1. Terminology

2. Technology laws, policies, plans and regulations

2.1. Education technology legislative and policy framework

2.2. Technology infrastructures, technological capacity of schools and learning environments

2.3. Technology competencies of learners and teachers

2.4. Cybersecurity and safety

3. Governance

3.1. Institutions in charge of technology in education and coordination mechanisms

3.2. Roles of schools


1. Terminology

The 2005 Draft Policy for ICT in Education defines ICT as "all the technologies used for the handling and communication of information and their use, specifically in education. These technologies include computers, audio-visual systems, broadcast receiving and telecommunication systems, compact discs and videodiscs, microcomputer-based laboratories, the Internet, virtual learning centres, local and wide area networks (wired and wireless), instructional software, print media, educational television, voice mail, e-mail, satellite communication, VCRs, cable television, conventional and interactive radio.”

The 2014 Secondary School Curriculum Guide refers to the term “Technology education while the 2017-2022 Draft education policy paper defines “online and distance learning modalities” and the 2018-2022 National ICT Plan refers to “e-learning” and “e-education”.

Finally, the 2022 Digital Transformation Programme defines the following terms: 

  • Open Educational Resources (OERs): are teaching, learning or research materials that are in the public domain and released with an open license (such as Creative Commons). They allow educators to copy, adapt and share their resources legally and freely, in order to support high-quality and locally relevant teaching and learning. 

  • Digital Literacy: the competency to use, access and communicate information using digital tools and forms, as well as the ability to comply with the necessary standards of behaviors expected in online environments. 

  • e-testing : (electronic testing) refers to the administering of examinations utilizing digital means. 


2. Technology laws, policies, plans and regulations

2.1. Education technology legislative and policy framework

Constitution and laws: The 1976 Constitution (rev. 2007) refers to the right to education as a fundamental human right. The 1966 Education Act states that education is compulsory but does not mention technology.

ICT legislation includes the 2011 Electronic Act (rev. 2014) which governs various aspects of electronic communications, digital signatures, electronic transactions, and electronic records in Trinidad and Tobago, and the 2000 Computer Misuse Act.

Policies, plans and strategies: The 2030 Vision goals are aligned with those of the UN SDGs that includea modern, relevant and accessible education and training system. The Vision statement for education technology is that “all citizens are assured of a sound, relevant education system tailored to meet the human resource needs of a modern, progressive and technologically advancing nation”.  

The 2005 Policy for Information and Communication Technology in Education states that “ICTs constitute one fundamental component of complementing and enriching traditional educational institutions, educational delivery systems, and instructional materials. In this sense, ICT contributes to the whole system of knowledge dispersal and effective learning”. The policy's objectives and goals aim to integrate ICT on every level in the Education Sector, including students, teacher training, curriculum, civil servants of the MOE, and school administrators.

The 2022 Digital Transformation Programme enables the Ministry of Education to take strategic actions that have an influence on the education sector technological advancements based on 5 objectives: To support the embedding of digital technologies in teaching, learning and assessment, to upgrade digital technology infrastructure in all Schools, to promote administrative growth and increased value from service delivery improvements, to support vulnerable and marginalized populations within communities, to apply dedicated funding and resources to facilitate upskilling of all personnel”

The Ministry of Education strategic planning process, whose primary product will be the Strategic Plan, is established under the 2017-2022 Draft Education Policy Paper as it is aware of the need to respond to challenges in novel ways and at various levels to carry out its mission “Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is critical to this developmental evolution and clearly articulated policy directives are imperative. In this regard, the Ministry of Education has developed its ICT Policy to provide overarching guidance on information and communication technology usage to all stakeholders in the education sector.” 

The 2018-2022 National ICT Blueprint Plan goal is to transform the country into a knowledge-based society by building ICT Human Capital “The Government is committed to advancing a digitally literate population” through e-education/e-learning and increased “ICT utilization level in schools and teaching curriculum”.

Digital competency frameworks: The 2005 Harmonized Policy Framework for Teacher Education coordinated by the Ministry of Education refers to the “Competency Profile of the Ideal Teacher” who has knowledge of Information and Communication Technology. 

Even if there is not currently a digital competency framework on a national level, the 2005 Draft Policy for ICT in Education states that one of the goals was to develop performance measures and ICT literacy qualification “The aim of this qualification is to provide an ICT competency benchmark for all students and the national workforce to achieve and exceed.”

