NON-STATE ACTORS IN EDUCATION

1. Terminology

2. Typology of provision

2.1 State education provision 

2.2 Non-state education provision 

2.3 Other types of schools 

3. Governance and regulations

3.1 Regulations by distinct levels of education

3.2 Multi-level regulations 

3.3 Supplementary private tutoring 

 

  1. Terminology

The 2020 Law About Education (which governs all education levels in Uzbekistan) refers to a ‘non-state educational organization’ as a legal entity providing educational services on the basis of a license to carry out activities to provide educational services in accordance with state educational standards, state educational requirements and curricula.

  1. Typology of provision

2.1 State education provision

State schools

In Uzbekistan, most schools at primary (four years, beginning at age seven), lower secondary (five years, beginning at age 10), and upper secondary education (two years, beginning at age 15) are public schools. Compulsory free education is provided for 11 years, from preschool to lower secondary education (ages four to 15).

Non-state managed, state schools

No information was found.

Non-state funded, state schools

No information was found.

2.2 Non-state education provision

Independent, non-state schools

Private schools are established, operated and financed by non-state actors. According to the 2020  Law About Education training under educational programs developed by non-state educational organizations is based on a contractual agreement between the student, his parents or other legal representatives and a non-state educational organization. The agreement must define the terms, conditions of training and payment, rights, and obligations of the parties and other conditions. Financing of non-governmental educational organizations is carried out at the expense of funds and material funds of founders, customers and other sources not prohibited by law. In Uzbekistan, private education accounts for a few proportion of students’ enrolments in educational institutions. 

State-funded (government-aided), non-state schools

No information was found.

Contracted, non-state schools

No information was found.

2.3 Other types of schools

Homeschooling

The 2020 Law About Education establishes ‘family education’ and ‘self-education’ as education provisions in Uzbekistan.  Families or individuals wishing to undertake this educational modality must follow the state curricula to receive a state-approved document at the end of their studies. Homeschool is carried out based on an agreement between a state educational institution and parents or legal representatives of students, taking into account the interests of children, family, the state, and society (Law About Education 2020).

Market contracted (Voucher schools)

No information was found.

Unregistered/Unrecognised schools

No information was found.

 

  1. Governance and regulations

In Uzbekistan the Cabinet of Ministers (CoM) is responsible for creating and implementing educational policy for all education levels and determining the procedure and legislation for licensing and operation of non-state actors in education.  Organized under the CoM, each educational level is under the responsibility of specific ministries, the Ministry of Preschool Education (MPSE), the Ministry of Public Education (MoPE), and the Ministry of Higher and Secondary Specialized Education (MHSSE). Early Childhood Care and Education is also under the responsibility of the Ministry of Health. The Committee on Religious Affairs supervises religious educational institutions.

Local government bodies establish the amount of funding for state educational institutions in the relevant territory, including interacting with citizens' self-government bodies, non-governmental or non-profit organizations, and other civil society institutions on the development of educational organizations.

Vision: According to the 2017 World Bank Report on Uzbekistan Education Sector Review, one of the main strategies to increase pupils enrolled in early childhood education is establishing public-private partnerships and non-governmental pre-school education centers. Various recent regulations such as the 2017 Presidential Resolution No. PP-3276 “On measures to further develop activities for the provision of non-state educational services” incentives the establishment and cooperation with non-state actors in education, although non-state provision is almost minimal. 

 

3.1 Regulations by distinct levels of education
 

Early Childhood Care and Educations (ECCE) in Uzbekistan include children ages from birth to seven years. Preschool education providers can be state, non-state (citizens, citizen self-government bodies, non-governmental, non-profit organizations, and other civil society institutions), and organizations established on the terms of public-private partnership. 

Entry/Establishment

Registration and approval: According to the 2019 Law on Pres-school Education , legal entities or individuals may be the founders of a non-governmental preschool educational organization. In the case of individuals, only individuals registered as individual entrepreneurs may provide educational services in preschool education and upbringing as a ‘family non-governmental preschool educational organization’. All ECCE centers must follow the regulation on maximum students’ enrolment per class. For more information, see Multi-level regulations.

Licence: Individuals registered as individual entrepreneurs have the right to operate after receiving a permit issued by local public authorities.

Financial operation

Profit-making: No information was found.

Taxes and subsidies: The resolution on  Further Stimulation and Development of the Pre-school Education System promotes public-private partnerships including material, technical and financial support for non-governmental preschool educational organizations and incentives such as the free provision of land and/or buildings and financial subsidies to cover part of the costs incurred by private preschools in order to expand preschool education in Uzbekistan. For more information, see Multi-level regulations.

Quality of teaching and learning

Curriculum and education standards: See Multi-level regulations.

Teaching profession: See Multi-level regulations.

Equitable access

Fee-setting: According to the 2019 Law on Pres-school Education, a non-governmental preschool educational organization independently determines the cost of its preschool educational and educational services. Preschool educational centers established under a public-private partnership may not charge a tuition fee.

