Climate change communication and education

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1. Context

2. Climate change education and training in the country

3. Climate change communication in the country

4. Monitoring and evaluation


  1. Context

i. Climate change context

Thailand is a country in Southeast Asia renowned for its diverse geographical features. It is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of government. According to its Fourth National Communication (2022), Thailand has a total area of almost 513,115 km2 and 66,171,439 inhabitants. According to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, mountainous regions of northern and western Thailand are home to Indigenous groups. The combined population of around 20 distinct Indigenous groups, known by the government as ‘hill tribes’, amount to about 1 million people. The more populous groups include the Akha, Karen, Lahu, Lisu, Meo (Hmong) and Mien. Around 19% of Thailand's national territory is protected, and 1.1 million people live in these parts. The king of Thailand owns the land on which all trees grow unless they have been planted on private property. Either government or government-delegated agencies maintain these protected areas, and 80% of them are classified as ‘strict nature reserves’ and ‘national parks’ by the International Union for Conservation of Nature.

According to the Global Climate Risk Index (2021), Thailand is the ninth most severely impacted nation by the effects of climate change in the last 20 years (2000-2019). Its extended coastal zone, which consists of 24 provinces with a combined size of 101,678 km2 and a population of almost 20 million people, is among the most susceptible regions to climatic threats, notably coastal erosion. According to the Global Carbon Atlas (2021), Thailand's average emissions were 3.6 CO2 tons/person in 2021. Thailand's emissions account for 0.72% of global greenhouse gas emissions, giving it the status of a mid-emitting country.

Thailand joined the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate  Change (UNFCCC) as a non-annex 1 country in 1991. The country also ratified the Kyoto Protocol in 2002, accepted the Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol in 2015, and ratified the Paris Agreement in September 2016. Thailand submitted its Fourth National Communication under the UNFCCC in 2022.

According to Thailand’s Second Nationally Determined Contribution (2022), the country is particularly susceptible to the effects of climate change, yet less than 1% of world emissions come from Thailand. Nevertheless, Thailand aspires to cut its greenhouse gas emissions of by 30% by 2030. According to the Climate Action Tracker (2022), Thailand aims for carbon neutrality by 2050 and net zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2065.

ii. Relevant government agencies 

Climate change

In 2007, the Government of Thailand established the National Committee on Climate Change Policy (NCCC) as the main decision-making body for climate change management in Thailand. The Prime Minister chairs the National Committee on Climate Change,, which includes specialists from relevant agencies from the public and private sectors. The committee is made up of 17 members, including the Prime Minister’s office, the Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, the Ministry of Transport and Communications, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Information and Communication Technology, the Ministry of Energy, the Ministry of Commerce, the Ministry of Interior, the Ministry of Science and Technology, the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Public Health, the Ministry of Industry, Bangkok Metropolitan Administration, the Office of the National Economics and Social Development Council, the Bureau of Budget, and nine national experts. The key responsibilities of the NCCC include the formulation of national climate policies and the establishment of guidelines and mechanisms for international collaboration on climate change. The NCCC's duties involve supporting and assessing relevant domestic agencies to ensure that they align with the nationally established policies and plans, as well as defining national climate policies and establishing guidelines and mechanisms for international collaboration on conventions and protocols on climate change. The committee’s first and second vice presidents are the Minister of National Resources and Environment and the Minister of Foreign Affairs. The NCCC also has seven subcommittees: 

i) The Subcommittee on Climate Change Policy and Planning Integration aims to advance an integrated budget allocation system on climate change and contribute to policy integration, strategy development and planning related to climate mitigation and adaptation. It also recommends processes and procedures, legislative requirements and financial measures. Recently, the subcommittee integrated three functioning working groups: i) the working group on greenhouse gas mitigation policy and planning; ii) the working group on national climate change adaptation implementation integration; and iii) the ad-hoc working group on REDD+, which measures climate actions in the forest sector.

