- Early childhood care and education (Entry/Establishment ○ Financial operation ○ Quality of teaching and learning ○ Equitable access ○ Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability)
- Primary and secondary education (Entry/Establishment ○ Financial operation ○ Quality of teaching and learning ○ Equitable access ○ Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability)
- Tertiary education (Entry/Establishment ○ Financial operation ○ Quality of teaching and learning ○ Equitable access ○ Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability)
The State Education Law (1953) and the Law on Compulsory Education (1949) govern primary and secondary education for state and non-state actors in Israel. Although no official definition is given, the law refers to non-state educational institutions as “unofficial educational institutions” established by corporations and including religious organizations, NGOs, limited companies and associations. These institutions are required to be licensed and recognized in order to operate in Israel as “recognized unofficial educational institutions.” These laws also refer to the “unique educational institution”, which is defined as an educational institution attended by students in ninth to twelfth grades (full- or part-time) where education reflects the unique characteristics of the cultural group studying in the school.
In Israel, most primary education (six years beginning at age 6), lower secondary education (three years beginning at age 12), and upper secondary education (three years beginning at age 15) are state schools. State schools are organized based on the language in which the teaching is conducted and religious orientation. Hence, primary and secondary education is provided in four education streams: three for the Hebrew-speaking community (secular, religious, and ultra-orthodox) and one for the Arabic-speaking community. According to the State Education Law (1953), the Ministry of Education (MoEd) prescribes a national curriculum for all official education institutions. However, it can be adapted to specific circumstances such as non-Jewish educational institutions. The curriculum of religious state schools is designed accordingly and with the consent of the Council for Religious State Education, except for the ultra-orthodox stream, which has almost full independence regarding management, funding and curriculum.
Non-state managed, state schools
In 2017, an agreement between the government and the Democratic and Waldorf schools was signed to incorporate “alternative pedagogical schools” into the state system as “recognized-state schools”, managed by non-state actors. These schools must follow specific requisites such as tuition caps but can use their curricula and pedagogical methods.
Non-state funded, state schools
Non-state actors participate in state schools as a supplier of specific programs of educational content. “Unofficial sellers” are published on the MoEd webpage for educational institutions to choose according to their needs.
Independent, non-state schools
Private (non-state) schools are established, managed and financed by non-state actors, including private actors, non-profit organizations (NGOs) or religious denominations. They do not receive any state funding. These schools can establish and implement their own curricula with state authorization and include educational institutions such as international schools (e.g., American school, German school and British schools) and private religious schools (e.g., church schools and ultra-orthodox schools).
State-funded (government-aided), non-state schools
Government-aided schools are established and managed by non-state actors that receive funding or assistance from the state. Upon licensing, schools must apply for recognition to receive state funding or assistance by following the 1953 State Education Regulations (Recognized Institutions). State funding or assistance includes providing schools with premises and equipment, fully funding a school or covering a certain percentage of school’s budget for school expenses. According to the State Education Law (1953), these schools must follow the state-approved curricula and comply with government instruction on management, tuition fees and operation.
Contracted, non-state schools
No information was found.
The 1949 Compulsory Education Law grants the Minister of Education authority to exempt children and parents from compulsory schooling for special reasons. Parents must submit a request for an exemption to homeschool their child. The process also includes a home visit to ensure the suitability of the learning environment. The District Director General is responsible for approving or denying home education.
Market contracted (Voucher schools)
No information was found.
“Unrecognized schools” are educational institutions not recognized by the government of Israel or that are not required to apply for recognition. These schools include schools run by various religious organizations, which are referred to as “unrecognized Religious schools.” According to the Law on Compulsory Education (1949), “exempt schools” are only required to apply for licensing following the licensing procedures.
In Israel, the education system governance is divided between central government (through the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Finance) and local authorities. The Ministry of Education determines the primary and secondary education policies. The state education streams, both Hebrew and Arabic, are managed at the ministry level, while the state religious and ultra-orthodox independent streams have their own sub-administration bodies within the Ministry of Education. Early childhood care and education governance is divided according to age between daycare centers and preschool institutions. Daycare centers are under the responsibility of the Ministry of Labor, Welfare, and Social Services, while the MoE oversees preschool education. Higher education is regulated by two bodies: the Council for Higher Education (CHE or MLAG) which sets policy, licenses and accredits, and oversees higher education institutions; and the Planning and Budgeting Committee (PBC) which manages the budget.
