NON-STATE ACTORS IN EDUCATION

1. Terminology

2. Typology of provision

2.1 State education provision 

2.2 Non-state education provision 

2.3 Other types of schools 

3. Governance and regulations

3.1 Regulations by distinct levels of education

3.2 Supplementary private tutoring 

 

  1. Terminology


The 1926 Constitution (Art. 10) states that “the rights of communities to establish their own private schools cannot be violated, provided that they comply with the general requirements laid down by the State with respect to public education.” Many groups have used this Article to establish private schools to preserve their cultures, identities and value systems. The amended 1950 Circular No. 1436 on opening private schools states that the provider can be a natural or legal person. In accordance with the 1926 Constitution (Art. 10), religious communities can also establish their own schools, provided that they comply with governmental regulations. Finally, the 1956 Law on the Organisation of the Educational Body in Private Institutes (Art. 2) stipulates that a private education institution is any non-governmental institution, which further encompasses many different types, associations, individuals, and religious or civil organisations.

 

  1. Typology of provision

2.1 State education provision

State schools

Most schools in primary education (ages 6 to 11), secondary level (ages 12 to 17) are state schools. For the school year 2019/2020, state schools made up only 44% of all schools. More specifically, out of 2,861 schools in 2019/20, 1,235 were public/state schools. Education is compulsory for all Lebanese people for the first nine years of basic education. However, pre-primary education (from ages 3 to 5) is not compulsory, whereas primary education (Grades 1 to 6), lower-secondary education (Grades 7 to 9), and upper-secondary education (Grades 10 to 12) are compulsory and provided free of cost in state schools. In 2012, approximately 275,000 students were enrolled in state schools. For the school year 2019/20, this number is reported to have slightly increased, with the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) estimating that approximately 150,000 students were enrolled in primary (roughly 29% of all primary students), approximately 70,000 were enrolled in lower-secondary (approx. 35% of all middle school students), and roughly 65,000 (around 50% of all high school students) were enrolled in upper-secondary state schools. Contrary to this trend of higher student enrollment, the number of state schools being established is reported to be slightly declining. More generally, however, recent data on state/public school sector is scarce, if not absent. In addition, the Government has stopped reporting enrollment and other aspects in 2019 for pre-primary, primary, and secondary education, and is also not reporting such information for tertiary/higher education altogether.

Non-state managed, state schools

No information was found.

Non-state funded, state schools

The 1998 Law No. 686 provides that “public education is free and compulsory in the primary phase, and is a right of every Lebanese in the primary education age”. No official information was found on the school fees to be paid by parents in public schools.

 

2.2 Non-state education provision

Independent, non-state schools

The private sector is the largest in the education domain, owning 56% of all schools, and enrolling 71% of all Lebanese students in 2018. The total number of students in independent non-state schools was reported as 564,446, of which 51.6% were boys and 48.4% were girls for the school year 2018-2019. Approximately 69% of these students were enrolled in pre-primary, 57% in primary, and 51% in secondary schools. More specifically, out of 2,861 schools in 2019/20, 1,209 were independent and international, non-state schools.

Non-state independent schools are divided between religious schools, both Christian and Muslim, and secular schools. In 2015, an estimated 41% of all non-state schools were officially affiliated with religious establishments. They enrolled 58% of non-state school students (both paid and subsidized) and 34% of all students. The Maronite community has the largest number of schools in Lebanon, and the largest number of students compared to other Christian and Islamic confessions. Their schools make up 18.4% of non-state schools, and their students constitute 30% of all students in non-state schools. For instance, the Association of Evangelical Schools in Lebanon states that it has more than 18,000 students in its 28 schools on Lebanese territory.

These religious schools are owned and managed by minority and confessional or religious groups and associations for different Muslim and Christian denominations. The 1926 Constitution (Art. 10) grants the right for “religious communities to have their own schools provided they follow the general rules issued by the state regulating public instruction,” many groups are reported to use “this Article to establish non-state schools to preserve their cultures, identities and value systems.”

Regarding secular, fee-charging independent and international schools, USAID reports that these “for- and non-profit, fee-paying, secular non-state schools [are] owned by individuals as well as a few prominent international or foreign schools, which enrol the nation’s elite and international citizens residing in Beirut”. In this regard, international or foreign non-state schools are reported to charge “higher fees than other non-state schools [and also] provide a higher quality of education than state schools, outperforming state and non-state schools”. Further, some schools are reported to “use foreign textbooks and others integrate religious values”.