ii) The Subcommittee on Climate Change Knowledge and Database is responsible for providing feedback on the country reports submitted to the UNFCCC, assisting with the creation of the greenhouse gases (GHG) inventory, and offering recommendations for the creation of databases and knowledge about climate change in the areas of mitigation; adaptation; and measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) systems. The subcommittee has two working groups: i) the working group on GHG inventory and mitigation measures; and ii) the working group on climate change data and modelling.

iii) The Subcommittee on Climate Change Negotiation and International Cooperation is responsible for preparing knowledge and data relating to international negotiations on climate change, providing guidance on international activities and articulating Thailand’s positions during negotiations on climate change under multilateral agreements and other international frameworks. The working group on climate change convention conference and negotiation was set up to assess, make recommendations, and compile comprehensive data on negotiations around the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

iv) The Subcommittee on Public Relations and Actions for Climate Empowerment is responsible for disseminating information on: the causes and effects of climate change, and solutions, following the Paris Agreement; the targets set in Thailand's Nationally Determined Contributions; and sustainable development in general. By conducting training, promoting awareness, and implementing capacity building across all sectors, this group supports and encourages all initiatives linked to climate change.

v) The Subcommittee on Climate Law is responsible for: organizing and proposing draft laws, rules, regulations and notifications; providing comments on policies for the development, improvement, cancellation or amendment of laws related to climate change as determined by the NCCC; providing legal opinions on how the country is addressing issues related to climate change; and providing advice on national laws of enforcement of laws in relation to climate change. 

vi) The Subcommittee on the Mobilization of GHG Mitigation with Carbon Sequestration in the Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) Sector is responsible for providing public and private partners with guidelines, processes and policies that encourage reforestation, conservation and the extension of greenery. The president of the subcommittee is the Minister of Natural Resources and Environment. Members are from the public and private sectors, including the Office of the National Land Policy Board (ONLB), the Land Development Department (LDD), the Department of Lands, the Royal Forest Department (RFD), the Department of Natural Parks, Wildlife and Plant Conservation (DNP), Thai Bankers Association (TBA), and the Bank for Agriculture and Agricultural Cooperatives (BAAC).

vii) The Subcommittee on the Mobilization of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation offers advice and recommendations on the capacity of carbon capture and storage technology to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

The Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment and its associated Department of Environmental Quality Promotion is the country's national focal point for Action for Climate Empowerment (ACE). The department is responsible for formulating, implementing and coordinating all ACE-related policies and implementation. Through the department’s operations the aim is to change people's behaviour and improve their understanding of the effects of climate change and their capacity to cope with them.

The Office of National Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning (ONEP) is an agency under the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment. The mission of ONEP is to ensure the conservation and management of natural resources and the environment in the country. To this end, ONEP is responsible for a range of functions, which include: i) developing policies and plans to promote natural resource conservation and environmental management; ii) studying, analysing, coordinating and publicisizing the measures taken to protect natural resources and the environment in particular areas; iii) monitoring, inspecting and evaluating the performance of policies, plans and measures, and preparing an environmental quality report; iv) managing the environmental fund effectively to assist in implementing policy plans and measures and natural resource and environmental management; and v) proposing suggestions for developing national policies and strategies to prevent and solve climate change-related problems.

Under the 2017 Ministerial Regulation, the Climate Change Management and Coordination Division (CCMC) is entrusted with the responsibility of shaping policies, strategies and action plans on climate change. Specific focal areas include carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions and calls for undertaking comprehensive studies and research initiatives. The division is also tasked with suggesting solutions, criteria, and measures for climate-related actions on both national and international fronts, including climate negotiations and global agreements. The division plays a crucial role in fostering collaboration and synergy around climate change-related interventions between government bodies and the private sector. The division lends its support to other relevant agencies, making it a key actor in addressing climate change through education, research and coordinated action.