Local authorities are responsible for supervising both state and non-state educational institutions in their jurisdiction.
Vision: The Senior Strategy and Planning Division at the Ministry of Education is in charge of the national education strategy, planning, policy and management. No direct mentioned of the private sector was found, most strategies focused on the public sector, emphasis is placed on civil society, parents, or guardians and also for the education authorities to actively promote social cohesion, strengthening solidarity between parts of Israeli society and the education system.
Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) education system covers ages from three months to five years and is delivered through infant and toddler daycare centers (ages three months– three years) and kindergarten (ages three-five). Most children attend non-state daycare centers, whereas preschool education state institutions account for higher student enrollment.
Registration and approval: The Toddler Day Care Supervision Law (2018) establishes that any individual (family day care services) or corporation (including, associations, non-profit organizations, or limited companies) can operate a day care centre or nursery school, but they must receive initial approval from the Ministry of Labor, Welfare, and Social Service. Approval is granted based on the proprietors meeting all the approval requirements, including a list of staff adequately trained in first aid for toddlers and lack of criminal records and suitable facilities infrastructure. Each day care is issued an "occupancy certificate" stating the allowed number of children at each day care.
For an individual or corporation (including, NGOs, religious organizations or a limited company) to establish a non-state kindergarten, they must apply at the MoEd for license and recognition following the procedures specified in the Kindergarten Licensing and Recognition Procedures. This includes fulfilling the minimum preestablished requirement concerning seven main areas: pedagogy, environmental safety, sanitation and health, finances, ownership association (if it is a kindergarten operated by a corporation), the physical structure of the kindergarten, and local authority. Regarding infrastructure, all kindergarten must be in accordance with the Planning and Building Laws and the Equal Rights for Persons with Disabilities Law, 1998, which requires the accessibility for students and parents with disabilities. Approval for the area of physical structure includes appropriate room area and student density, drawings of the buildings in which the facilities will be taking place signed by an engineer or architect, and certificates on safety, fire permit, and electrician certificate. For institutional recognition, each kindergarten is examined in all of the same seven areas, and it is determined whether recognition of the kindergarten may harm the state education system.
Licence: Upon approval, first-time daycare centers operating licenses are issued for one year, after which operators can apply for renewal. When fulfilling the prescribed requirements, the validity of the license will be extended for two years, then for an additional period of three years, and then for additional periods not exceeding four years.
No information was found regarding the duration of a license for kindergartens. Nonetheless, according to the Kindergarten Licensing and Recognition Procedures, an educational institution that the MoEd decides not to recognize is an institution where parents or legal representatives cannot send their children. Therefore, this institution is considered without registered students, and its license will expire. Day care centres or kindergartens operating without a license are liable to conviction for a criminal offense.
Profit-making: No information was found.
Taxes and subsidies: See Multi-level regulations.
Curriculum and education standards: The 2021 Kindergarten Licensing and Recognition Procedures dictates that kindergartens must follow the same approved curricula or receive approval from the MoEd to implement a unique curriculum. In a kindergarten that intends to implement a unique curricula, the propitiator must specify whether the program is unique based on an educational ideology or responding to the population that wishes to be unique. It must also specify whether the kindergarten has added value, alternative, quality, and relevance to existing frameworks.
Teaching profession: The Toddler Day Care Supervision Law (2018) dictates that all day care employers must request permission from the Commissioner to work at a day care facility. Additionally, all personnel must complete a course on first aid and safe environment and present their police record. For more information, for kindergarten level, see Multi-level regulations.
Fee-setting: The Ministry of Labor, Welfare and Social Services determines the tuition fees to be charged by a recognized day care centre according to the type of institution and child age and are published on the Ministry website.
Admission selection and processes: No information was found.
