Around 1 in 5 countries demonstrates a strong level of commitment to equity in education through different financing mechanisms.
Countries pursue different routes of varying form and intensity to mitigate the education impact of factors such as poverty, gender, ethnicity, disability or remoteness. As part of its 2020 edition on inclusion, the GEM Report compiled information on the extent to which education and social financing policies are designed to address disadvantage in education. The profiles were primarily prepared through desk review by the GEM Report team, complemented by commissioned research to add subnational examples for selected countries with complex institutional structures. For all profiles on the website, when they are drafted, countries are invited through their delegation at UNESCO to review and update the information. When this step of the process is complete, it is indicated on the website on the relevant page of the country’s profile with a blue tick.
Available countries: Afghanistan, Algeria, Argentina, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Gabon, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong (China), India, Indonesia, Iran, Jamaica, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Macao (China), Malawi, Mauritania, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Panama, Paraguay, Philippines, Peru, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Samoa, Senegal, Singapore, Somalia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Tajikistan, Thailand, Trinidad and Tobago, Türkiye, United Republic of Tanzania, United States of America, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia and Zimbabwe.
CONTENT: FINANCING FOR EQUITY
The financing for equity profiles aim to describe the efforts of countries in improving equity and ensuring access to quality education to all by looking at four categories of financing policies:
- Education Financing Mechanism
This type captures resource allocation mechanisms from the central government to the lower tiers based on the school-age population and a unit cost per student programme. Such per capita formulas and budget lines may take into account factors such as poverty and location into account.
- Education Resources to Schools
This category includes policies or programmes that compensate schools for being in a disadvantaged area and/or have disadvantaged students. They tend to be block grants, in addition to the capitation grants, and may be nation- or region-wide.
- Education Resources to Students and Families
The category refers to education ministry policies and programmes that directly benefit disadvantaged students and their households as the final defined beneficiaries. These may be in the form of cash, exemption from payment or in-kind.
- Social policies and programmes to provide resources to students and their families
The category is about other ministry policies and programmes that directly benefit disadvantaged students and their households. These tend to be social protection programmes, such as conditional cash transfers or child grants with an education component that aim to address poverty occasionally with a gender dimension.