The Energy Policy and Planning Office and the Office of Transport and Traffic Policy and Planning are the two lead agencies responsible for collecting data from relevant units within the Ministry of Energy, the Ministry of Transport and other government bodies. In the case of the Industrial Processes and Product Use (IPPU), the Department of Industrial Works is responsible for collecting data from relevant agencies within the Ministry of Industry. The Office of Agricultural Economics is the lead agency in charge of gathering data from relevant agencies within the Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives and others. Regarding land use, land-use change, and forestry (LULUCF), the Department of National Parks, Wildlife and Plant Conservation is the lead agency responsible for collecting data from relevant agencies within the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (MONRE) and others.

The Thailand Greenhouse Gas Management Organization is a public body overseen by the Minister of Natural Resources and Environment. It is responsible for accelerating the progress of mitigation initiatives and assisting local organizations strengthen their capabilities to establish a net-zero emissions trajectory. Overall, it supports Thailand's efforts in reaching sustainable and enduring climate targets. The organization collaborates closely with different stakeholders, including public and private entities, and international partners through the Thailand Carbon Neutral Network.

Education and communication

The Ministry of Education is responsible for overseeing and regulating the country's educational system. It carries out a wide range of functions aimed at promoting and improving education at all levels, from early childhood to higher education. The ministry designs and updates the National Curriculum Framework to ensure that it aligns with the country's educational goals, meets international standards, and provides training and professional development opportunities for teachers to enhance their skills and knowledge. The ministry also conducts standardized assessments and examinations to evaluate student performance and formulates policies and strategies to address current and future challenges in education.

The Office of the Basic Education Commission prepared the Basic Education Core Curriculum (2008) in association with the Ministry of Education. The Ministry of Higher Education, Science, Research and Innovation and the Ministry of Education both play key roles in disseminating environmental and climate change knowledge.

Thailand participates in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Working Group on Environmental Education. This is an organization falling within the association’s Senior Official on the Environment (ASOEN), which was in charge of overseeing the technical and practical execution of the Working Group’s Action Plan 2016-2020. The working group was established as a consultative forum. to ensure a well-coordinated and integrated approach to promoting environmental education in the ASEAN member states and partners. The ASEAN member states are Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam. ASEAN partner countries are Australia, Canada, China, the European Union, India, Japan, the Republic of Korea, New Zealand, Russia and the United States. Key actions of member nations in 2019 include:

  • The Eco-Schools Program aims to integrate environmental protection and preservation into school culture through management, dedication, and incorporation into the curricula as well as practical activities such as greening and cleaning initiatives.
  • The Green Higher Education Program, led by the Philippines and Thailand, aims to generate baseline data on eco-friendly initiatives of colleges and universities in the region by: i) reviewing the state of the greening of higher education institutions; ii) reviewing the Eco-schools Guidelines to include a higher education category; and iii) targeting the inclusion of a higher education category in the next ASEAN Eco-Schools Awards.
  • The Plus Three Youth Environment Forum (AYEF) is regularly held to increase youth involvement and cooperation in environmental preservation initiatives. The AYEF is being hosted on a volunteer basis.

Thailand consistently takes part in the annual in-session dialogues of UNFCCC’s Action for Climate Empowerment (ACE). The dialogues provide a forum for parties to discuss ideas, best practice and lessons learned in relation to ACE implementation. Thailand also takes part in the Regional Centers of Expertise on Education on Sustainable Development and the Promotion of Sustainability in Postgraduate Education and Research Network, two major networks that are a part of the Education on Sustainable Development project launched by the United Nations University Institute for the Advanced Study of Sustainability.

