- Early childhood care and education (Entry/Establishment ○ Financial operation ○ Quality of teaching and learning ○ Equitable access ○ Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability)
- Primary and secondary education (Entry/Establishment ○ Financial operation ○ Quality of teaching and learning ○ Equitable access ○ Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability)
- Tertiary education (Entry/Establishment ○ Financial operation ○ Quality of teaching and learning ○ Equitable access ○ Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability)
The 2003 Education Act (revised in 2011), which governs all education levels from early childhood to tertiary level in Brunei Darussalam, distinguishes between “government” and “private” educational institutions, the latter broadly defined as educational institutions which are not “government educational institution(s)”, and which is instead established and maintained by a “limited company or any other person”.
Most education at primary (6 years, ages 6 – 11) and secondary (5 years, ages 12 – 16) level is provided by the Ministry of Education (MoE) in general state schools, which accounted for 77% of schools and 64% of total enrolments in 2018. According to the 2007 Compulsory Education Act (revised in 2011), formal education is compulsory for 9 years (between the ages of 6 and 14) and free for at least 12 years (including 1 year of pre-primary education for children aged 5 – 6). The education system places strong emphasis on the national philosophy of Melayu Islam Beraja (Malay Islamic Monarchy) and knowledge of the Islamic religion (the official religion of Brunei Darussalam according to the 1959 Constitution of Brunei Darussalam), which is taught as a compulsory subject in educational institutions of all levels (including non-state).
In addition to 9 years of formal compulsory education, all Muslim children of Bruneian citizenship are required to receive at least 7 years (ages 7 – 14) of compulsory Islamic instruction in Ugama (religious) schools which are administered by the Ministry of Religious Affairs (MoRA), as part of the 2013 Compulsory Religious Education Act. Ugama schools, which typically provide supplementary instruction in the afternoons following formal schooling, teach Islamic subjects and practices according to Ahlis Sunnah Waljamaah in the Malay language, and, although not included in the MoE national education statistics, account for 95% of religious education provided by the MoRA and 45% of total primary instruction. In addition to Ugama schools, the MoRA has established a few Arabic schools at primary and secondary level (5% of all formal schools, 7% of total enrolments) which offer Islamic ugama instruction in combination with the national curriculum. While Arabic schools use the Arabic language as their medium of instruction, the government requires them to teach Malay and English as compulsory subjects. These schools may be mixed or catering exclusively to male or female students.
Non-state managed, state schools
No information was found.
Non-state funded, state schools
No information was found.
Independent, non-state schools
Private schools are, according to the Education Act, independent non-state schools which are owned, established, and managed by individuals, societies, private limited companies, companies or other groups and are primarily funded through student fees. These schools can mainly be categorized into national schools (including faith-based Arabic schools) which follow the national curriculum and examination system (90%), and expatriate/international schools (10%) that primarily cater to children of different nationalities, offering international curricula and examination systems such as Cambridge and International Baccalaureate. According to the statistics published by the ministry of economics, there were 76 private schools in the country in 2019, 71 of which operating at pre-primary/primary/secondary level, 2 in TVET and 3 in higher education. The private schools enrolment amounted at 34,969 in the same year. The list of schools published on the Ministry of Education website suggests that there are 51 private schools at primary and secondary levels listed and 6 International schools operating at primary/secondary education levels (which also often include kindergarten).
State-funded (government-aided), non-state schools
Al-Falaah school is a private school fully funded by His Majesty the Sultan with the aim to improve the quality of education, especially on al-Quran teachings. The Minister of Education has stated that the school should “strive for excellence” and “be one of the school models to be followed by all private schools in the country”.
Contracted, non-state schools
No information was found.
School attendance at primary and lower secondary level is compulsory for all children in Brunei Darussalam (with no provision on homeschooling in the 2007 Compulsory Education Act). However, the law allows some children to be exempt from compulsory school attendance if the parent or guardian gives a satisfactory reason for the child’s absence.
During the mandatory school closures due to COVID-19 in March 2020, all schools (state and non-state) were required to transition to home-based learning, which was primarily provided through online platforms, in addition to printed resources and television broadcasts for students with limited or no internet access. To support online learning, the public was welcomed to donate computers, laptops and tablets (new or used), while the Ministry subscribed to Microsoft “in order to use it without any charges”. Moreover, since the COVID-19 outbreak, tutors have undergone numerous physical and virtual training programs provided by the Ministry through the Brunei Darussalam Leadership and teacher Aacademy and University Brunei Darussalam. As schools planned to reopen, a hybrid model of in-person teaching, and online delivery was adopted.