The 2018-2022 National Blueprint ICT Plan stresses the importance of ICT literacy skills "it is also recognized that threshold ICT literacy would evolve with the ICT training framework to incorporate more advanced skills as well as to continue the promotion of local digital content and service provision.”

Changes occurred as a result of COVID-19: School closures took place on March 2020 then the academic year 2021/2022 commenced virtually on 6 September 2021, and then schools opened for physical classes on a phased basis: the 1st Term of 2020 was based on remote teaching and learning, whereas in the 2nd Term II of the 2020/2021 academic year, there was a shift from remote teaching and learning to a blended approach to curriculum delivery then finally complete re-opening of schools followed in the same term. In response, the Ministry of Education gradually published a School COVID-19 Emergency Response Procedures and a series of Guidelines for the Operations and Reopening of schools for the years 2020, 2021, and 2022-2027 based on the CARICOM’s Framework for Reopening of Schools in the Caribbean. As a result, an Educational Technology Unit at the Ministry of Education was introduced to facilitate online and remote learning. 

2.2. Technology infrastructures, technological capacity of schools and learning environments

2.2.1. Technology infrastructure and digital capacity of schools

Electricity: Trinidad and Tobago has implemented certain initiatives aimed at improving access to electricity and promoting energy conservation in schools. Some of these programs include: Solar for Schools Program, School Infrastructure Development Program and Energy Management Policy 

Computers and devices: The 2020-2022 Universal Service Implementation Report listed completed universal service projects that included the provision of ICT-enabled devices and Internet connectivity access service for three months to students. 

Also, the 2015 People's Partnership (PP) Coalition Manifesto aimed to deliver laptop computers to every secondary school child, a one laptop per child (OLPC) policy, in addition to their previous efforts “Laptops distributed to all students in forms 1 to 5, over 95,000, bringing all secondary students into the digital age.”  

The 2018 National Schools Code of Conduct states that students are not allowed to connect a personally-owned device (BYOD) such as a laptop to the school’s network unless permission is granted by a teacher or administrator. 

Internet connectivity: Section 28 of the 2001 Telecommunications Act includes a universal service policy. The Act is guided by the 2012 Universal Service Framework and the 2015 Universal Service Regulation No.63 (amended in 2019) which outline the fundamental guidelines for putting universal service goals and initiatives into practice and fulfilling them, for example, the provision of a universal access connectivity to all public schools”.  

The 2030 Vision and the 2018-2022 National Blueprint ICT Plan enhance connectivity in schools by including initiatives to improve internet connectivity and bandwidth in schools across Trinidad and Tobago.  

2.2.2. Technology and learning environments

Following school closures, the government published the 2020 Guidelines for Operations in school (PHASE 1) for the first semester which stated that there were two methods of learning. The first is for students with access to devices and connectivity who depended on online learning methods and the second is for those with no access had packages with the modified Curriculum Guide to be picked up weekly. Then, the MOE published the 2021 Guideline for the Reopening of Schools (PHASE 2) “The New Normal” for the 2nd Term and adopted a blended learning approach. The 2021/2022 Guidelines for Reopening of Schools (PHASE 3 ) demonstrated a gradual return by school levels to classes. The final phase 2021/2022 Guidelines for Reopening of Schools (PHASE 4) operated through the 3rd term and it involved the physical return to school of all students of public and private schools at the ECCE, primary and secondary levels. 

The Ministry of Education developed thirteen Digital Projects for the 2022 Digital Transformation Programme are the following: E-testing, E-book Platform, Student Digital Literacy, Student Management System, Open Educational Resources (OERs), School Issue Management System (SIMS), National Online Open and Innovative School, School Learning Management System (SLMS) (digital platform, eLearning Content, Assessment, and Development poles), Scholarship/Bursaries Management Platform, Quick Response Identification Cards for Students, Device Provision for Staff, Teachers and Students, Literacy & Numeracy Adaptive Learning Platform, and the Human Resource Support (IHRIS/Document Management). 

2.3. Technology competencies of learners and teachers

2.3.1. Learners

he 2014 Secondary School Curriculum Guide states that ICT integration into the curriculum aims to ultimately revolutionize teaching and learning to better meet the demands of twenty-first-century students and better prepare them to be global citizens. ICT integration projects should aid in the growth of crucial abilities like knowledge production, problem-solving, critical thinking, cooperation, communication, creativity, inquiry, digital literacy, and entrepreneurship. The guide demonstrates that “ICT” and “Education Technology are included in the curriculum.