State-funded (government-aided), non-state schools

“Free non-state schools” receive direct fund transfers from the government per student enrolled through governmental subsidisation programmes. The government funds these “free-private” schools through school allowances for civil servants and direct subsidies (direct fund transfer per student enrolled). These schools are dominantly owned by religious institutions and few private individuals and subsidized or financed by the state. Further, these schools are described as an alternative to state schooling for poor families, particularly in rural areas, with parents paying “little to no money for tuition or supplies”. Out of total 2,861 schools in 2019/20, 12.3% (352) were free or low-cost non-state schools. These schools made up 9% of pre-schools, 11% of primary schools, and 2% of secondary schools, and they enrolled 14% of students. The total number of students in low-cost non-state schools was reported as 332,126 students for the school year 2018/19 and the number of students enrolled in free, non-state education was reported as 140,357 for the same year.

Contracted, non-state schools

No information was found.

 

2.3 Other types of schools

Homeschooling

The School District Board approved in-home instruction in 1994, permitting students to study at home in accordance with certain regulations. Parents, guardians, or legal custodians may initiate a home-schooling programme at any time. A student in a home education programme is not considered to be regularly enrolled in the state school system.

Market contracted (Voucher schools)

No information was found.

Unregistered/Unrecognised schools

No information was found.

UNRWA (United Nations Relief and Works Agency) Schools

UNRWA education in Lebanon provides education services to 36,960 refugee students in 65 schools. Based on the most recent figures, 31,706 refugees were from Palestine, whereas 5,254 were from Syria. It is also reported that approximately 47% of these students are boys and 53% are girls.

The UNRWA “owns, finances and manages the bulk of these schools and has been managing the education system in Palestinian refugee camps across Lebanon since 1948.” UNRWA schools are defined as “non-state schools because they are owned, financed, or managed by a non-state actor. However, it is also reported that exam results “were lower and drop-out rates were substantially higher than the national average, particularly among 13- to 15-year-olds. Poor education quality, overcrowded classrooms, and a lack of resources were cited as the potential causes”. In total, 65 of Lebanon’s total 2,861 schools in 2019/20 were UNWRA-operated (United Nations Relief and Works Agency) schools.

 

  1. Governance and regulations

The 2020 Decree n° 247 made all levels of education the responsibility of the Ministry of Education and Higher Education. This ministry was created in 1993 and its Directorate-General for Higher Education was established in 2002 to regulate the non-state higher education sector and supervise and coordinate all actions related to it. Both state and non-state education are administered by the Ministry of Education and Higher Education.

The Ministry’s regional education offices supervise the state schools in each region and serve as an interface between the latter and the education departments at the Ministry of Education and Higher Education. In accordance with the 1977 Decree-law n°118 on municipalities (amended in 1999) (Art. 50), municipal councils have the right to establish, manage directly or indirectly, finance or support the state schools, nurseries, and technical schools in their area. In addition, each municipal council is involved in “controlling educational activities and work progress in public and private schools as well as drawing up reports to the competent educational references” (Art. 49). Non-state-run confessional schools teach religion without guidance or instructions from the Ministry of Education in relation to the kinds of courses that are taught or how religion should be taught. In this regard, the country does not have either a Religious ministry separate from the Ministry of Education and Higher Education that takes decisions on non-state education.

The Ministry of Health is responsible for regulating the operation and opening of private nurseries.

Vision: In 2016, the Government accelerated its attempts to implement Agenda 2030, within which Sustainable Development Goal 4 about Quality Education mentions 10 targets related to equitable access to ECCE, primary and secondary education, and TVET. It also references the elimination of gender disparities as well as the achievement of literacy and numeracy for all youth and a substantial proportion of adults, among others, in both state and non-state sectors. The 2018-22 National Strategic Framework for TVET also encourages the involvement of the non-state sector and collaboration between state and non-state stakeholders to “ensure coherence and complementarity of all technical and vocational education and training activities, design possible pathways, and ensure continued commitment to a collaborative framework focusing on equity and targeting marginalized people”. Finally, the 1989 Taef Agreement guarantees freedom and diversity of education, as well as the reinforcement of state control over non-state education and its protection. The Agreement of Understanding signed in 2013 between the Regional Office of UNESCO, the Ministry of Education and Higher Education, and the Center for Educational Research and Development (CERD) also aims to better link state and non-state education.