Thailand is a participant in Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE), a global initiative that brings together students, science educators, researchers and local communities to research earth system science (ESS), including the context of climate change. Thailand's GLOBE coordinator is the Institute for the Promotion of Science and Technology (IPST), an institute that has implemented several programmes promoting climate education, training and public awareness. The IPST works in collaboration with the Ministry of Education within the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration and in universities in different regions of the country.

iii. Relevant laws, policies, and plans 

Climate change

The Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning has developed the Policy and Plan for the Enhancement and Conservation of Environmental Quality 2017-2036 (2017), which includes the framework for managing the country’s natural resources over the next 20 years. The objectives of the plan are to guide all relevant sectors: in the creation of master plans and action plans in the mid-term (five years); to achieving suitable, proactive and effective management of natural resources and the environment; and to improving environmental management capabilities that support environmentally friendly economic and social development.

The National Industrial Development Master Plan 2012-2031 seeks to achieve sustainable production that considers social and environmental considerations such as the effects of climate change on Thailand’ industrial sector. The four key dimensions of the plan are: i) enhancing economic wealth and security; ii) supporting innovation for sustainable development; iii) securing social well-being and reducing social inequality; and iv) promoting environmental wellness.

Thailand's Climate Change Master Plan - 2015-2050 aims for Thailand to be resilient in the face of the impacts of climate change, and to achieve low carbon growth through sustainable development. The master plan consists of three key strategies: climate change adaptation and mitigation; low carbon development; and creating an enabling environment on climate change management. The objectives of the plan are to: i) provide a long-term national framework for climate change adaptation and low-carbon growth promotion based on the sustainable development principle; ii) provide a policy framework for the development of mechanisms and tools at the sectoral and national level to achieve effective climate change resolutions; iii) provide government agencies and relevant organizations with a framework for detailed action plans; and iv) facilitate a coordinated national response to climate change.

The 12th National Economic and Social Development Plan 2017-2021 (2017) acknowledges that natural disasters, particularly floods and droughts, have become increasingly unpredictable and severe as a result of climate change. It notes the significant consequences of this for the domestic supply system and several economic sectors.

Thailand introduced its Nationally Determined Contribution Roadmap and Action Plan Post-2020 in 2017, with the objective of lowering its greenhouse gas emissions by 20-25% by 2030. The roadmap established a framework for mitigation measures in the energy, transport, industrial processes, product use and waste sectors. According to the Updated Nationally Determined Contributions (2020), by 2030, the energy sector expects to achieve a reduction of at least 82 million tCO2. In its Second Updated Thailand's Nationally Determined Contribution (2022) Thailand presented an update of this commitment and set more ambitious goals for CO2 reduction.

The 20-Year National Strategy 2018–2037 (2018) mentions that the state should create a national strategy to support the country’s aim for sustainable development in line with good governance practices. The strategy also highlights key actions that are needed for the sustainability of future generations. These include: i) protecting and conserving natural, environmental and cultural resources; ii) mitigating any adverse effects that may result from national economic and social development; iii) ensuring appropriate use of the natural resource and environmental base by balancing development with the capacity of the ecosystem; and iv) ensuring a paradigm shift in the public’s mindset about climate change. The strategy states that adaptation measures should lead to an enhanced disaster management system and increase people's ability to adapt to the effects of climate change. The strategy also emphasizes the need to: create a database system; systematically promote low-carbon goods and services to enhance national competitiveness; establish financial incentives for investments addressing climate change; encourage companies to develop climate change plans; and advance relevant laws to improve climate change management.

The National Energy Plan Framework 2022 aims to achieve four goals: i) increase renewable energy to at least 50%; ii) switch to green energy for transportation by promoting electric vehicles; iii) increase energy efficiency by 30% by utilizing technology and innovation and appropriate management; and iv) change the business structure of the energy sector to embrace energy transition.

The Long-term Low Greenhouse Gas Emission Development Strategy (2022) promotes the implementation of climate policies, priorities and measures that will move Thailand along the path of low emissions and climate-resilient development.

Education and communication

Section 57(2) and Section 65 of the Thai Constitution (2017) ensure people's right to participate in formulating environmental policies. Ensuring public participation in the policy-making process is therefore a key government commitment when it develops climate policies.