Market contracted (Voucher schools)
No information was found.
While the government does not include numbers of unregistered schools in its official statistics, one of the duties of the Department of Private Education (under the MoE) is “investigating and reporting of unregistered schools”.
Three ministries are responsible for the governance and regulation of the education system in Brunei Darussalam, the Ministry of Education (MoE), the Ministry of Religious Affairs (MoRA), and the Ministry of Culture, Youth and Sports (MoCYS). Non-state education is governed by the MoCYS’s Department of Community Development at early childhood level (under the age of 3) and the MoE’s Department of Private Education (Bahagian Pendidikan Swasta) from pre-primary (over the age of 3) to tertiary level. The Private Education Section, formerly known as the Non-Government Schools Section (SBK) under the purview of the Department of Schools, Ministry of Education, changed to its present name on 3rd January 2005 and is now under the purview of the Director General of Education Office, Ministry of Education.
The Department of Private Education has several units which are responsible for different areas of education, including the Administration and Finance Unit, Registration Unit, Policy and Development Unit, and Supervision and Monitoring Unit. The department has responsibilities in the establishment and management of all private educational institutions to comply with the legal provisions and regulations /conditions/standards set forth, implementation of policy, planning, and direction of private education in line with the Ministry of Education’s Mission (to provide holistic education to achieve the fullest potential for all) and Vision (for Quality Education towards a developed, peaceful and prosperous Nation), Brunei Vision 2035, and the National KPI. Moreover, it is responsible for the efficient monitoring of private education institutions, the enforcement of relevant education laws and regulations, and enhancing the co-operation between the public and private sectors.
The MoRA’s Department of Islamic Studies is exclusively responsible for state religious education at all levels.
Vision: The MoE Strategic Plan 2018-22 refers to private education in its strategic objective 3 which aims to “improve quality and access to post-secondary education “ under the item “Review Private Education Policy”. Moreover, the 2013 National Education System of the 21st Century (SPN21) states “promoting research, development and innovation…through public-private and international partnerships” as one of the 8 strategic policy directions of the Brunei Vision 2035. Finally, the mission of the Department of Private Education is to “ensure growth and development of private education through effective regulation and quality education services”.
Early childhood care and education (ECCE) in Brunei Darussalam is largely dominated by non-state provision, comprising of non-state childcare centres (ages 0 – 3) regulated by the Department of Community Development and state or non-state kindergartens/preschools (ages 3 – 6) regulated by the MoE. Childcare centres are fee-charging ECCE institutions exclusively owned and managed by non-state actors (individuals or incorporated bodies), while preschool education is provided by both non-state actors (77%) and the state (23%), the latter of which are all attached to primary state schools.
As ECCE in Brunei Darussalam is governed by two different ministries, non-state provision is governed by separate regulations (according to service type). Specifically, childcare centres are regulated by the 2006 Child Care Centers Act (revised in 2013) and the 2006 Child Care Centers Regulations (revised in 2012), while preschools are regulated by the 2003 Education Act (as revised in 2011) and its subsidiary regulations. See Multi-level regulations. for information on preschools.
Registration and approval: To establish a childcare centre in Brunei Darussalam, an application must be made to the Department of Community Development (Child Care Licensing Committee) based on a prescribed form and accompanied by a registration fee of 200 BND (149 USD). Applications can be made by individuals or body corporates and are considered based on whether they meet the minimum standards in staff-child ratio (according to age), space and infrastructure requirements, wash and sanitary facilities (with an adequate number of handwash basins and toilets based on enrolment), health and safety requirements, and the suitability of the proposed manager, who must be qualified and experienced to operate the centre. In the case of preschools, applicants may incorporate the institution as a limited company in accordance with the provisions of the 1956 Companies Act (as amended in 2017) once approval has been gained by the MoE. For more information, see Multi-level regulations.
Licence: If the Director of Community Development is satisfied that the minimum standards are met (in regard to childcare centres), the applicant is issued a license which remains valid for 2 years (subject to conditions). No license is issued if the proposed manager has been convicted of any offence within the listed laws. For more information, see Multi-level regulations.
Profit-making: While no regulation was found on profit-making of childcare centres, preschools are allowed to operate for profit if the institution is incorporated as a limited company under the 1956 Companies Act (as amended in 2017). For more information, see Multi-level regulations.
Taxes and subsidies: See Multi-level regulations.