Policies for vulnerable groups: The state provides subsidies for infants to attend day care centres or nurseries. Aid is provided based on specific requirements and target population, such as income-per-capita of the family, working mothers, immigrant mothers, or unemployed parents, or legal tutors. Attendance at private, licensed, kindergartens may, in some cases, be subsidized.
Reporting requirements: The Commissioner must maintain a registry with information regarding daycare centers under a temporary license and which centers have had their operating license revoked, suspended, or not renewed. The register must be made available for public inspection and published on the Ministry's website. According to the Toddler Day Care Supervision Law (2018), daycare centers are subject to evaluation to confirm the center fulfills all the approval requisites for issuing an operating license every time proprietors apply for license renewal. For more information, see Multi-level regulations.
Inspection: An examiner may enter with the hold of a certificate at a daycare center to inspect the compliance with the operating license standards. In the case the center is located in a residence, the examiner is allowed only to enter the area used for toddlers. To enter the residential area, the examiner must request consent from the residence owner or with a court order.
Child assessment: No information was found.
Sanctions: A day care center operating license can be revoked or suspended if the center ceases to operate under the license conditions or if there are reasons to believe the center is unsafe. For more information for kindergarden level, see Multi-level regulations.
Registration and approval: The Schools Inspection Law 1969 states that in order to establish and operate a non-state school, all proprietors must be legally organized and registered as a corporation (company, association, etc.) and must obtain a license and recognition from the Ministry of Education (MoEd). The MoEd provides specific guidelines regarding the requirements for three types of non-state educational institutions: all non-state educational institutions and two specific exceptions for “Cultural Unique Educational Institutions” and “Exempt Educational Institutions.” According to the Licensing and Recognition Procedure,educational institutions are examined in seven main areas: pedagogy, environmental safety, sanitation and health, finance, ownership association, the physical structure of the institution and local authority. Infrastructure requirements include rooms per number of classes, study rooms, area per student (at least 1.25 m2), courtyard, annex rooms, fire permit, inspector and certified electrician certificate and compliance with the Planning and Building Law. The Director-General sends copies to local authorities and the health department to issue their reasoned opinion on the request. The Director-General then grants or denies the application and notifies the applicant, who may, if denied, appeal. For a school to be granted the status of “recognized school”, educational Institutions must apply for recognition (only once) at the time of licensing following Licensing Procedure and Recognition Procedure and the 1953 State Education Regulations (Recognized Institutions).
Licence: The license is granted for a specified period, not less than one year and is non-transferable. Long-term licenses are given to long-established institutions (‘green’) for which positive reviews were received, while one-year licenses (‘red’) are given to new, growing institutions or to institutions for which conditional or negative opinions were received. Licenses are subject to renewal and inspection by the MoEd.
Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH): As part of the school authorization, an affiliate to the Ministry of Health will inspect the school on sanitation and hygiene conditions as a prerequisite to grant the license.
Profit-making: No information was found.
Taxes and subsidies: See Multi-level regulations.
Curriculum and education standards: According to the State Education Regulations (Recognized Institutions) 1953, recognized educational institutions must follow 75% of the state-approved curricula; however, the MoEd may approve educational institutions to follow a lower percentage. The Licensing Procedure and Recognition Procedure dictates that non-state educational institutions, which follow a unique curriculum, to attach with the approval application the institution's curricula for approval.
Textbooks and learning materials: The school’s textbooks, reference books, teaching materials and academic achievements are subject to the supervision of the Ministry of Education and must conform to the general provisions in the specific type of school.
Teaching profession: See Multi-level regulations.
Corporal punishment: The Pupils’ Rights Law 2000 prohibits subjecting students to corporal punishment or degrading disciplinary measures. In addition, the Law on Compulsory Education states that any incident of physical or sexual violence that occurs at any educational institution must be communicated to the Ministry of Education.
Other safety measures and COVID-19: In March 2020, according to the framework of the Public Health Order (New Corona Virus Restriction of the Activities of Educational Institutions (Temporary Order 5722-2020) all schools were obliged to turn to online learning, while in budgeted schools it was forbidden to expel any teaching staff.