According to Thailand’s Fourth National Communication (2022), increasing public understanding of climate change and ensuring the state’s transparency and good governance requires the right of public access to information and the state honouring its obligation to share information. Numerous legal documents, as well as Thailand's climate-related goals and strategies, support this right. According to Section 59 of the Thai Constitution, the state must make any public data or information in a State agency's possession easily available to the public. This includes all information that is not related to state security or the need for government confidentiality. To maintain transparency and sound administration, the Official Information Act (1997) also protects this right. Everyone can receive news and information from the government about the enhancement and conservation of the national environmental status under Section 6 of the Enhanced and Conservation of the National Environmental Quality Act of 1992.

Pre-primary education is not mandatory In Thailand. Compulsory education begins at the primary school level, which consists of two parts: lower-primary schools (grades 1-4) and upper-primary schools (grades 5-7). The Compulsory Primary Education Act (1921) mandates that children must enter elementary school at the age of eight. Students who pass their elementary examinations can choose between vocational or academic schooling.

The National Education Act (2017) outlines the structure and objectives of Thailand's education system. It places a focus on learner-centred instruction, inclusive education and lifelong learning.

The Public Participation Act (2019) aims to promote public involvement in decision-making, particularly in processes involving environmental impact assessments (EIAs) and urban planning.

Thailand 4.0 Policy (2018) places a strong emphasis on education reform to foster technology-driven creativity and progress. It strives to improve science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education.

iv. Terminology used for Climate Change Education and Communication

In the Basic Education Core Curriculum (2008) the science strand mentions environmental education for sustainable development.

Action for climate empowerment, education for sustainable development, and public awareness are mentioned in the Fourth National Communication (2022).

v. Budget for climate change education and communication

The Thailand Environment Institute established the Global Warming and Health Fund in 2011, to support research studies addressing the impacts of global warming on human health, including direct and indirect impacts. The institute seeks to find solutions to anticipated challenges and to cultivate a reservoir of knowledge that is accessible to public entities and relevant organizations, and which serves to increase awareness of the interplay between global warming and health issues. The institute also seeks to foster the creation of best practices for how to thrive in such conditions. The fund is envisioned as an alternative funding source to propel research and investigations aimed at tackling these issues. Further information on this funding mechanism was not available at the time of writing.

In 2017, the Climate Change Management and Coordination Division submitted the Thailand Country Programme on Climate Change (2017) to the Green Climate Fund. The document mentions that an activity that requires financial support is ‘[a]wareness-raising and capacity-building for climate change adaptation’ (p. 7), and that the funding could be used in projects related to: i) communication, education, and public awareness programmes on the impacts of climate change; ii) research and development; iii) training required for adaptation; iv) transfer of knowledge and local wisdom; v) the creation of a collaboration network with a community-based approach; and vi) stakeholder engagement for raising awareness. The Green Climate Fund has supported and financed a number of projects and activities in Thailand, and it has allocated US$ 61.4 million [EU 58.1 million] for projects and readiness activities. The two projects that have received funding focus on climate-smart farming and effective water management. The fund estimates that the projects will benefit 1.5 million people in the country directly and indirectly.

In the sections on gaps and constraints, the Fourth Biennial Update Report (2022) highlights the lack of financial mechanisms to support climate actions and technology development. According to the Budget of Thailand (2022), 0.3% of the national budget is allocated for environmental protection, corresponding to US $234.11 million in the 2022 fiscal year. On the other hand, US$72.17 million is assigned to the protection of biodiversity and landscapes. A further US$306 million is allocated to address the repercussions of climate change, through the promotion of initiatives that support emission reduction and strengthening capabilities for industrial pollution management and technology. The budget allocated for climate change communication and education is not explicitly mentioned, however.

To link revenue and expenditure processes with climate change and other environmental goals, the Green Budgeting (2023) document makes use of the main tool of budgetary governance. It methodically assesses existing and proposed fiscal measures and policies to mainstream an environmentally informed approach into the national and subnational budgetary and fiscal frameworks. As a result, governments are held accountable for upholding their environmental obligations and are helped in their transition to a sustainable and environmentally friendly society.