Admission selection and processes: Admission of children to non-state preschool educational organizations is determined by their founder, taking into account sanitary and hygienic requirements for the content, structure, and organization of the working hours of preschool educational organizations. (Law on Pres-school Education 2019)

Policies for vulnerable groups: The state supports children from vulnerable communities and low-income families to access early childhood education by the exemption of preschool fees.

Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability

Reporting requirements:  State accreditation of preschool educational organizations is carried out every five years. The procedure for state accreditation of preschool educational organizations is determined by the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Uzbekistan.

Inspection: See Multi-level regulations.

Child assessment: No information was found.

Sanctions: See Multi-level regulations.

Entry/Establishment

Registration and approval: Religious educational institutions, must apply to the Committee on Religious Affairs, responsible for the issuance, suspension, cancellation, or re-issuance of licenses under the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Uzbekistan. For more information, see Multi-level regulations.

Licence: See Multi-level regulations.

Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH): No information was found.

Financial operation

Profit-making: No information was found.

Taxes and subsidies: See Multi-level regulations.

Quality of teaching and learning

Curriculum and education standards: The language of instruction must follow the 1989 Law On the State Language (amended in 1995). For more information, see Multi-level regulations.

Textbooks and learning materials: All educational institutions must follow the national standards of education including the use of the teaching material. According to the 2020 Amendments and additions to some decisions of the Government of the Republic of Uzbekistan, "the composition of authors for the development of educational literature is determined by the competitive selection, except for textbooks and teaching aids in foreign languages."

Teaching profession: See Multi-level regulations.

Corporal punishment: No regulation was found specifically for private educational institutions.

Other safety measures and Covid-19: The government of Uzbekistan in partnership with UNICEF develop the Education Continuity in COVID-19 pandemic times: Impressions on Introducing Distance Learning in Basic Education in Uzbekistan which includes support distance learning implementation and guidelines for safe school operations during the outbreak.

Equitable access

Fee-setting: No information was found.

Admission selection and processes: No information was found.

Policies for vulnerable groups: Students in an educational institution receive benefits, scholarships, and accommodation. Children from low-income families or without parental care are also considered vulnerable children, with specific legislation provisions on educational aid.

Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability

School board: According to the 2020 Law About Education, non-state educational institutions may establish their governing structure but must be included in their educational institution charter. 

Reporting assessments: No information was found.

School inspection: See Multi-level regulations.

Student assessments: No information was found.

Diplomas and degrees: See Multi-level regulations.

Sanctions: See Multi-level regulations.

Higher education in Uzbekistan is composed of state and non-state higher education institutions categorized as universities, academies and institutes. There are 131 higher education institutions in the country, including 28 universities, 37 institutes, 3 academies, 26 branches, 1 conservatory, 22 branches of foreign universities, 9 non-governmental higher education institutions.

Entry/Establishment

Registration and approval: See Multi-level regulations.

According to the 2020 Law About Education, an institution of higher education is created by the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan or resolutions of the Cabinet of Ministers to meet the needs of the economy and the population.

Licence: No information was found.

Financial operation

Profit-making: No information was found.

Taxes and subsidies: No information was found.

Quality of teaching and learning

Curriculum and education standards: Non-state institutions of higher education must follow the educational programs according to the state educational standards.

Teaching profession: See Multi-level regulations.

Equitable access

Fee-setting: No information was found.

Admission selection and processes: No information was found.

Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability

Board: No information was found.

 

Reporting requirements: See Multi-level regulations.

Inspection: See Multi-level regulations.

Assessment: No information was found.

Diplomas and Degrees: See Multi-level regulations.

Sanctions: See Multi-level regulations.

3.2 Multi-level regulations

The following section includes the regulations established under the 2020 Law About Education, the 2000 Law on Licensing Separate Activities, the 2004 Regulations on licensing the activities of non-governmental educational institutions, and the 2019 on the procedure for attestation and state accreditation of state educational institutions and non-governmental educational organizations, which govern all the education levels in Uzbekistan from pre-primary to higher education in Uzbekistan.

Entry/Establishment

Registration and approval: According to the 2000 Law on Licensing Certain Activities, for establishing and operating a non-state educational institution in Uzbekistan, proprietors must be organized and registered as legal entities (except educational services in the form of a non-governmental family preschool registered as an individual entrepreneur) and must apply for a license at the Education Inspectorate. Proprietors must comply with the 2004 Regulations on licensing the activities of non-governmental educational institutions requirements, including a copy of the charter of the respective educational institutions, information on the pedagogical personnel, confirmation of the financial means, and compliance with the buildings or premises requirements, including the certificate of the fire, sanitary and epidemiological standards by the supervision bodies. The prescribed fee must accompany all applications.

Licence: The Education Inspectorate grants non-state education institutions a license to operate for five years subject to renewal. Institutions must submit a license extension or renewal application no later than two months before the license expiration date. All issued licensed must be record in the License Registry.