 

3.1 Regulations by distinct levels of education
 

No specific information was found on the number of ECCE non-state institutions. In 2014/15, the Higher Council for Childhood worked toward the implementation of the Early Childhood Development Project within the framework of a cooperation agreement with the Arab Gulf Programme for Development (AGFUND), which includes the development of a national strategy for early childhood development through a participatory mechanism with the public and private sectors.

Entry/Establishment

Registration and approval: In order to apply for a licence from the Ministry of Health’s Department of the Health of the Mother, Child, and Schools, an eight-step process must be followed. First, the applicant must comply with the 2010 Circular 4876 regarding the building requirements, conditions for acceptance and supervision and the administrative stipulations. In this respect, the building must be safe to reside in, it cannot be underground or in a storage space, and it cannot be part of a school campus, hospital wing, or industrial building (Art. 2). Then, the initial acceptance must be received from the Department of the Health of the Mother, Child, and Schools regarding the blueprint of the building, which must include separate classrooms, a playground, a dining space, an administrative room, an infirmary, a bathroom for children with small seats that suit their ages, another bathroom for employees and a kitchen. Thereafter, the licence applicant must complete a licensing form to open and invest in the nursery, while further providing the necessary documentation. The application must be submitted to the Diwan after receiving the approval of the Department of the Health of the Mother, Child, and Schools. Finally, the Department of the Health of the Mother, Child, and Schools conducts an inspection to ensure that all the health, administrative, and safety requirements have been met.

Licence: The Ministry of Health, specifically the Department of the Health of the Mother, Child, and Schools, is responsible for issuing a licence to open a private nursery. The conditions set out in the previous section must be met.

Financial operation

Profit-making: No information was found.

Taxes and subsidies: No information was found.

Quality of teaching and learning

Curriculum and education standards: Each nursery must adopt a development curriculum for children to ensure and promote the development of their personalities as well as their physical, intellectual, psychological, and social growth within a safe environment (Circular 4876, 2010, Art. 17).

Teaching profession: At least one caretaker and assistant must be hired for every 20 children that are above the age of 1. The caretaker must have a certificate/diploma in early childcare education or any diploma in the field of education (Circular 4876, 2010, Art. 13). Pre-primary are trained at the faculties of education in state and non-state universities. Teachers’ salaries are set in accordance with the level at which they teach and the level of their academic degrees.

Equitable access

Fee-setting: No information was found specifically about non-state schools. For kindergartens, the Ministry of Education and Higher Education is responsible for paying the costs for Lebanese students, and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) is responsible for paying for non-Lebanese students.

Admission selection and processes: Children that are accepted to the nursery should be between 40 days and 3 years old (or have just turned 4) (Circular 4876, 2010, Art. 1). In addition, a child cannot be enrolled in the nursery until the parents provide his/her health file/records, which also must include the vaccination schedule of the child that has been verified by the Ministry of Health. His/her parents/guardians must also confirm that the child will be vaccinated during the required time frames, while further providing a doctor’s report about his/her health condition (Art. 10).

Policies for vulnerable groups: No regulation was found.

Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability

Reporting requirements: A record of the name and date of employment of all teachers must be kept by all non-state and free-private institutions. According to the same article, the Education Inspector has the right to claim these records (Circular No. 1436, 1950, Art. 16).

Inspection: A central inspection should take place, as noted in the 1959 Legislative Decree No. 115 (Art. 1) which also pertains to all public administrations, public institutions, independent services, and municipalities. Its tasks and responsibilities are further detailed in the 1959 Legislative Decree No. 2460 (Art. 8).

Child assessment: No information was found.

Sanctions: The responsible unit in the Ministry of Health can provide the nursery with a period of no more than two months to redress any violations. Afterwards, the licence to open the nursery will be suspended or cancelled, based on the suggestion of the Director-General following the proposal of the competent department in the Ministry (Circular 4876, 2010, Art. 18).