The 2022 Digital Transformation Plan aims to support embedding digital technologies in teaching, learning and assessment. The Digital Literacy Programme is one of 13 Digital Projects of the 2022 Digital Transformation Plan in which “Students will be provided with opportunities to engage in collaborative projects to use digital technology.” including “modules on netiquette, cyber safety and cyber security. The 2018-2022 National ICT Blueprint Plan includes guidelines for the integration of technology into the curricula. 

The Telecommunications Authority of Trinidad and Tobago (TATT) has collaborated with CyberSafeTT, the National Library and Information Systems Authority (NALIS), and CyberSafeTT to design a training program that will help parents, guardians, and students strengthen their IT skills. The programme is divided into two playlists IT Skills Training for Studentsand “IT Skills for Parents or Guardians

The 2014 Secondary School Teacher’s Guides on EdTech and Sciences demonstrates that STEM subjects are included in the curricula though no information on girls’ participation has been found.

No information on a framework for learners’ digital competencies was found, but the 2021 Optimal Learning Guidelines – Secondary School demonstrates the skill set expected from students after taking ICT and Technology Education classes. 

2.3.2. Teachers

The Digital Literacy Programme aims to provide teachers with "access to digital solutions, utilizing adaptive learning technologies, to enhance their ability to offer differentiated instruction (in all subject areas, and with particular emphasis on the enhancement of literacy and numeracy skills” including modules on netiquette, cyber safety and cyber security.

The Teaching and Teacher Development Division (TTDD) of the Ministry of Education is responsible for the professional development (initial and in-service training) of all teachers in the ECCE, Primary and Secondary Levels that includes “best-practices of web-based pedagogies of instruction” and “ED Tech. The Division developed the ICT Teacher Professional Development Training Programme to equip teachers with digital skills so they can effectively integrate ICT into their teaching and learning methodologies. 

2.4. Cybersecurity and safety

2.4.1. Data privacy

In addition to the 1976 Constitution (rev. 2007), which safeguards the right to a private and family life, the 2011 Data Protection Act aims to protect the privacy of individuals and the information that is processed and collected by public bodies and private organizations; however, the Act has been partially proclaimed by the 2012 Legal Notice No.2 and the 2021 Legal Notice No.220.

The 2000 Computer Misuse Act provides legal protection against the unauthorized use of computers and computer systems 

2.4.2. Online abuse and cyberbullying

Article 18 of the 2017 Cybercrime Bill criminalizes actions that characterize as online abuse "A person who uses a computer system to communicate to cause harm to another person commits an offence. 

Since 2010, the CyberSafeTT platform has been giving free workshops to children, parents, and teachers on subjects like cyberbullying, internet addiction, and social media etiquette. The Telecommunications Authority of Trinidad and Tobago funded the production of the Video Series, “ICT Outreach Traning programme” for parents and students “The programme provides instructions on the basic care of ICT devices as well as the proper use of software, Internet services and tips to protect children online.” 

The Telecommunications Authority of Trinidad and Tobago (TATT) also published a video guide “Protecting Children Online 

The 2018 National Schools Code of Conduct states that cyberbullying poses a serious threat to students, so “Schools must adopt a ‘zero tolerance’ position on cyberbullying and take disciplinary action against anyone who engages in this activity.” 


3. Governance

3.1. Institutions in charge of technology in education and coordination mechanisms

The ICT policy in Trinidad and Tobago is driven by the Ministry of Public Administration with the National Information and Communication Technology Company Limited (iGovTT). The Ministry of Education guides the efforts of introducing ICT into the national education system. According to the 2021/2022 Guidelines for Reopening of Schools (PHASE 4), an Educational Technology Unit at the Ministry of Education was introduced to facilitate online and remote learning.

3.2. Roles of schools

The 2018 National Schools Code of Conduct has a Mobile Phone Policy that states “Mobile Hand-held Electronic Communication Devices (MHECD)" are a vital component in the digital transformation so both students and students can use their phones as long as they are used responsibly. During classes, students are prohibited from using them unless they have authorization from their teacher. However, in the examination rooms, cellular phones, or any other electronic device are not allowed. 

Last modified:

Sun, 04/06/2023 - 20:13