Financial operation

Taxes and subsidies: According to the 2020 Law About Education, “the state must ensure the creation of favourable socio-economic, organizational, and legal conditions for attracting investments aimed at developing education, educational organizations activities" Furthermore, the 2017 Presidential Resolution On measures to further develop activities for the provision of non-state educational services (Presidential Resolution No. PP-3276) establishes that legal entities engaged in non-state educational services in preschool, elementary and secondary education are exempt from all types of taxes and mandatory contributions to state trust funds, excepts for a single social payment. In addition, mentioned Presidential Resolution dictates that foreign teachers and specialists are exempt from paying personal income tax and contributions to the off-budget pension fund under the Ministry of Finance of the Republic of Uzbekistan within the framework of concluded employment contracts.

Quality of teaching and learning

Curriculum and education standards:  All education institutions must comply with the state educational standards according to the specific level of education. However, non-governmental educational organizations may carry out educational activities based on independently developed and specified in the license educational programs. (Law About Education 2020)

Textbooks and learning materials: The 2004 Regulations on licensing the activities of non-governmental educational institutions specify that educational institutions must include information about the institution's educational literature resources during the application for authorization.

Teaching profession: All individuals who engage in pedagogical activities at all levels must comply with the 2020 Law About Education, which includes professional and training requirements according to the level of education in which they will be working. Teachers teaching foreign languages must possess a state qualification certificate determining the level of knowledge and proficiency in a foreign language, issued by the State Testing Center under the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Educational organizations can establish differentiated wages or various forms of remuneration and stimulation of labor.

Equitable access

Admission selection and processes:  According to the 2020 Law About Education, each educational institution may establish its admission procedure. Every institution must include and specify in the institutional charter their procedure for admission and are obliged to familiarize applicants, their parents, or legal representatives with the charter.

Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability

Reporting requirements: All educational institutions must ensure all institutional information is available online through the institution's webpage, including the institution's charter, certificates of accreditation, and the respective operating license.  All educational institution charters must include information regarding the institutions' goals, objectives, admission procedures, rights and obligations from the students and the staff, and the institutional governance structure (Law About Education 2020). Every Institutional Charter must be developed for the public entity responsible for the educational level. Furthermore, according to the 2019 procedure for attestation and state accreditation of state educational institutions and non-governmental educational organization, all non-state educational institutions must apply for accreditation within the first five years of the date of its establishment and must apply for re-accreditation every five years.

Inspection: The State Inspectorate performs the functions of the working body of the Commission for Supervision of Education Quality under the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The Law on Licensing Certain Activities, indicates that in order to monitor institutional compliance with the licensing requirements and conditions, the licensing authorities have the right to conduct inspections, request and receive the necessary information on issues arising during inspections.

Diplomas and degrees: According to the 2020 Law About Education,, accredited educational institutions that follow state educational standards and state educational requirements can issue state-approved education certificates, titles, or diplomas. The graduation document issued by non-state educational organizations recognized in the Republic of Uzbekistan gives the right to students to continue training at the subsequent type (level) of continuing education or work in the relevant profession and specialty.

Sanctions: The Law on Licensing Certain Activities, dictates that a license may be terminated by the proprietors of a non-state educational institution or by the state. In their institutional charter, all proprietaries must include the procedures for the creation, reorganization, and liquidation of an educational organization. In the case of closing the educational institutions, proprietors can apply for termination of the license. According to the Law on Law on Licensing Certain Activities,, the state can, based on inspections, require the non-state educational institution to amend or eliminate any revealed violation of the licensing obligation. The state must provide a time frame to eliminate such violations to be amended. According to the Law on Licensing Certain Activities, when a non-state educational institution fails to amend or comply with the licensing regulations, the state can suspend or revoke the educational institution’s license.

3.3 Supplementary private tutoring

According to  Law About Education (amended in 2020) establishes extracurricular education as an integral part of children's continuous education aims to develop their talents and abilities and meet their spiritual needs. Extracurricular educational organizations include palaces, houses, clubs, and centers of children's and youth creativity, children's schools "Barkamol Avlod," children's and youth sports schools, children's schools of music and art, studios, information, library, and health institutions.

Entry/Establishment

According to 2020 Law About Education  to meet the needs of children, organize their free time and recreation, state bodies, non-governmental, non-profit organizations, and commercial organizations may create out-of-school educational organizations of cultural, aesthetic, scientific, technical, and sports direction. The authorized public administration body determines the procedure for providing out-of-school education in the field of education (Art 14).

Financial operation and quality

According to the 2020 Law About Education pre-school, general secondary, secondary special, professional and higher educational organizations, as well as educational organizations engaged in out-of-school education, postgraduate education, retraining, and professional development of personnel operating in the territory of the Republic of Uzbekistan, are subject to certification and state accreditation for compliance with state educational standards, state educational requirements, and curricula.

Teaching profession

 No information was found.

 

Last modified:

Wed, 01/12/2021 - 12:04