Entry/Establishment

Registration and approval: The licensing applicant must submit an application to the ministry responsible for education that specifies the stage of education, additional activities, languages and lessons taught, the genders of the students, the property number and the location area. The applicant (as a natural person) must also meet a certain number of conditions, including being at least 25, having a good reputation, holding a Lebanese baccalaureate certificate for secondary education and a Lebanese permit. The applicant must also submit a copy of his/her ID, a criminal record, a certificate of good conduct issued by the local administrative authority, a copy of all academic certifications, a statement of previous residences (spanning the past five years) and a Lebanese work permit (for non-Lebanese people). If the applicant is a legal person (i.e. an organisation), it must submit a number of documents, including a certified copy of the company’s bylaws and a certified copy of the organisation’s licence, among others. The licensing application is to be submitted directly to the Ministry, further encompassing the name of the suggested principal, suggested vice-principal, the school hours/terms (i.e. summer/winter), and the foreign language that will be used (Circular No. 1436, 1950, Art. 6).

The school building must be safe and is far away from any polluting smoke and noise. Each classroom must be at least 20 meters squared. An exposed/uncovered playground must be at least 600 meters squared for secondary and intermediate schools and 450 meters squared for primary schools. In boys’ schools, there must be at least two urinals and one toilet for every 60 students, whereas there must be three toilets for every 60 students in girls’ schools. In mixed schools, there must be at least one urinal and two bathrooms for every 60 students (Art. 6).

Licence: In The ministry responsible for education issues a decision to grant a licence to applicants after determining that all the conditions have been met. Within 9 months of having received the final form/application, the Minister may refuse to issue the licence while providing the applicant with a detailed explanation of this (Circular No. 1436, 1950, Art. 7).

Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH): No information was found.

Financial operation

Profit-making: No information was found.

Taxes and subsidies: Free non-state schools, mainly religious institutions, receive direct fund transfers from the government per student enrolled through governmental subsidisation programmes. Educational subsidy programmes have also been developed by the Government for non-state free schools to reduce inequalities. This government programme is mainly affiliated with religious institutions. However, the government funds these free private schools through school allowances for civil servants and direct subsidies (direct cash transfer per student enrolled).

Quality of teaching and learning

Curriculum and education standards: Non-state providers have to follow the national curriculum. In this regard, UNRWA schools also use the state curriculum.

Textbooks and learning materials: No specific information could be found.

Teaching profession: Primary and secondary teachers are trained at the faculties of education in state and non-state universities. The 2001 Law n° 344 stipulates that teachers are required to receive three years of undergraduate education and practical training at faculties or departments of education at any university (state and non-state).

The wage structure of private sector teachers follows the public sector’s structure and is defined in the 1997 Law n° 661. The 1997 Law n° 660 established a mutual aid fund for private sector teachers’ benefit.

In addition, the 1982 Law n° 22 defines the norms regulating the working time, the allowance owed to teachers, and their paid leave. The 1983 Decree n° 784 and the 1999 Law n° 148 further defines the evolution of teachers’ working hours depending on the level of education provided, where working hours are further reduced in accordance with seniority. The 1956 Law of June 15 (Art. 17-1) regulates private sector teachers’ salaries, which are set according to the level at which they teach and the level of their academic degrees.

The country adopted the 2010 Labour Code which applies to all workers and employers except domestic workers, agricultural workers, enterprises limited to family members and public servants.

Corporal punishment: The rules of procedure of state and non-state schools, and in particular the 2001 Resolution 1130, prohibit educational staff’s use of corporal punishment in relation to students.

Other safety measures and COVID-19: No information was found.

Equitable access

Fee-setting: Free or low-cost non-state schools “cannot charge tuition above 150 per cent of the monthly minimum wage and in return get direct fund transfers from the government for every student enrolled”.

For elementary schools, as per the Law of Free Mandatory Education, the Ministry of Education and Higher Education is responsible for paying the cost for Lebanese students, and UNHCR is responsible for paying for non-Lebanese students.

Admission selection and processes: No regulation was found.

Policies for vulnerable groups: Some non-government organisations and non-state technical education and vocational training institutions offer services to enable students with disabilities to attend, although this is subject to aid or funding provided by the Ministry of Social Affairs and/or Ministry of Education and Higher Education. The 2010 Circular n° 7/M/2010 (Art. 8) of the Ministry of Education and Higher Education allows the registration of Palestinian pupils in state and non-state schools upon presentation of an identity card dating back three years if they fulfil other registration requirements.

Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability

School board: The training conditions of non-state institution directors are regulated by the 1992 Decree n° 2896. They vary according to the level of education provided in the institution. No reference to requirements for school boards or a parent-teacher association in the main amended law on the establishment of non-state schools in Lebanon was found.