Curriculum and education standards: All operators of childcare centres in Brunei Darussalam are required to have their daily program schedule approved by the Director of Community Development, which must include activities designed to foster the child’s cognitive, motor, social, and emotional development. Programs and activities in preschools (irrespective of ownership) must be based on a curriculum approved by the MoE, which includes basic Islamic knowledge and activities aimed to foster the child’s holistic development. All preschools are required to adopt the Malay language as their medium of instruction, with the occasional use of English wherever appropriate. For more information, see Multi-level regulations.
Teaching profession: All ECCE activities in childcare centers must be undertaken by trained and qualified staff approved by the Director of Community Development (which must be additionally informed at least one month prior to any staff changes made) (Child Care Centers Regulations, 2006). For more information, see Multi-level regulations.
Fee-setting: All childcare center operators are required to inform the Director of any daily, weekly or monthly fees charged (including registration fees, deposits and incidental fees), in addition to any changes made in fee structure at least a month prior to any change made (Child Care Centers Regulations, 2006). For more information, see Multi-level regulations.
Admission selection and processes: While the 2006 Child Care Centers Regulations require all childcare centres to keep detailed records of admissions and have a transparent admission process (made available to parents or guardians), the government does not regulate specific admission selection processes in these centres.
Policies for vulnerable groups: No specific regulation or policy was found regarding the access of childcare centres by disadvantaged populations. The 2006 Child Care Centers Regulations only stipulate a different child-staff ratio for children with disabilities.
Reporting requirements: All childcare centres are required to have a written program statement on their hours of operation, children enrolled, fees charged, admissions process, and daily program, which must be made available to parents or guardians at any time. Moreover, centers must always keep up-to-date children records (to be inspected by the Director at any time), and submit any returns requested by the Director. For more information, see Multi-level regulations.
Inspection: The Department of Community Development is responsible for the quality assurance of all childcare centers in Brunei Darussalam. The Director of Community Development or any authorized officer may enter and inspect any childcare centre or any premises he/she has reason to suspect are being used as a childcare centre at any reasonable time to investigate whether the provisions of the 2006 Child Care Centers Act and 2006 Child Care Centers Regulations are being complied with. During the inspection, managers or operators may be required to produce any document or book relating to the management or activity of the center, and any other information requested by the officer relating to the operation of the center. For more information, see Multi-level regulations..
Child assessment: Childcare centres are required to assess the growth and development of each child below the age of 18 months (recorded every 3 months) and the weight and height of each child over the age of 18 months (recorded every 6 months), in addition to keeping records of every child’s health information.
Sanctions: If any person prevents a lawful inspection from taking place or refuses to produce any requested documents, they will be liable to a fine not exceeding 2,000 BND (1,490 USD) and/or imprisonment for up to one year. Moreover, if a licensed provider fails to comply with the registration requirements or is convicted of any offence under the 2006 Child Care Centers Act, the Director of Community Development may revoke or suspend their license to operate. A center may then be closed if it appears to be of any danger or risk to the people involved, or if any order given by the Director has not been complied with within the given timeframe. If any centre is found to be operating unlicensed, the manager will be liable upon conviction to a fine not exceeding 5,000 BND (3,725 USD) and/or imprisonment for up to 2 years. For more information, see Multi-level regulations.
Registration and approval: Where a non-state primary and secondary school is to be established, applicants may incorporate the institution as a limited company (i.e. a limited liability company) under the 1956 Companies Act (as amended in 2017) once approval has been gained with the Minister of Education. All applicants are required to own the building where the school will be operated and fulfil the minimum requirements in infrastructure and premises. For more information, see Multi-level regulations.
Licence: See Multi-level regulations.
Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH): The 2003 Education Act requires all schools (state and non-state) to meet the minimum health and safety standards and provide separate toilets for staff and students.
Profit-making: While profit-making is not regulated in the 2003 Education Act or its subsidiary legislation, non-state schools who choose to be incorporated as limited companies under the 1956 Companies Act (as amended in 2017) are allowed to operate for profit.
Taxes and subsidies: See Multi-level regulations.
