1. Terminology

2. Technology laws, policies, plans and regulations

2.1. Education technology legislative and policy framework

2.2. Technology infrastructures, technological capacity of schools and learning environments

2.3. Technology competencies of learners and teachers

2.4. Cybersecurity and safety

3. Governance

3.1. Institutions in charge of technology in education and coordination mechanisms

3.2. Roles of schools


1. Terminology

The 2011 Education Act amended in 2023 refers to “digital learning” and “online learning”. The 2023 draft teachers' law ‘about the new Life Path of teachers’ which has been presented to the Parliament often refers to online and distance learning

The 2021-2030 Public Education Strategy refers to the term “information and communication technology”, “digital education”, and “distance education”.


2. Technology laws, policies, plans and regulations

2.1. Education technology legislative and policy framework

Constitution and laws: The 2012 Fundamental Law of Hungary (amended in 2023) is the country's constitution, and states that “Every Hungarian citizen shall have the right to education” (Article XI). No information on education technology in the constitution has been found.

The 2011 Education Act amended in 2023 (Nemzeti köznevelési törvény) regulates primary, secondary education. It states in Article 27 that “Full-time school education can be organized in a digital work schedule outside of the classroom by defining the detailed rules for the grade, duration, student access and the organization of student supervision in the ministerial decree issued under the authority of this law” and “the learning process is monitored and supported in the online or other relationship between teachers and students that does not require face-to-face meetings - primarily using digital tools”.

The teacher draft law currently being approved by the Parliament also refers in many places to digital tools and online education.

The VET 4.0 Strategy and the adoption of Act LXXX 2019 on VET has resulted in a fundamental restructuring of training since 2020; by introducing the innovative learning outcomes approach, it eliminated the previous rigid division of professional curriculum content into theory and practice. This step, along with the introduction of vocational employment contracts and additional legislative frameworks, allows the specialised education phase of vocational training.

Policies, plans and strategies: The 2016 Digital Education Strategy (Digitális Oktatási Stratégiáját - DOS) is one of the main objectives of the 2015 Digital Prosperity Programme (Digitális Jólét Program) that aims to achieve “digital transformation of the education system” and to prepare for a digital world and prepare future generations for the labor market expectations of the 21st century. The 2016 Digital Education Strategy set out targets until 2020.

The 2021-2030 Public Education Strategy vision is that “public education will be a fair state service that balances education and teaching, with the involvement of skilled and respected teachers, modern pedagogical methods, and infrastructure that enables Hungarian children to prepare for the social, labor market, and technological challenges of the 21st century, thereby creating the foundation for the nation's long-term development”. It refers to the potential of education technology, digital competence, and digital competence to improve learning outcomes and increase the efficiency of the education system and the importance of integrating information and communication technology (ICT) into teaching and learning processes, as well as ensuring that teachers and students have access to up-to-date technology and digital resources and training.

The 2019 Medium-term policy strategy for the renewal of Vocational Education and Training and Adult Education – responses of the VET system to the challenges of the 4th industrial revolution” adopted by Government Decision No 1168/2019. (III.28.) aims to reform vocational education and training (VET) for young people and adults to ensure high quality training and a skilled labour force in line with the needs of the economy and new professions emerging.

One of the aims of the VET 4.0 Strategy is to ensure equal access to digital education for students and teachers in order to support all the students engaging in digital education in different school grades in order to be able to learn in an up-to-date and competitive educational technology environment.

One of the pillars defined in the VET 4.0 Strategy is the creation of an attractive learning environment: the use of modern devices in practical workshops furnished with up-to-date technology, a digital environment equipped with all the necessary tools and digital curriculum also have to be ensured.

The Shifting of Gears Midterm Higher Education Policy Strategy (2016) defines development goals in the field of higher education until 2030. Since 2016, significant development measures concerning digitization have been in place at the sectoral and higher education institution level. Institutional measures affect all areas of higher education – training (organization), institutional management, student services and infrastructure – so they have an impact on the development of curricula based on digital competence, learning/educational content, educational tools and educational methodology. At the sectoral level, digital competences have been incorporated into the horizontal training output requirements (learning results/output), and the sectoral central data systems (Higher Education Information System, Graduate Track Tracking System, central digital library) have been modernized with EU co-financing. The digital transformation of education and research, enabling learning, education and research in a digital environment plays a significant role in all of the measures planned in the framework of component B. "Highly qualified, competitive workforce" in the Hungarian Recovery Plan.

