school and that this information must be shared with the Ministry of Education. No other mention of a board for a non-state school was found (Law No. 130, 2015, Art. 14).
Reporting requirements: A local committee for education should be established in each governorate and district, which should consist of the Minister and is to be headed by the Administrative Governor. The Director of Education in the Governorate is to serve as the Vice-Chairman, provided that the official and non-state activities and parent-teacher associations are represented therein. This committee was formed to contribute to the development of education, accountability measures and the fulfilment of the goals of the educational process (Education Law No. 3, 1994, Art. 25). One of the responsibilities of the ministry is to nurture the relationship between an educational institution and its local society by creating a local council for schools, parent-teacher associations/councils, and the creation of special activities for the good of society (Art. 6).
School inspection: The 2016 Regulation No. 7 on the Education Quality and Accountability System of the Ministry of Education established a unit called the Education and Accountability Unit to improve the educational process, develop standards, and indicators. However, this regulation only applies to state schools. Regulations and laws for non-state schools could not be located using official sources.
Student assessment: The Ministry of Education is to conduct a comprehensive exam in relation to the secondary school curricula, which students are required to pass to receive their secondary school diploma (Education Law No. 3, 1994, Art. 29). Furthermore, non-state institutions must prepare their students for the examinations conducted by the Ministry of Education at that respective stage of education. To this end, non-state schools are permitted to prepare their students for other foreign certifications exams instead, but they must first obtain approval from the Ministry of Education (Education Law No. 3, 1994, Art. 38). The key exam in the education system is the general secondary education examination or “Tawjihi” exam which takes place at the end of Grade 12. In addition, the Ministry of Education sets the examination costs for these exams for all students.
Diplomas and degrees: Non-state schools must prepare students for the comprehensive “Tawijihi” exam and only students who pass are issued a secondary certificate. However, non-state schools are able to issue other foreign secondary school qualifications in accordance with their curriculum but only if approved by the Ministry of Education (Education Law No. 3, 1994, Art. 29 and 38).
Sanctions: The 1994 Education Law No. 3 (Art. 19) details when a licence is subject to cancellation by either the Ministry of Education or the school, and the conditions of closing a non-state institution so as to minimize the negative consequences for the students. The law also notes that violators are subject to penalties and punishment if these conditions are violated. In addition, any violations of this or any other applicable law, will result in a warning from the minister giving the school two weeks to address the violation (Art. 39). The minister may also refer the violation to the court, in which case a fine of roughly 14,000 to 140,000 USD (10,000 to 100,000 JOD) may be imposed. If the violation is not redressed within two weeks or if repeated, the minister may close the school for any period they deem appropriate or revoke the licence. Appeals to actions taken by the minister must be addressed through the Supreme Court of Justice.
Students can enter a state or non-state four-year university or a two-year community college, as outlined in Law No. 23 of Higher Education and Scientific Research for the Year 2009. In 2021, the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research reported that ten 4-year state universities and 24 non-state universities were operating in Jordan.
Registration and approval: The Higher Education Council is responsible for the establishment of higher education intuitions. It decides on the establishment of a non-state university and that this decision must be made within four months from the initial application date. However, additional information on the documents required to established a non-state university or other higher education institution are not stipulated (Jordanian Universities Law No. 20, 2009, Art. 4).
Although the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research outlines the management structures required of universities, which also ensures a degree of quality assurance, it leaves accreditation up to the institutions themselves. As an option, the Higher Education Accreditation Council (HEAC) is a government organization that provides accreditation for all higher education institutions. However, accreditation by HEAC is not required of universities and can also be applied to faculties rather than the institutions as a whole. Currently, HEAC has accredited five universities, two education hospitals, and some of the faculties at 13 universities in the country. Many of the universities and faculties that are not accredited by HEAC are accredited by external third parties.
Licence: The 2010 Regulation 56 on the Licensing Fees of Private Higher-Education Institutions outlines the licensing fees schedule for universities (approximately 282,000 USD/200,000 JOD), colleges (approximately 141,000 USD/100,000 JOD), and community colleges (approximately 106,000 USD/75,000 JOD). However, additional information on the documents required to obtain a licence for a non-state university or other higher education institution is not stipulated. The duration of the licence is not mentioned in the two laws/regulations concerning higher education (Law No. 23, 2009; Regulation 56, 2010).
Profit-making: No information was found.
Taxes and subsidies: Private schools are not financed by the state. Unofficial sources have mentioned that private schools are taxed, but this could not be verified in official laws or regulations.
Curriculum and education standards: A non-state university has the freedom to design its study and research programs, curricula, exams and grant scientific and honorary degrees and certificates. While the law does not stipulate the content and standards, it does stipulate a rigid structure within each university to establish and modify its content and standards through a system of checks and balances. This structure consists of various leadership positions and councils, democratically elected, where, for example, one council is responsible for proposing curricula and degree types, which another council must approve (Jordanian Universities Law No. 20, 2009, Art. 6).