Curriculum and education standards: All state and non-state primary and secondary schools in Brunei Darussalam (with the exception of international/expatriate schools which are not considered part of the national education system) are required to follow the national curriculum prescribed by the MoE. According to the 2004 Education (National Curriculum) Regulations (which list subjects for each education level and time to be allocated to each subject), courses on basic Islamic knowledge under the philosophy of Melayu Islam Beraja (Malay Islamic Monarchy) are compulsory for all pupils (with non-Muslims exempt from certain requirements). Schools (including state and non-state institutions) are additionally prohibited from providing religious instruction in beliefs other than the Shafi’I school of Islam during school hours (including faith-based schools run by churches). Schools may be fined or officials imprisoned for teaching non-Islamic religious subjects. The 2013 Syariah Penal Code criminalizes exposing Muslim children or children of parents who have no religious affiliation to the beliefs and practices of any religion other than Islam, with any person wishing to teach on Islamic matters required to obtain official permission. Religious schools and churches are only allowed to offer private religious education in private settings, such as homes. Finally, according to the Bilingual Education Policy, students in both state and non-state schools of the national education system are required to be taught in both Malay and English, ensuring they retain a high level of bilingual proficiency. Non-state Arabic schools are allowed to use Arabic as their language of instruction, provided that they teach Malay and English as compulsory subjects. For more information, see Multi-level regulations.
Textbooks and learning materials: The Minister of Education prescribes the textbooks and learning materials to be followed by all primary and secondary schools in Brunei Darussalam (with the exception of international schools), which must be made available for inspection by the Registrar General of Educational Institutions and Teachers or Director of Schools Inspectorate at any time.
Teaching profession: See Multi-level regulations.
Corporal punishment: According to the 2004 Education (School Discipline) Regulations, all schools (irrespective of ownership) must develop school disciplinary rules to be approved by the Registrar General. Corporal punishment is only prohibited towards female pupils, with male pupils subject to corporal punishment by teachers or other staff members “for the purpose of maintaining discipline” (Art.3). The government requires all incidents of corporal punishment to be recorded confidentially in a form approved by the Registrar General.
Other safety measures and COVID-19: During the COVID-19 outbreak in 2020, WASH standards were strictly enforced and expanded by law in all schools (state and non-state) during the reopening phase to prevent the spread of COVID-19.
Fee-setting: See Multi-level regulations.
Admission selection and processes: According to the 2004 Education (School Admission and School Register) Regulations, all schools (irrespective of ownership) may admit non-Bruneian citizens under certain prescribed conditions, while all schools must keep up-to-date records of their admissions at all times. However, the government does not regulate the admission selection process of non-state schools.
Policies for vulnerable groups: Students over the age of 5 which attend non-state primary and secondary schools in Brunei Darussalam may apply to the Department of Administration and Services (under the MoE) for an education allowance.
School board: According to the 2004 Education (Management of Educational Institutions) Regulations, all non-state primary and secondary schools must be managed by a Board of Governors comprised of alumni, parents, individuals appointed by the MoE, and trustees or supporters of the institution. Moreover, all primary and secondary schools must establish a Parent-Teacher Association (PTA) comprised of 5 – 15 members (parent and teacher representatives) appointed by the Board of Governors. As stipulated in the 2004 Education (Parent-Teacher Association) Regulations, every PTA must be registered with the Registrar General of Educational Institutions and Teachers, while every parent and teacher of the school must be a member.
Reporting requirements: All primary and secondary schools (including non-state) must keep a detailed schedule of all subjects taught, their syllabus and timetable, which must be submitted to the Registrar General when requested. If the school is teaching in a different language other than Malay or English, these must be made available for inspection in the country’s national languages. For more information, see Multi-level regulations.
School inspection: See Multi-level regulations.
Student assessment: All students in non-state primary and secondary schools (with the exception of international schools) sit for national examinations administered by the Brunei Board of Examinations. Specifically, at the end of primary (Grade 6), students sit for the Primary School Assessment (Penilaian Sekolah Rendah) and, at Grade 11, the Brunei Cambridge General Certificate of Education Ordinary Level.
Diplomas and degrees: Students in state and non-state schools (with the exception of international schools) are awarded certificates by the MoE based on the Brunei Darussalam Qualifications Framework.
Sanctions: SSee Multi-level regulations.
Tertiary education is provided by four universities under the jurisdiction of the MoE (covering 80% of enrolments), 1 institution administered by the MoRA (7% of enrolment), and 2 non-state institutions regulated by the Department of Private Education (13% of enrolment) as of 2018.
Registration and approval: Non-state higher education institutions (HEIs) are regulated by the 2003 Education Act and its subsidiary legislation (under the Department of Private Education of the MoE). All non-state HEIs in Brunei Darussalam are required by law to be registered and incorporated as a limited company under the 1956 Companies Act (as amended in 2017), with the company being responsible for the establishment and management of the institution (with additional requirements prescribed by the Minister of Education). No institution may establish a branch or associate institution unless approved by the Minister of Education (through an application to the Registrar General). Non-state HEIs (in contrast to preschools and primary/secondary schools) are allowed to operate in commercial buildings. For more information, see Multi-level regulations.