The Hungary’s National Digitalisation Strategy 2021-2030 approved in Autumn 2021 is based on four pillars: digital infrastructure, digital skills, digital economy and digital state and sets out the targets to be achieved by 2030. The strategy outlines infrastructural, educational and economic support measures. The main objectives of the digital education pillar include: 1) digital competence development of students and teachers by integrating digital competencies into the national curriculum, providing digital training for teachers, and promoting digital literacy initiatives; promoting digital learning resources, including online courses, digital textbooks, and interactive educational content; 3) improving the digital infrastructure of schools through broadband internet access, developing e-learning platforms, and ensuring the availability of digital devices for students and teachers, 4) supporting innovation and research in digital education, the development of new teaching methods, the implementation of digital assessment and evaluation tools, and the promotion of research on the impact of digital technologies on education.

Digital competency frameworks: The 2019 Government Decision No.1341 (1341/2019. VI. 11. Korm. Határozat) accepts the proposal of the Ministry of Innovation and Technology regarding the development and implementation of the Digital Competence Framework that will be based on the EU's citizen digital competence framework (DigComp 2.1.). The Hungarian version, called DigKomp, will serve not only as a reference framework but also as a unified system for defining, developing, measuring, and evaluating digital competence. It will also verify the existence of digital competence and be recognized by the state.

The 2021-2030 Public Education Strategy affirms that the state is developing its own student and teacher digital competence framework specific to its education system while using the DigComp framework as a reference.

The implementation of the VET 4.0 Strategy determines a key priority and the Strategy is particularly focused on developing educators’ digital competences and providing digital learning material. The Strategy also aims to increase the commitment of VET school leaders in promoting digital education and to develop digital infrastructure. The effectiveness and efficiency of digital education is also supported by the Vocational training set of curricula (a set of digital learning contents, that comprises digital learning materials), which has constantly been expanding. The digital competence sets for the sectoral foundation education and for the vocational education have also been developed. In the DigComp 2.1 framework (Digital competence framework for citizens), the sectoral and vocational occupational digital competence frameworks must be in line with the European and Hungarian national qualifications frameworks.

The implementation of the VET 4.0 Strategy determines a key priority and the Strategy is particularly focused on developing educators’ digital competences and providing digital learning material. The Strategy also aims to increase the commitment of VET school leaders in promoting digital education and to develop digital infrastructure. The effectiveness and efficiency of digital education is also supported by the Vocational training set of curricula (a set of digital learning contents, that comprises digital learning materials), which has constantly been expanding. The digital competence sets for the sectoral foundation education and for the vocational education have also been developed. In the DigComp 2.1 framework (Digital competence framework for citizens), the sectoral and vocational occupational digital competence frameworks must be in line with the European and Hungarian national qualifications frameworks.

Changes occurred as a result of COVID-19: According to the 2021-2030 Public Education Strategy, the COVID-19 pandemic had a significant impact on public education. To respond to the emergency, the Hungarian Government declared a state of danger on March 11, 2020, and instituted a lockdown to prevent the spread of the virus, then it implemented a new digital work schedule for public education institutions from mid-March. The transition period to this new schedule provided valuable experience for both the institutions and sector management. The government's efforts were complemented by administrative authorities, bodies, and agencies that issued non-binding measures, including recommendations addressed to educational institutions by the National Educational Authority. Due to the complete closure of all schools throughout Hungary, the National Educational Authority hurried to issue recommendations on the use of digital education tools. These recommendations were meant to guide schools on how to adjust their operation to deliver ongoing services safely and effectively. The challenge was to organize out-of-classroom teaching through online means and to be determined and implemented individually by the schools themselves. Schools were free to choose the online tools available and were not restricted to using the KRÉTA platform provided by the state.


