- Early childhood care and education (Entry/Establishment ○ Financial operation ○ Quality of teaching and learning ○ Equitable access ○ Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability)
- Primary and secondary education (Entry/Establishment ○ Financial operation ○ Quality of teaching and learning ○ Equitable access ○ Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability)
- Tertiary education (Entry/Establishment ○ Financial operation ○ Quality of teaching and learning ○ Equitable access ○ Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability)
In Ethiopia, there is no Education Act or Law. Instead, the country is governed by the Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia 1994, the Education and Training Policy 1994, and several proclamations, guidelines, and regulations (issued at both the federal and regional levels).
The Education and Training Policy 1994 (which governs all education levels from early childhood to tertiary education) only specifically refers to “private investors” as non-state actors which may “open schools and establish various educational and training institutions”, while the Education and Training Policy and Its Implementation 2002 additionally distinguishes between “private investors, religious and non- governmental organizations” participating in the provision of education. A definition of non-state educational institutions was only found in the Higher Education Proclamation 2019, which defines a "private higher education institution" as a “non-public higher education institution established by one or more individual owners or by non-profit making associations, founded as cooperative society or commercial association, or higher education institution established abroad and operating in Ethiopia”. Finally, the only non-state actors referenced in regard to education in the Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia 1994 are “believers”, who may “establish institutions of religious education and administration in order to propagate and organize their religion” (Article 27).
In 2019/20, most schools (91%) at primary (8 years, ages 7 – 14) and secondary (4 years, ages 15 – 18) education level in Ethiopia were owned and operated by the government, which covers approximately 95% of total enrolments across the country. At the regional level, the share of government primary schools is higher in all regions, with the exception of the administrative state Addis Ababa (which has a 70% share in non-state schools). At secondary level, over 90% of schools are government-owned in all regions, with the exception of Addis Ababa (33%), Dire Dawa (44%), and Harari (50%), which have higher shares in non-state provision. Education in Ethiopia is free and compulsory at primary level and remains tuition-free up until lower secondary (ages 15 – 16). During upper secondary level, the share of non-state enrolments jumps from 5% (lower secondary) to 15%.
Non-state managed, state schools
See “other types of schools” for hybrid models of non-state managed state schools.
Non-state funded, state schools
See “other types of schools” for hybrid models of non-state managed state schools.
Independent, non-state schools
Private schools are independent non-state schools which are owned and managed by private investors (for-profit), non-governmental organizations (NGOs), or religious organizations, and are mainly funded through student fees. While exclusive religious instruction is prohibited by law in both state and non-state schools, the government allows the establishment of a special category of religious schools (mainly) run by churches or mosques (Christian, Catholic, or Muslim) which provide both secular and religious instruction. Ethiopia also has community schools and a number of international schools (particularly in Addis Ababa). International schools offer a mixed curriculum (the national curriculum combined with international programs such as International Baccalaureate) and cater mainly to the elites or expatriates. In all schools (irrespective of whether they are state or non-state), Ahmaric must be taught as a language of countrywide communication at primary level, while English must be the language of instruction at secondary level.
State-funded (government-aided), non-state schools
Several non-state actors referred to above are offered various incentives by the government to encourage them to establish more schools, including tax exemption, land provision, government subsidies, and/or textbooks.
Contracted, non-state schools
See “other types of schools” for hybrid models of contracted non-state schools.
As Ethiopia is one of the countries that hosts one of the highest numbers of refugee children worldwide (mostly from South Sudan, Sudan, Somalia, Eritrea, and Yemeni), the government has engaged in various partnerships with humanitarian organizations, development agencies, NGOs, religious organizations, communities, and the private sector to provide refugee education through a mixture of refugee schools (located within or close to refugee camps) and host community schools (integrating refugee children into the national system). Refugee schools are mainly established and run by the Agency for Refugee and Returnee Affairs (ARRA), which is the government counterpart of UNHRC in Ethiopia, in addition to NGOs, religious organizations, and Regional Education Bureaus (REBs), while host community schools are run by communities and/or REBs. Most refugee schools are in the regions of Gambella and Dollo Ado (Somali). In Gambella, refugee schools at primary and secondary level account for 66% and 50% of overall schools in the region. Refugee education is funded by ARRA, NGOs, and donors (with communities assisting in school infrastructure and construction), while the REBs provide various school grants to refugee schools with the aim to eventually transfer them to government administration. All refugee schools follow national education standards and the Ethiopian curriculum, with the exception of lower primary level (Grades 1 – 4) which adopts a mixed curriculum. According to the Refugees Proclamation No. 1110/2019, refugee children are formally provided with the right to attend schools within the national education system, which is reflected as an aim in the Ethiopia Refugee Education Strategy 2015 -18.