License: See Multi-level regulations.
Profit-making: All non-state HEIs in Brunei Darussalam may operate on a profit-making basis, as they are required to be incorporated as limited companies under the 1956 Companies Act (as amended in 2017). For more information, see Multi-level regulations.
Taxes and subsidies: See Multi-level regulations.
Curriculum and education standards: All courses of study and educational programs followed in non-state HEIs must be approved by the Minister of Education. All institutions are required to incorporate the philosophy of the Melayu Islam Beraja (Malay Islamic Monarchy) as a compulsory subject in their syllabus. Moreover, all non-state institutions are required to get their courses accredited by the Brunei Darussalam National Accreditation Council which was established in 1990.
Teaching profession: No person may teach in a non-state HEI unless they have been registered to teach under the 2003 Education Act, have a pending application, or a permit to teach by the MoE.
Fee-setting: SSee Multi-level regulations.
Admission selection and processes: No information was found.
Board: All non-state HEIs must be managed in strict accordance with an instrument of government which has been approved by the Registrar General, which includes a chief executive (registered by the Registrar General), an approved administration system, and Board of Governors.
Reporting requirements: SSee Multi-level regulations.
Inspection: See Multi-level regulations.
Assessment: The MoE may regulate the assessments and examinations conducted in non-state HEIs (with no specific regulation however found) (Education Act, 2003).
Diplomas and degrees: The Education Act, 2003 stipulates that degrees may only be awarded to students by non-state HEIs if the HEI has been granted the status of a registered university, university college, or branch campus by the MoE.
Sanctions: If the Minister of Education has reason to believe that a non-state HEI has failed to fulfil its requirements or is conducting its activities in a manner that is deemed detrimental to national interests, its students, or the public order, the Minister may issue an order requiring the institution to comply with the provisions of the 2003 Education Act. If the HEI fails to comply with the issued directions, the Minister may cancel its registration and close the institution (Art.52).
The 2003 Education Act and its subsidiary legislation govern all educational institutions in Brunei Darussalam, regulating “private educational institutions” from preschool (above the age of 3) to higher education level. The only educational institutions which are not regulated by the MoE are state-owned religious schools and ugama schools (which are governed separately by the MoRA) and childcare centers (regulated by the MoCYS).
Registration and approval: All applications for the registration of non-state educational institutions are required to be based on the form prescribed in the 2004 Education (Registration of Educational Institutions) Regulations and presented to the Registrar General of Educational Institutions and Teachers, accompanied by the required registration fee. Applicants can be individuals, private limited companies, limited companies, and societies, while each education level must be registered separately and fulfil the minimum requirements in terms of infrastructure, health and safety, management, and fees. If the Registrar General is satisfied considering that required standards have been met, the application is forwarded to the Minister of Education for approval (with or without conditions).
Licence: Pending the approval of an application, the Registrar General may issue the applicant a certificate of provisional registration (subject to certain conditions). If the conditions are met and the application is approved, the applicant is issued a certificate of registration (valid for 5 years).
Profit-making: Profit-making is allowed for all non-state educational institutions registered as limited companies under the 1956 Companies Act (as amended in 2017), which is an option for primary and secondary schools and a requirement for non-state HEIs.
Taxes and subsidies: As an “effective support system” for non-state educational institutions in Brunei Darussalam, the Department of Private Education (under the MoE) has implemented various initiatives to support the development of the sector. These include Improving Private School Building and Infrastructure (where non-state educational institutions were built on leased land at a low premium) and Improving the Capacity and Competency of Private School Teachers, by seconding specialist teachers for Islamic Religious Knowledge and Malay language to non-state educational institutions. Teachers in non-state educational institutions are additionally included in the MoE training programs and workshops.
Curriculum and education standards: All educational institutions (irrespective of ownership) are required to use the Malay language as their medium of instruction (together with English). Non-state Islamic institutions may use Arabic as their language of instruction, provided that the Malay and English languages are taught as compulsory subjects. Finally, in appropriate cases (such as international institutions), the Minister of Education may exempt an institution from using the Malay or English language as a medium of instruction.