2.2. Technology infrastructures, technological capacity of schools and learning environments

2.2.1. Technology infrastructure and digital capacity of schools

Electricity: The 2007 Electric Energy Act No. LXXXVI (amended in 2023) aims to ensure a safe, uninterrupted, and transparent electricity supply to users, while also promoting energy efficiency and sustainable development, and integrating Hungary's electricity market with the European Union (art.27). Public institutions are allowed to initiate cable replacement in their area of operation under certain conditions, such as for the renovation of cultural heritage sites and public sports facilities (art. 119b).

Computers and devices: The 2021-2030 Public Education Strategy involves the development of students' digital competencies. To this end, schools are encouraged to establish guidelines and procedures for the use of personal devices, promote safe device usage, and provide filtering and protection systems. In Hungary, there have been significant investments in the use of digital devices in education, including the provision of more than 45,000 notebooks, 24,000 student tablets, and 3,000 interactive panels in public schools, as well as the ongoing procurement of 5,000 projectors and the provision of an additional 34,500 digital devices to schools in Budapest and Pest County. However, the use of personal devices for learning must be balanced with the need to ensure an equitable and safe learning environment. The establishment of a central device policy, as well as the assessment of the best learning environments for developing digital competencies and ensuring equal access to expensive technologies, are highlighted to be of important consideration.

Internet connectivity: The 2021-2030 Public Education Strategy mentions that the internet provision of public education institutions has been the subject of improvements “The infrastructure of the schools and the preparedness of the teachers - many things have been achieved in addition to investment and targeted further training - it provides an opportunity for further development a to raise the level of student and teacher digital competences, which is why schools continue with broadband internet, a modern WiFi network and IT devices equipment.”

 Among its targets, the National digitization strategy 2021-2030 set that 95% of households will be covered by gigabit networks. The strategy foresees the development of gigabit networks, digital infrastructure of educational and higher education institutions, further development of the national telecommunications backbone network, wireless communication for professional organisations, expanding supercomputing capacity as well as encouraging the development of 5G networks. Development of gigabit-capable networks will include among its wide implementation measures: planning and implementation of a nationwide “Gigabit Hungary 2030” network development programme, connected to 5G, in order to have internet connections with speeds of at least 1 Gbps available by end-2030. As an objective of the previous National Information and Communication Strategy, in accordance with the Digital Agenda of the European Union, the Government undertook that by 2020 all households would have access to the Internet access at a speed of at least 30 Mbps and that at least 50% of households would have Internet access of 100 Mbps be available. Under the policy guidance of the Ministry of Innovation and Technology, the Superfast Internet Program (SZIP) was established at the KISTU in 2014, in order to operationally implement the goals.

The Superfast Internet Programme (SZIP is financed by EU Structural Funds, intended to cover almost 410,000 households with networks supplying at least 30 Mbps broadband internet service by 2023. For areas that are not commercially viable, a €250 million state aid scheme has been set up to ensure broadband roll-out. By the end of 2020, almost a quarter of a million households were covered by at least 30 Mbps broadband through the SZIP. In the framework of the SZIP 2.0 project started in 2019, the main objectives were, on the one hand, to address the unsatisfied demand places and the "supervision engineer's control" of the increasingly extensive and advanced constructions. The other new goals and tasks are the action plans laid out in the "Gigabit-based society" and 5G strategies. A special service, "SZIP Mobile", was introduced in order to cover areas not reached by wired technology by the end of 2018 at a similar quality. Within the framework of SZIP Mobile, domestic mobile service providers with a modern 4G network ensure the provision of a fixed installation internet service with a nominal bandwidth of 30 Megabit/s within the framework of a subscription contract.

2.2.2. Technology and learning environments

According to the 2021-2030 Public Education Strategy, the government introduced a new digital learning system during COVID-19, which allowed teachers and students to communicate and learn remotely using digital tools and platforms. The vast majority of teachers and students relied on digital technology, but traditional textbooks still played an important role in the learning process. The experience of the new system led to the development of new strategies and methods for improving education. It is also noted that there was a significant increase in the use of educational platforms and resources, such as the KRÉTA system, Sulinet, Tankönyvkatalógus, and the Nemzeti Köznevelési Portál. The latter made more than 80 smart textbooks available for free to anyone with internet access. The text concludes by mentioning that the public service M5 television channel began broadcasting educational programs to support students during the pandemic.