  1. Climate change education and training in the country

i. Climate change in pre-primary, primary, and secondary education 

The Basic Education Core Curriculum (2018) includes environmental education for sustainable development as one of the key learning standards and indicators in the science strand, which includes ‘climate variations’. The science strand focuses on the topic called ‘Change Processes of the Earth’, attempting to help students understand the different processes taking place both on the Earth's surface and the whole planet, and supporting them in the investigative process for gaining and transferring acquired knowledge so they can use it in practical ways. In 2017, learning standards and indicators were revised for all major subjects including geography, science and mathematics. However, the revised basic education core curricula do not include climate change-related content, focusing rather on students learning about ‘climate variations’ without addressing the impacts of human behaviour.

Thailand actively participates in climate initiatives related to Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 13, to build climate resilience. One of the most important steps to achieving this is to enhance understanding and awareness of climate change. To incorporate information on climate change from primary school to Grade 12, indicators and standards for the following three subject areas have been updated: i) maths, science and geology; ii) social studies, religion and culture; and iii) physical and health education.

In 2020, the Department of Environmental Quality Promotion, in collaboration with the Ministry of Education, promoted courses and activities on climate change both within and outside the school system. As part of its activities, the department launched the following educational initiatives: the Green Youth project supporting environmental conservation in 12 institutions; an eco-school with 291 participants; 31 networks of Green Scouts; and an ACE Youth Camp emphasizing carbon-neutral approaches. This camp was set up in partnership with the Department of Climate Change and Environment.

To improve students’ understanding of earth system science (which includes land, water and the climate) through an authentic science learning experience in a natural setting, the Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment division developed climate change materials for the basic science curriculum. This was done through the Institute for the Promotion of Teaching Science and Technology. The institute also initiated climate education media and tools, which generated three climate education tools for primary and secondary schools: a handbook on climate change and agricultural fluctuations; a field guide on mosquito mapping; and a board game about climate change.

Thailand is part of the Regional Centres of Expertise on Education on Sustainable Development. The centres seek to reorient education towards sustainable development and address current programmes and subjects from the perspective of sustainable development. For this, sustainable development programmes are created to address problems and the specific circumstances of the area in which they operate. This includes the provision of training programmes for trainers through the development of appropriate methodologies and learning resources. The centres also work to advance social justice, environmental stewardship and quality-of-life enhancement.

ii. Climate change in teacher training and teaching resources

The Department of Environmental Quality Promotion plans to launch a manual on environmental studies activities for teaching the environment and climate. The manual will contain climate change knowledge for teachers to use as a teacher's manual and for the public.

The Institute for the Promotion of Teaching Science and Technology joined in 1999 to the Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) Program. The aim is to promote teachers’ and students' understanding of the impacts of climate change, the causes of environmental degradation, and sustainable resource use. Within the GLOBE Program, activities included: engaging in advocacy work and producing a short film that shows the links between the effects of climate change and the rise in mosquito populations, as well as the best ways to prevent mosquito-borne diseases; the development of informational graphics about valuing water and ‘what not to do for a sustainable world’; and establishing an environmental science camp for teachers and children to increase their knowledge of the effects of climate change, the causes of environmental degradation, and sustainable resource use. 