Fee-setting: According to the Circular on regulating parental payments 2021, the MoEd must approve the tuition fees charged by non-state schools. In addition to the tuition fee, the institution may charge parents mandatory and authority fees and payments to purchase voluntary services in a set amount approved by the Ministry of Education for the entire educational system. The school may charge enrolment fees only to new students. Non-state educational institutions fully funded by the state are not allowed to charge tuition or registration fees.
Admission selection and processes: No information was found on the regulations, but some private schools may include examinations and interviews to gain admission to the private school.
Policies for vulnerable groups: The Pupils’ Right Law 2000 establishes the prohibition of educational institutions to discriminated based on gender, religion, economic status. Recognized non-state schools are eligible for state grants to support students whose parents are unable or have difficulties paying tuition fees or require assistance on educational materials such as textbooks, transportation, or other educational costs. Directors must allocate a budget for scholarships for students whose parents have difficulty paying learning supplies, education, social or learning activities.
School board: For the authorization process, detailed information of the school staff and director qualifications must be submitted.
Reporting requirements: See Multi-level regulations.
School inspection: According to the Law on Schools Supervision 1969, state authorities (MoEd or Health Authorities) may enter the school premises at a reasonable time to ascertain whether the license conditions are being complied with and if the educational institution is operating following the health and sanitation requirements.
Student assessment: The National Authority for Assessment and Evaluation in Education (RAMA) is an independent body within the MoEd responsible for designing and implementing the national evaluation and assessment framework.
Diplomas and degrees: No information was found.
Sanctions: See Multi-level regulations.
In Israel, the higher education system consists of universities (including the Open University), budgeted academic colleges, non-budgeted academic colleges and colleges of education. In 2015, there were 63 higher education institutions, of which 13 were non-publicly funded.
Registration and approval: To establish a non-state higher education institution in Israel, proprietors must be legally organized as a corporation (association or non-profit organizations) and apply to the Council for Higher Education (MLAG) for approval and recognition. Applications are approved based on the institution fulfilling the minimum requirements in four main areas: academics, corporate-legal, budget-planning, and faculty, which follow the Criteria and threshold conditions for applying to open an institution. All higher education institutions must include information on financial resources and comply with suitable physical infrastructure to ensure a proper academic level, including laboratories, equipment, computers, and library.
Licence: Upon approval, institutions of higher education are granted a permit to open. After four years, institutions may apply for recognition.
Profit-making: Although non-state higher education institutions can collect tuition fees, they must be established as non-profit institutions organized as associations or public benefit organizations and cannot be established as a for-profit private company. Private institutions are funded through registration and tuition fees, as well as donations contributed by individuals and private entities.
Taxes and subsidies: Higher education institutions established as non-profit organizations benefit from exception on the value added tax.
Curriculum and education standards: Non recognized higher education institutions must request approval from Council for Higher Education (MLAG) to establish a new academic program following the MLAG requirements on curricula, study format, and organizational framework.
Teaching profession: Higher education institutions must comply with the conditions established on the academic qualifications of the teaching staff and employment conditions specified in the Criteria and threshold conditions for applying to open an institution, including the minimum faculty member in a program and their academic qualifications. Higher education institutions must follow the employment and wage arrangements approved by the Planning and Budgeting Committee, and the Ministry must approve any modification on employment or wages of Finance.
Fee-setting: Non-state institutions of higher education may determine student tuition fees according to their needs.
Admission selection and processes: In Israel, admission to education institutions depends on a recognized secondary school diploma (or equivalent) and the fulfilment of each institution’s entry requirements.
Board: No information was found.
Reporting requirements: Institutions of higher education can apply for recognition to attain academic and administrative independence and the possibility of issue certificates. For recognition, higher education institutions must apply to the Council for Higher Education (MLAG) following the requirements established in the internal procedure for conducting the examination process for the recognition of institutions of higher education. Quality assessment processes are carried out on academic programs, including a self-evaluation report and an external evaluation.
Inspection: Non-state institutions are subject to academic supervision by Council for Higher Education (MLAG) and are required to must submit reports on their activities and their financial stability to the Planning and Budgeting Committee (PBC).