2.3. Technology competencies of learners and teachers

2.3.1. Learners

Article II.1 of the 2012. (VI. 4.) Korm. Rendelet (amended 2023) No.110 (Decree of National Core Curriculum - NCC) states that the objective of the curriculum is to develop digital skills among students. It also demonstrates that technology and design, and digital culture are part of the secondary school curriculum (article II.2). It is demonstrated in the 2020 Framework Plan that STEM and technology subjects are included in the National Curriculum in the secondary school level.

The 2012. (VI. 4.) Korm. Rendelet (amended 2023) No.110 states that “to help effective learning and a safe learning environment, it must be ensured that students can use ICT and digital devices (computer, other school or personal device), internet connection and presentation tools during classes and that both traditional school and electronic libraries become accessible” (Article I.1.2).

In addition to that, the importance of digital competencies is highlighted in the 2021-2030 Public Education Strategy “the pedagogical development of digital skills of children and young people becomes a priority goal of public education along principles, spanning educational tasks, subjects and 21st century skills” with a promise to develop a student digital competence framework.

The 2023 Draft Bill on Teachers promotes the use of digital tools in education. The proposal includes a "Digital Collaborative Space" module that enables teachers and students to collaborate digitally both online and offline (art.172-1) and it includes features such as publishing and submitting homework and assignments, as well as online administration. The proposal also introduces a closed system for electronic distance education that utilizes digital learning materials and communication platforms for both students and teachers (art.172-11).

2.3.2. Teachers

The 2012. (VI. 4.) Korm. Rendelet No.110 emphasizes digital technology's crucial role in modern-day learning environments. It states that teachers must be familiar with and utilize these methods to enhance the learning process. These techniques have the potential to revolutionize the traditional learning process and redefine the roles of both students and teachers. However, educational institutions need to acknowledge and incorporate these methods into their practices to effectively implement them (Article I.1.2). This decree also supports the fact that all methodological solutions aimed at the development of digital competencies have been integrated into the subject and pedagogical tools.

The 2023 Draft Bill on Teachers mentions the use of digital tools and platforms in education which highlights the importance and need for educators and students to have proficiency in using digital technologies for efficient and effective teaching and learning.

The 2021-2030 Public Education Strategy states that teachers’ digital skills are essential to strengthen the public education system for lifelong learning and the labour market “It is necessary to provide indirect and direct support and encouragement to teachers” through “initial training and continuous training, occasional support activities, thereby increasing the level of development of the skills required for digital education”. It also emphasizes that teachers need to be offered continuous (in-service) training in ICT digital skills and in using tools, pedagogical principles, and methodological principles to support learning and teaching processes

The 2016 Digital Child Protection Strategy emphasizes the role of teachers to raise children's awareness of the opportunities and skills that come with the internet while also acknowledging that few teachers ‘possess the required skills’. It mentions some initiatives set up by NGOs not only for children but for teachers, too (such as the MediaSmart Hungary Oktatási Közhasznú Nonprofit Kft., the Safer Internet Plus Program or the Digitális Knowledge Academy). Programmes designed to improve their skills are also available in pre-primary education as for example, a package adapted by the Televele Médiapedagógiai Műhely Egyesület or the Bibianeten website (, based on a Luxembourg model and operated by the International Children’s Safety Service.

2.4. Cybersecurity and safety

2.4.1. Data privacy

The primary law governing personal data protection in Hungary is the 2011 Act CXII on the Right to Informational Self-Determination and Freedom of Information, which has been updated by the 2018 Act XXXVIII to comply with the 2016 EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). The Act provides a general framework for data protection and is overseen by the National Authority for Data Protection and Freedom of Information (NAIH). The Hungarian Parliament has therefore implemented the GDPR into Hungarian laws by amending Act CXII of 2011 on the Right of Informational Self-Determination and Freedom of Information.