The Institute for the Promotion of Teaching Science and Technology managed the ‘Strengthening environmental science study on climate change’ project. The project aimed to educate 2,098 students and instructors about the negative effects of climate change on health. The Institute also conducted training workshops on environmental science for 180 teachers from 88 schools.

iii. Climate change in higher education

The Promotion of Sustainability in Postgraduate Education and Research Network, an alliance of top universities in the Asia-Pacific region, is a network of higher education institutions dedicated to incorporating sustainable development into postgraduate courses and curricula. The network was established in June 2008 as part of a larger international initiative that emphasizes the value of education and research in fostering a more sustainable future. Five Thai universities are members of the network: the Asian Institute of Technology, the Chulalongkorn University, the King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, the Mahidol Regional University, and the Prince of Songkla University. These universities and institutes have partnered in particular to advance a tree-planting project to save the forests: ‘Chulalongkorn University’s “Plant Trees – Get Mushrooms” Strategy Convinces Nan and Saraburi Farmers to Save the Forests. Another initiative from a higher-education institute is from the Environmental Research Institute of Chulalongkorn University, which offers courses on environmental sustainability and natural resource management.

iv. Climate change in training and adult learning 

A number of governmental organizations operating in different sectors have organized and provided training programmes on climate change issues. These include the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand, the Institute for the Promotion of Teaching Science and Technology, and the Office of Natural Resources. The goal of the programmes is for people working in specific sectors to acquire the technical and practical knowledge and skills needed to confront and respond to climate change concerns effectively. These include electrical engineers, technical and managerial personnel, community leaders and government officials.

Different stakeholders both inside and outside the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand have received education and training on climate change. The authority produced substantial written content on topics such as greenhouse gas management and mitigation, green credit and carbon neutrality, which was posted on social media platforms.

The ‘Strengthen Thailand’ project run by the Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning seeks to support long-term mitigation planning. The project involved the development of a model for predicting the future of land use change to support the assessment of greenhouse gas emissions in the agriculture, forest and land use sectors. Through the construction of models for emissions analysis and the visualization of the future of emissions reduction, training on these models will empower and develop expertise in these fields.

The Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning developed a project called ‘Integrating Climate Change Issues into the Preparation of a Provincial Development Plan’. A training session on the plan was developed for representatives of the Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning, and different provincial offices.

The Environmental Department of the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration plans and holds events for exchanging knowledge about climate change with public sector representatives in Bangkok at least once a year. It also holds annual training sessions on fundamental concerns related to climate change for internal agencies.

The Thailand Environment Institute is a not-for-profit organization working in the field of environment conservation. The institute supports climate adaptation and mitigation projects that focus mainly on capacity building. These include ‘Mechanisms to develop the capacity of networks towards net zero and ‘Empowering and building capabilities of partnerships on climate change. To develop its activities, the institute conducted a study in 2023 to analyse learnings from cases that were successful in reducing greenhouse gas emissions or adapting to climate change. These included cases from local government organizations, the private business sector, the tourism sector, and the agricultural sector. The study also aimed to assess levels of climate change awareness among the public. Updates on the study were not available at the time of writing.

  1. Climate change communication in the country

i. Climate change and public awareness 

The Department of Environmental Quality Promotion and other government organizations frequently launch public awareness campaigns on climate change, which go beyond formal education or training programmes. The initiatives and campaigns aim to educate the public on the causes, effects and measures they may take to combat climate change. The campaigns are publicized through social media, electronic communication, and events, or by collaborating with urban and rural local communities. To gauge the levels of knowledge and public awareness, attitudes, behaviour and practices of climate issues, the department has created assessment tools such as surveys.

The Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand initiated the Energy Labelling Scheme: Energy Efficiency for Houses and Green Schools programme. This scheme helps to raise public awareness about energy consumption and conservation, promote the circular economy, decrease energy consumption, reduce energy importation and reduce emissions.

In 2021, the Office of Transport and Traffic Policy and Planning launched a roadmap for promoting public awareness and participation in reducing emissions and building capacity within the agency.