Reporting requirements: Non-state schools “are subject to an additional regulatory feature, which is essentially not applicable to other non-state actors. They are required to submit to the Ministry of Education and Higher Education an annual budget for transparency purposes”. In addition, as for ECCE institutions, a record of the name and date of employment of all teachers shall be kept by all non-state and free-private primary and secondary institutions (Circular No. 1436, 1950, Art. 16).

School inspection: As for non-state ECCE institutions, a central inspection should take place in primary and secondary non-state schools, as noted in the 1959 Legislative Decree No. 115 (Art. 1). Its tasks and responsibilities are further detailed in the 1959 Legislative Decree No. 2460 (Art. 8).

Student assessment: No information was found.

Diplomas and degrees: Students in both state and non-state institutions, must pass the Brevet exam to advance to the secondary level in the 9th grade.

Sanctions: In accordance with the 1956 Law on the Organisation of the Educational Body in Private Institutes (Art. 56), in the case of any violation of the law or the laws correcting the salaries (of employees), the ministry responsible for education will issue a warning and subsequently issue a fine. If the violation is repeated, the fine increases. If it is repeated once again, the Ministry may temporarily or permanently close the institution, and the school will bear the responsibility to compensate its teaching staff.

 

In addition to universities and university colleges, tertiary education is also provided by technical and vocational institutes. Also, the Lebanese University is the only state institution at the tertiary education level, which is governed by its own law and has its own autonomous structure. No information was found on the number of students enrolled in private non-state institutions.

Entry/Establishment

Registration and approval: According to the joint TLQAA (Toward the Lebanese Quality Assurance Agency) report from the Ministry of Education and Higher Education and the European Commission, the Directorate-General for Higher Education requires that new institutions meet new requirements in order to receive a licence. The main standards to be met to obtain a licence for a new institution (university, university college, and higher vocational institute), faculty, or a branch. First, institution regulations must show that the main objective of the institution is higher education and that the institutions’ committees and bodies’ bylaws guarantee their independence from the legal entity requesting a licence. Buildings and infrastructure should also be independent and dedicated to the university or faculty as the surfaces and facilities should respect the needs of the academic programmes to be offered. Scientific equipment, facilities and libraries should be available in accordance with the needs of the programmes to be offered. Finally, a professor should be envisaged for each 20 students, including one full-timer for each 30 students. No additional information was found regarding the registration process and the required documents.

Licence: 4No teaching or operation should start before satisfying the conditions of licensing and before a written authorisation from the Directorate General. Authorisations are delivered by the Ministry of Education and Higher Education upon the positive recommendation of the Council of Higher Education within the Ministry of Education and Higher Education. According to the 1996 Decree n° 9274, such an authorisation rests with the Council of Higher Education and a technical committee.

Financial operation

Profit-making: Non-state higher education institutions are independent of the state in terms of managing their financial affairs and resources, whereby no government control is in place. They are only accountable to their respective founding bodies and organisations. Non-state universities charge tuition fees, thereby enabling them to make a profit. In light of the hyperinflation of the Lebanese currency, it remains unclear to what extent such universities are achieving a profit.

Taxes and subsidies: The TLQAA report (n.d.) (Art. 11) states that tuition fees shall form the major source of funding for non-state universities. They also usually receive support from donors, and some institutions have a scholarship system. Student aid and scholarship are offered either directly according to the social situation of the student or in the form of assistantships. Foreign governments provide support to some universities through the provision of professors or teaching materials. In addition, charitable and/or political foundations and some foreign governments grant scholarships to Lebanese students attending non-state institutions in Lebanon.

Quality of teaching and learning

Curriculum and education standards: Non-state providers must follow the national curriculum. The Directorate-General for Higher Education is responsible for the education provided. According to the Taef Agreement (n.d.) and in accordance with the provisions of the 1997 Decree 10227, representatives of the private sector participate in the evaluation of new education programmes. That said, there is no regulation regarding the need for non-state provision to teach in a particular language. At many universities, the language of instruction is English or French, or a combination of the two, with some exceptions, such as for Arabic literature. Both the private and the public sectors teach the national curriculum. Non-state providers of higher education are characterized by various influences from the Arabic, French and American education systems.

Teaching profession: Teachers are generally required to receive three years of undergraduate education and practical training at faculties or departments of education at any university (state or non-state) (Law n° 344, 2001).