The 2016 "Key to the World" study of National Authority for Data Protection and Freedom of Information (NAIH) on the safe and conscious internet use of children promotes safe and conscious internet use among children through fundamental rights protection measures. The objective of the study is to raise awareness among children about the potential risks of internet use, identify future challenges, and encourage conscious internet use and exercise of rights through theoretical and practical research. The study covers topics such as social networking sites, personal data abuses, harmful content, linguistic profiling, and future developments like cyberbullying, sexting, and internet paedophilia. The study also provides insight into the online behaviour of Hungarian children and outlines specific measures, called the "Hungarian recipe," to promote safe internet use. Finally, the study emphasizes the need to prepare the younger generation for the risks of the internet and to promote the constructive and safe use of this vital platform for entertainment, capacity building, and communication.

The 2021-2030 Public Education Strategy mentions that recommendations from the Office of Education were published to guide the standards of behavior that promote the safe use of the Internet by teachers, students and their parents). The 2020 Data Protection and Freedom of Information Authority case published stated that public education institutions in the framework of digital distance education adhere to the basic principles of data protection.

It is important to note that the 2023 Draft Bill on Teachers refers in Article 10 to Act I of the labour code 2012 for the control of public education employees and for the protection of their data. It also provides several references to data protection in the context of employment and education. Regarding the employment of educational workers, the proposal aims to regulate the employment conditions and status of those employed in the educational sector while recognizing the importance of education for the upbringing of children. The proposal includes provisions for regulating working hours, job satisfaction, and the balance between work and private life. Additionally, the document outlines ethical norms that educational staff should follow while performing their duties. The responsibility for protecting personal data in the employment context lies with the employer. The employment records must adhere to personal data protection principles, and it must serve specific purposes such as ensuring the rights of workers and keeping records of the employment relationship. The proposal also contains a provision regarding data protection with implications beyond employment. The proposal defines confidential information and requires it to be handled as such. Similarly, information gained during employment can only be disclosed if it does not threaten the legitimate interests of the employer, the public service, or the person's rights. The proposal also specifies that personal data collected for employment purposes must follow personal data protection principles and ensure the rights and obligations of employees and the performance of public duties. Additionally, the document aims to ensure the confidentiality of the data collected and to limit data access and use to only those who need it. Regarding health data, a specific modification to the existing regulation is proposed to enable the collection and handling of health data related to the well-being of children in education. The modification aims to align the regulations with the provisions of the education law, which ensures the health protection of students with diabetes or allergies in educational institutions.

Concerning children, the Constitution contains a general rule about children’s safety. It has also confirmed in its provisions that universal human rights shall be applied to children as well. The Constitution protects children with specific measures. According to Subsection 1 of Article XVI, “Every child shall have the right to the protection and care necessary for his or her proper physical, intellectual and moral development”.

Sub-section 5 of Section 6 of Act XXXI of 1991 on Child Protection and Guardianship Administration states that “children have the right to be protected against the influence of infocommunication society”.

Section 2:42 of Act V of 2013 on the Civil Code mentions that “Everyone is entitled to freely practice his personality rights, in particular the right to privacy and family life, home and communications with others in any way of form, and the right to protection against defamation of character, within the framework of the law and within the rights of others, and to not be impeded in exercising such rights by others”.

2.4.2. Online abuse and cyberbullying

The 2021-2030 Public Education Strategy mentions that the most important development related to the development of digital competencies and services directions include the digital pedagogical culture of students and teachers and safe support for internet use “Digital competencies go beyond the use of devices: being in the digital space safe, responsible activity” and it is also important that “ development of digital knowledge and skills while taking into account the mental and health effects of digitization.”

The 2016 Digital Child Protection Strategy (DGYS - Magyarország Digitális Gyermekvédelmi Stratégiája is one of the main objectives of the 2015 Digital Prosperity Programme contains policies that respond to online abuse in the context of schools and education. For example,e in the case of bullying-type deviancies in juvenile persons, in addition to the reparation procedure enabled by Act C of 2012 (in harassment cases, for example), the persons involved in prevention (e.g. schools) must also be able to start mediation outside the field of criminal law. The strategy set for instance that teachers and schools must be given proper information on the availability of alternative conflict management procedures and the NGOs and experts providing such services.