To improve the ability of the younger generation in terms of climate change knowledge, particularly the role of youth in global society, the Department of Environmental Quality Promotion launched the ‘Youth for Climate Change Forum 2019’ project, in collaboration with the Thailand Research Fund and Bangkok University. The two institutions organized the ‘ACE Youth Camp 2020’ with funding from the Global Environment Facility (GEF) via the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). The aim was to advance learning, share learning experiences, generate ideas for low-carbon-city innovations, build capacity and broaden the youth climate network.

ii. Climate change and public access to information 

Through specific legal frameworks and the ACE programmes mentioned in the Fourth National Communication of Thailand (2022), Thailand has continuously improved its performance in facilitating public access to climate change information. It has done this in three key ways: i) enhancing the accessibility and accuracy of information, including academic papers, laws and regulations, and other related content; ii) utilizing a variety of channels and processes and adjusting to communities, groups, and individuals, widely disseminate information on climate change and enhance public access to information at all administrative levels and iii) ensuring that data is accurate and current.

The Department of Environmental Quality Promotion has developed an e-learning system online and offline with 21 courses focusing on climate change, energy and technology. The system is accessible to the public.

iii. Climate change and public participation 

Government bodies have increased the public’s involvement in initiatives and programmes about climate change and environmental sustainability. The Department of Environmental Quality Promotion initiated the ‘Zero waste community-zero waste school’ project. The project involved schools, local communities and local governments actively participating in creating strategies and plans to recycle waste, reduce waste production and lower greenhouse gas emissions from waste. Collectively this resulted in the reduction of garbage by 94,012 tons from 676 locations, and GHG emissions decreasing by 218,107.84 tCO2.

in 47 coastal villages with more than 700 volunteers, the Department of Fisheries and the Environmental Justice Foundation (EJF), an international NGO, launched pilot initiatives to recycle and reuse fishing nets over the period 2019-2022. The focus of the project, called ‘Net-free seas’, has been to lessen marine plastic pollution from discarded fishing nets. Local residents gathered discarded fishing nets, sold them, and turned them into microplastics that could be used to make other products. For the project, each community could participate, make suggestions, and decide how to manage revenue from the project.

The Nationally Determined Contributions (2022) highlights that the National Adaptation Plan (n.d.) is being developed ‘through a participatory process of extensive stakeholder consultations with involvement by representatives from relevant government agencies, technical experts, academia, civil society, international organizations and private sectors as well as vulnerable groups to identify climate impacts, vulnerability and adaptation gaps and needs’ (p 5-6). Other documents have integrated comments from public consultations, such as the Thirteenth National Economic and Social Development Plan (2023), and the Updated Second Nationally Determined Contribution (2022). Thailand has also held public hearings to get feedback on its Fourth National Communications (2022), and Biennial Update Report (2022).

  1. Monitoring and evaluation

i. Country monitoring 

In 2018, the Department of Environmental Quality Promotion developed the Climate Change Awareness Index (CCAI) to evaluate awareness in three areas: knowledge, concerns and behaviours. The CCAI has a 0 to 1 scale to assess people's awareness via a web application that provides easy access and prompt results. The evaluation will help to set future goals and plans for environmental education. Also in 2018, the department developed another project, the Municipality Climate Change Action Indicator. The project helped to assess municipalities’ awareness and understanding of climate change issues. Based on the results, the department intends to improve municipalities’ understanding of the Paris Agreement and climate change mitigation strategies.

Through the Long-term Low Greenhouse Gas Emission Development Strategy (2022), the country plans to effectively monitor, report and verify greenhouse gas emission reductions through a domestic measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) system at both national and sectoral levels. The system includes indicators on climate change communication and education.

ii. MECCE Project Monitoring

The Monitoring and Evaluating Climate Communication and Education (MECCE) Project examined Thailand’s Basic Education Core Curriculum (2008) for references to ‘climate change’, ‘environment’, ‘sustainability’ and 'biodiversity.'

‘Climate change’ terminology is mentioned in the Basic Education Core Curriculum (2008) once; ‘environment’ terminology is mentioned 18 times; ‘sustainability’ terminology is mentioned 7 times; and ‘biodiversity’ terminology is mentioned 8 times.

This section will be updated as the MECCE Project develops.


Last modified:

Fri, 15/12/2023 - 11:41