There is no special programme for initial education or the continuing professional development (CPD) of academic staff in non-state higher education at the national or institutional levels. Special summer schools and workshops are organized by state and non-state universities for the training of higher education teachers. According to the 1956 Law on the Organisation of the Educational Body in Private Institutes (Art. 20), the same salary range that is applicable to the (teaching) staff in state schools applies to the (internal) teaching staff that are part of the organisation. However, in relation to those staff members that are external, their salaries are stipulated in their work contracts. The amended Article 21 further stipulates that educational staff in non-state schools are to receive their salaries at the end of every month.

The hiring requirements for internal staff are identical to those of teachers working in state schools, whereby the same laws and regulations apply, with the exception of the conditions concerning the age of the students and the exams (Art. 7).

Equitable access

Fee-setting: There is no regulation regarding fee-setting for the non-state providers of higher education.

Admission selection and processes: The Baccalauréat Libanais (Lebanese General Secondary Certificate) or Technique (Technical Baccalaureat) is the only government-mandated requirement for enrolment in tertiary education and guarantees admission to the country’s only state university (Lebanese University). Many non-state institutions also require students to comply with other criteria, such as language competencies. Selection for higher education institutions often involves an enrolment quota or entrance examinations administered by the faculty in question.

Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability

Board: Within the institutional framework of non-state higher education, each institution has its distinctive pattern of administration and management that can be categorized as, for example, American, French, or Egyptian. According to the TLQAA report (n.d.), a non-state higher education institution can nominate a member to represent it in the Higher Education Council if (1) it has provided higher education for at last 15 years, without interruption, and has graduated seven batches of first-level students and three batches of second-level students, (2) it has not been – for the last 3 years – the object of a first- or second-type sanction as stipulated in the law, and (3) it has a minimum of 1,500 full-time registered students. Non-state higher education institutions have distinctive patterns of administration and management according to their value orientation.

Reporting requirements: Non-state institutions are accountable to the Ministry of Education and Higher Education, with specific aspects being regulated further. According to the Taef Agreement (n.d.) and in accordance with the provisions of the 1997 Decree 10227, representatives of the private sector participate in the evaluation of new education programmes.

Inspection: The TQLAA report (n.d.) (Art. 37), which stipulates the creation of a national agency for Quality Assurance in Higher Education has been approved by the government but has been stuck in Parliament for ratification since 2012. The 2014 Law for Private Education 285 requires each institution to start its own internal quality process and to prepare itself for external evaluation either by the future national quality assurance agency under creation or by international quality assurance agencies. Some higher education institutions have started to implement internal quality control within their structures.

Student assessment: There is no regulation for non-state providers of higher education regarding student assessment. There are two credits systems: the American Credit system based on contact-hours, and the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS), which is student-centred and accounts for the relative workload of the student on average.

Diplomas and degrees: According to the 2014 Higher Education Law 285, non-state higher education institutions are authorised to issue the following degrees: Bachelor, Master, PhD, Specialized Technical Diploma, Educational Degrees leading to teacher training, and a Lebanese bachelors in law. French system-oriented institutions may distinguish between two different types of master’s level degrees (Master de recherche or Master professionnel). A committee for the recognition of studies and equivalence of degrees shall also be created to recognize degrees or studies from outside Lebanon.

Sanctions: No information was found.

3.2  Supplementary private tutoring

No regulations or laws concerning private tutoring were found.

Some Syrian families hire private tutors for their children to enable them to catch up and understand classes taught in English or French, which is taught in state schools from the 7th grade onward. However, since most families cannot afford to hire such tutors, their children may drop out of school since their children cannot understand the material being taught. In addition, children with neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be more likely to need and receive private home tutoring. Other children with disabilities, may be integrated into non-state schools by receiving assistance from shadow teachers, although this often requires families to pay for such assistance. Those who are incapable of receiving such support in state schools either struggle to keep up or are expelled because they could not access the support that they need.

Entry/Establishment

No information was found.

Financial operation and quality

No information was found.

Teaching profession

According to one study, teachers in mainstream schools often provide private tutoring sessions to their own students outside of school hours. No additional information was found.

 

This profile has been drafted by the Al Qasimi Foundation to support the PEER evidence base for the 2021/2 GEM Report on non-state actors in education.

 

Last modified:

Fri, 03/12/2021 - 21:34