3. Governance

3.1. Institutions in charge of technology in education and coordination mechanisms

According to the 2013 Government Decree No.121 (IV.26) and the 2021 EMMI instruction No. 10 (VII. 30) on the Organizational and Operational Regulations of the Office of Education (Oktatasi Hivatal – OH), the Education Office is a Government Agency that falls under the supervision of the Ministry of Interior. The Ministry of Human Capacities is responsible for several areas, including education, healthcare, culture, and social welfare. Within the Ministry of Human Capacities, the Education Office is responsible for the implementation of educational policies and the coordination of education-related activities at the national level.

In the 2021 Organizational and Operational Regulations of the Education Authority, the Pedagogical Education Centers are responsible for providing educational technical and technological methodological support. It can be assumed that this includes the use of technology in teaching and learning, as well as the development and implementation of educational technology initiatives (Section 3.5). In addition to that, the Textbook Publishing Coordination Department is responsible for ensuring the creation of visual, pedagogical, methodological, and technological conditions such as digital textbooks and interactive learning materials (Section 5.3).

In collaboration with the Educational Authority,  the Ministry of Culture and Innovation (KIM) is responsible for overseeing and coordinating technology in education. The Governmental Agency for IT Development  (KIFÜ) is specifically responsible for implementing digital educational developments and coordinating ICT usage in education. KIFÜ operates IT infrastructures and provide services based on them for Hungarian public education, higher education, research institutions and public collections.

The Cabinet Office of the Prime Minister is responsible for formulating strategies related to information and communication technology (ICT), including broadband policies. Operating under the Cabinet Office of the Prime Minister's supervision, the Governmental Information Technology Development Agency (KIFÜ) manages IT projects within the central public administration, such as the Superfast Internet Program, and  serves as the national Broadband Competence Office. KIFÜ regulates also fixed and wireless electronic communications and oversees the wireless broadband strategy. Additionally, the Cabinet Office of the Prime Minister is accountable for eGovernment issues and played a role in developing the National Digitalisation Strategy for the period of 2021-2030. These responsible authorities collectively shape and govern ICT, broadband policies, eGovernment, and media and communications in Hungary.

The Internet Roundtable for Children Protection was established in 2014, and also monitors the area of protecting minors on the Internet in Hungary. It has taken several measures to ensure the appropriate protection of children, contributing to the protection of the identity of child consumers. One recommendation adopted in 2014 related to filtering software to be able to solve a proper solution for the harmful effect of online content

Following the completion in 2019 and early 2020 of the legislative work to implement the VET 4.0 Strategy, aimed at a major renewal of VET and AL (Adult Learning), and the elaboration of the technical documents providing a legal basis for the new systems, the new type of VET in the new VET institutions started on 1 September 2020 and further on in AL the introduction of state certification professional trainings in CVET. A professionally managed and efficient VET model has been put in place along the lines set out in the Strategy. The structure of VET, the educational structure and the system of governance and cooperation have been transformed. In the field of AL, an output-driven training system with reduced administrative burden and quick response to labour market needs has been developed.

The Ministry for Culture and Innovation (MCI) is responsible for the governance of both VET and adult training, but ministries responsible for several sectors are also involved in VET. E.g. the Ministry of Interior is responsible for the health and arts sectors, while the Ministry for Agriculture is involved in the agricultural sector. Within MCI, the Deputy State Secretariat for VET– as a VET-policy decision body – is responsible for the Hungarian VET governance, for the content regulation and development of VET.

The National Office for VET and Adult Learning (NOVETAL), together with the IKK Innovative Training Support Centre Plc. (IKK) are state administrative bodies for VET helping the successful implementation of VET policies and regulations on an institutional level. The VET Innovation Council is a national body for preparing, consulting and making professional decisions and defines VET development pathways for the Hungarian VET system. The 19 Sectoral Skills Councils (SSCs) help to establish a harmony of the labour market demand and the training system. The Hungarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry (MKIK) coordinates the activities of the SSCs and is responsible for the accreditation and supervision of practice providers (dual training placements). The Hungarian Chamber of Agriculture is also responsible for the latter one.

3.2. Roles of schools

The use of mobile phones in Hungarian schools is regulated by individual school policies rather than a nationwide policy. Different schools in Hungary may have varying rules and regulations regarding mobile phone use on their premises.


This profile was reviewed by the Ministry of Culture and Innovation

Last modified:

Fri, 04/08/2023 - 16:48