Teaching profession: The Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research leaves the qualifications and appointment of staff with the non-state university. A non-state university is to create a Council of Deans, overseen by the president. Amongst other duties, the Council of Deans is responsible for appointing, promoting, transferring, delegating and seconding teaching, which also includes evaluating teaching staff in regard to their academic activities, teaching methods, and scientific research (Jordanian Universities Law No. 20, 2009, Art. 17). Article 23 lists the types of teaching staff a university can have.
Fee-setting: The Board of Trustees determines a university’s fees through a recommendation by the University Council. Additional regulations on fees, including increases or decreases, could not be located through official sources (Jordanian Universities Law No. 20, 2009, Art. 6 and 11). State universities have tuition fees for both citizens and non-citizens as they are only partially funded by the government and depend on tuition fees for funding.
Admission selection and processes: Following high school, students are required to take a general secondary education examination “Tawjihi.” The Higher Education Council is tasked with the general principles on student admissions in higher education, bearing in mind the accreditation criteria. In addition, the Council is tasked with tracking the number of students admitted by specialization. The Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research is not tasked with any other criteria for student admissions at non-state universities that could be located in the applicable laws (Jordanian Universities Law No. 20, 2009, Art. 6).
Board: As the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research explicitly defines higher education institutions as independent institutions, it leaves the majority of the quality assurance measures to the institutions themselves. A university is administratively independent but stipulates extensive structures and roles of administrative bodies that each university must maintain. These include a Board of Trustees, President, Deputy President, Deans, Board of Directors, University Council, Council of Deans, Council of Faculties, and Department Councils. The law outlines the structure of these positions and roles including how they are appointed, the duration (including early discharge), and their responsibilities (Jordanian Universities Law No. 20, 2009).
Reporting requirements: Universities are financially independent but it also includes rules and regulations for universities to follow. All universities are required to have an internal monitoring and auditing unit as well as an external legal auditor to audit the university’s account, which the President of the Board of Trustees much present to the Council of Higher Education (Jordanian Universities Law No. 20, 2009, Art. 25). Furthermore, 3% of the universities’ budget must be allocated for research, publications, and conferences, and 2% must be used to support master’s and doctoral students (Art. 26). Any of the funds (5% of the budget) not spent within three years must be transferred to Jordan’s Scientific Research Support Fund, established under the 2009 Law No. 23 of Higher Education and Scientific Research, which is regulated by the 2010 Regulation No. 42 on the Scientific Research Support Fund.
Inspection: The Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research does not outline inspections of higher education institutions in its laws that could be located.
Student assessment: Universities are independent institutions and have the authority to carry out their own exams (Jordanian Universities Law No. 20, 2009, Art. 6). The Faculty Council at the university is responsible for organizing and supervising exams and certifying the results (Art. 20).
Diplomas and degrees: Universities have the authority to grant scientific and honorary degrees and certificates (Jordanian Universities Law No. 20, 2009, Art. 6). The standards and conditions to be met for these degrees and certificates are to be determined by the non-state university’s Faculty Council (Art. 20). The 2009 Law No. 23 of Higher Education and Scientific Research states that the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research is tasked with equivocating and authenticating foreign degrees and certificates in higher education. In addition, the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research is tasked with attesting academic certificates and documents issued by higher education institutions (Art. 13).
Sanctions: The Higher Education Council, under the advisement of the Higher Education Accreditation Council (HEAC), has the power to cancel the licence of an institution and suspend admissions both temporarily and permanently. Additional regulations and requirements could not be located (Jordanian Universities Law No. 20, 2009, Art. 6).
Laws and regulations on private tuition (tutoring) could not be located. One study discusses how the demand for private tuition is driven by the desire to get higher marks on exams and the high standards of universities, which is why private tuition is the highest in Grades 11 and 12. Some parents also believe that part of the demand for private tutoring is driven by low teacher salaries, encouraging the teachers to focus on paid tutoring for additional income instead. Another study notes that roughly 15% of Jordanian households use some of their income to pay for private tutoring lessons for their children, with this option being more readily available to wealthy families, even if they come from rural backgrounds. While families residing in urban areas are more likely to send their children to private tutors, wealthy rural families can have their children tutored in their areas – but they can also afford to send their children to private tutoring centres in the cities of Jordan.
No information was found.
No information was found.
Shadow teachers are being used to assist children with disabilities, helping them integrate into schools through projects funded by the European Union, UNICEF, and Porticus, which reach 5,200 children with disabilities through the assistance of 224 shadow teachers. Such teachers are “trained to provide specialised support to students with disabilities, including assisting them in mainstream classrooms, facilitating individualized lessons in a small activity room called a resource room, and attending group activities. They develop unique education plans for each student they oversee,” while further becoming assets to “mainstream teachers to better serve students with disabilities and provide different ways to teach certain concepts to all their students.” Refugee children with disabilities have been assisted by shadow teachers during the COVID-19 outbreak, whereby UNICEF attempted to attain permission to allow shadow teachers to reach students with disabilities in the refugee camps. Parents also receive assistance from these teachers through specific WhatsApp groups.
This profile has been drafted by the Al Qasimi Foundation to support the PEER evidence base for the 2021/2 GEM Report on non-state actors in education.