Assessment: HEIs determines their own student assessments including tests, exams, seminars and presentations.
Diplomas and degrees: Recognized non-state HEIs are authorized to award recognized academic degrees.
Sanctions: No information was found.
This section refers to regulations governing pre-primary, primary and secondary education based on the Compulsory Education Law (1949), State Education Law (1953), the State Education Regulations (Recognized Institutions) (1953) the School Inspection Law (1969), and subsequent specific regulations on licensing and recognition of educational institutions.
Taxes and subsidies: Concerning subsidies, the Law of State Education Regulations (Recognized Institutions) states that recognized schools may request state support and must submit their request with the institution’s budget proposal for the following year, including salaries and institutional expenses (services and building), as well as details and documents to prove compliance. The local educational authority must participate in the budget design. This must be submitted on yearly basis.
Teaching profession: According to the Schools Supervision Law 1969, all teaching staff must have the written confirmation from the MoEd and the health authorities to confirm that there are no objections to being employed at an educational institution. The Licensing Procedure and Recognition Procedure and the Kindergarten Licensing and Recognition Procedures specifies that all teaching staff at an educational institution must possess a teaching certificate, a teaching license, an employment permit, and a health certificate to work at a non-state educational institution. These requirements must be attached to the school application for licensing. The teaching staff who will be teaching the Torah must have a specific work permit. The MoEd can suspend a teacher’s certificate if an indictment has been filed against an education worker for an offense that determines he/she is not fit to be an education worker in its nature, severity, or circumstances. The Licensing Procedure and Recognition Procedure dictates that teacher and staff salaries cannot be less than established by the Law on Minimum Wage. The school must submit to the Ministry of Education yearly reports with the teaching staff for their approval. Additionally, no person employed at a non-state kindergarten is any of their relatives’ works or serves as the owner of the same educational institution. According to the 1953 Law of State Education Regulations (Recognized Institutions), a recognized school that receives state subsidies must follow state educational institutions’ state salary rates and rules.
Reporting requirements: According to the State Education Regulations (Recognized Institutions) (1953) the School Inspection Law (1969), and subsequent documents on Licensing Procedure and Recognition Procedure (2021) and the 2021 Kindergarten Licensing and Recognition Procedures, the state enforces quality and accountability requirements through a strict licensing process, recognition, and renewal for non-state educational institutions. Non-state educational institutions are subject to the supervision of the MoEd and the Health Authorities through the license renewal process and annual reports. The renewal process includes ensuring compliance with the licensing requirements on all seven areas for approval.
Sanctions: According to the Schools Supervision Law (1969) and following documents on the Licensing Procedure and Recognition Procedure (2021) and Kindergarten Licensing and Recognition Procedures (2021), if a school ceases to follow the terms of the license, the MoEd may revoke, not renew or issue a closure order of an educational institution. When non-compliance with the license terms is noted, the MoEd will issue a notification informing the owner of the educational institution of the possibility of closure or revoking the license to allow the school to rectify the claims. In the case of safety violations that endanger the students, the closure and license revocation will be immediate.
Private tutoring in Israel is provided in learning centres, which are operated by the local authority or the educational institution's ownership with the aim of addressing educational gaps. Participation in a learning centre is considered an Additional Curriculum (TLN) in schools intended for enrichment studies in addition to the regular subjects taught in the basic curriculum. While no official statistics on the share of students taking part in private tutoring were identified, past studies indicate its use by primary and secondary students, especially those with more advantaged backgrounds.
According to the State Education Law (1953), the Minister can approve an official educational institution to implement a programme for additional hours after school following the specification of the State Education Regulations (Supplementary Program and Additional Program) 1953.
The Circular on Parental Payment for the School Year 2020 dictates the maximum amounts that an educational institution may charge for Additional Curriulum (TLN) according to the number of hours, level of education, and type of institution. Each institution must publish the amounts to be charged on its website, as approved by the Ministry of Education. Additionally, the Ministry of Education (MoEd) regulates the maximum hours per week an educational institution can implement Additional Curriculum (TLN) lessons.
No information was found.