Teaching profession: Teachers in non-state educational institutions are appointed by the Board of Governors based on their approved instrument of government. All teachers are required to be registered to teach, with exceptions of individuals granted a permit to teach (upon pending registration), student teachers, or temporary teachers approved by the Registrar General. The Registrar General may refuse to register a person as a teacher if they have no qualifications to teach or qualifications which in the opinion of the Registrar General are inadequate for the purpose. Teacher salaries must also be specified upon registration and where any teacher is suspended from duty, their salary and allowances are required to continue until the procedure for dismissal has been concluded. The government does not distinguish between teachers in state and non-state educational institutions in the regulations, with all registered teachers (with the exception of public officers) covered under the same provisions in the Education Act and Education (Registration of Teachers) Regulations.
Fee-setting: All fees charged by non-state educational institutions must be approved upon registration and deemed “reasonable” by the Registrar General. No institution may charge fees unless they have been registered by the MoE, while any changes or additions in fees must gain the prior approval of the Registrar General. Finally, the government requires each institution to exhibit their list of approved fees in a conspicuous place on the premises, in addition to including the information in their prospectus.
Board: All non-state educational institutions must have an instrument of government approved by the MoE and be managed in accordance with the constitution of the board of governors specified in the instrument of government. The constitution may make provisions for the inclusion of a member nominated by the Minister of Education, in addition to parents, alumni, and trustees and/or supporters of the institution. If any of the provisions in the instrument of government are disregarded and/or discipline is not adequately maintained, the Minister of Education may appoint additional governors, suspend, dismiss, or remove governors as he/she sees fit.
Reporting requirements: According to the 2004 Education (Registration of Educational Institutions) Regulations, all managers of non-state educational institutions are required to submit copies of their annual financial statements (audited by accredited auditors) to the Registrar General each year.
Inspection: The Director of Schools’ Inspectorate and Registrar General of Educational Institutions and Teachers are responsible for the quality assurance of all educational institutions in Brunei Darussalam (including non-state, additionally under the jurisdiction of the Department of Private Education). The Director of Schools’ Inspectorate may authorize a District Education Officer to enter and inspect any educational institution (state or non-state) at any time to determine whether the 2003 Education Act and all subsidiary legislation are being complied with, examining relevant books, documents, and records. Once an inspection has been conducted, the Director submits a report to the Minister of Education, endorsing appropriate recommendations.
If the Registrar General, an authorized public officer, or police officer not below the rank of an inspector have any reason to believe that premises are being used to operate an unregistered educational institution, they may also enter and inspect the institution, and seize any relevant evidence to be submitted to the Minister of Education.
Sanctions: The Registrar General may cancel the registration of a non-state educational institution (leading to its closure) if the institution or manager has committed an offence, the board of governors is deemed unfit, discipline is not maintained, or a registration condition has been breached. Where an institution has been ordered to close, it must give notice to all the students attending of its closure, make the necessary arrangements for students affected to continue their education, and publish a notice in at least two newspapers in Brunei Darussalam. If any institution is found to be unregistered by the MoE, it will immediately be ordered to close.
In Brunei Darussalam, supplementary private tuition centers are considered a type of “private educational institution” regulated similar to non-state schools under the 2003 Education Act and its subsidiary legislations (with no provision specifically differentiating their services). A private “tuition center” is defined as “an educational institution which specifically provides educational guidance or assists a pupil of a school or educational institution or any person to prepare for an examination”. Private tutoring services can take place in schools in the afternoons, in private tutoring centers, or by one-to-one instruction. According to a study conducted in 2007, 69% of Grade 6 pupils received “extra” private tutoring lessons to prepare for the Grade 6 examinations. In 2014, extra revision classes in schools taking place on Fridays and Sundays for Grade 6 exam preparation were reported to have an 80% attendance rate. The MoE keeps a detailed list of private tuition centers on their official website (under the private education section).
Private tuition centers can be established by limited companies (incorporated under the 1956 Companies Act) or private individuals by making an application to the Registrar General of Educational Institutions and Teachers (under the MoE). The requirements for registration are similar to non-state schools in terms of health and safety, infrastructure, management, and fees (Education Act, 2003).
Any fees charged by private tuition centers in Brunei Darussalam must be considered “reasonable” and approved by the Registrar General upon registration, while all institutions registered as limited companies may operate on a profit-making basis. The 2003 Education Act additionally states that no institution may advertise its services unless registered and approved by the MoE, while all teachers employed in private tuition centers are required to be registered to teach with the MoE.
Teachers are prohibited from providing private tutoring lessons without the approval of the MoE (irrespective of the type of school they are employed in). The Education Act, 2003 and Education (Registration of Teachers) Regulations, 2004 set that all teachers must be registered by the MoE to provide any type of private tutoring services.