Alternative basic education schools
Give the high number of out-of-school children in rural areas in Ethiopia (where the majority of the population resides), the government has developed an Alternative Basic Education (ABE) school system in close collaboration with communities and NGOs that caters to underserved and marginalized communities (primarily from pastoral or semi-pastoral groups). ABE schools are low-cost village schools established and managed by the government in partnership with communities and/or NGOs, and funded by the government (through regular school grants), parents, and communities (through the provision of local learning materials). The ABE program provides primary education based on the formal curriculum that is adjusted to accommodate traditional ways of living, through regular alternative education (catering to farmers in permanent settlements of a minimum of 8 months a year), mobile ABE (catering to mobile pastoral communities), and radio broadcasts or videotapes.
While there is no legal provision on homeschooling in Ethiopia, during the nation-wide school closures caused by the COVID-19 outbreak in early 2020, the federal Ministry of Education introduced three different home-based learning modalities to minimize disruption in learning to be adopted in each region. Through collaborations with the Ethiopian Teachers Association and the Ethiopian Parents Association, these modalities were adopted for different groups of students, and included digital learning content (through social media apps), radio and television transmissions, and distribution of printed materials.
Market contracted (Voucher schools)
No information was found.
While no information was found on unregistered schools in official government statistics, local authorities may revoke the licenses of private schools if they are found to be performing below the expected standard. In 2021, the Addis Ababa Education and Training Quality Professional Competence and Assessment Assurance Authority revoked the licenses of 11 private institutions (8 kindergartens and 3 private primary schools) that were found to be operating below the expected standard.
The education system in Ethiopia (including alternative education) is governed based on a three-level decentralized structure, with specific responsibilities detailed in the Education and Training Policy and Its Implementation 2002. At the federal level, the Federal Ministry of Education (MoE) governs both state and non-state provision from early childhood to secondary level, while the Ministry of Science and Higher Education (MoSHE) was established in 2018 to centrally govern all state and non-state higher education.
The governance of state and non-state education is shared between federal, regional, zonal, woreda, and school levels with varying scope and degree of responsibility and mandate. Regional Education Bureaus (REBs) which are based in the 9 regions and 2 administrative states of Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa are responsible for state and non-state education provision at the regional level (reflected through regional legislation and guidelines), and Woreda Education Offices are responsible for state and non-state schools at the lowest administrative level. Refugee education is governed by the MoE (and REBs) in close collaboration with the Administration for Refugee & Returnee Affairs (ARRA), which was formally established as a government entity in the Definition of Powers and Duties of the Executive Organs of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Proclamation No. 1097/2018.
Vision: According to the Education and Training Policy 1994 and its Implementation 2002, the government strongly “encourage(s) private investors, religious and non- governmental organizations to participate in the education sector”, which can “cooperate meaningfully (with the government) to expand education” in Ethiopia. This approach is similarly reflected in the Ethiopian Education Development Roadmap 2018-30 and the Education Sector Development Program V 2015-20 which support the non-state sector in “establishing more schools and in enhancing the quality of their services”, in addition to further engaging in public-private partnerships with the government “to diversify sources of funding”. The most recent Education Sector Development Program VI 2020-21 - 2024-25 states that “the provision of equitable quality education for all needs synergy with the different stakeholders. This means creating partnerships with the private sector, NGOs, faith-based non-profit organizations and other organizations, including industrial bodies and domestic and foreign companies. They can play a role at all levels of the education and training system”. It aims to “develop a policy of private-public-community partnership” and “support the private sector to engage directly in the provision of equitable, quality education”. There is also particular encouragement of the private sector in participating in distance education provision, with one of the program’s goals being to “develop a policy framework for public-private partnership on ICT in education”.
Early childhood care and education (ECCE) in Ethiopia covers ages 0 – 6 and is mainly provided through inter-ministerial collaboration between the MoE (mainly responsible for ages 4 – 6), the Ministry of Women’s, Children’s and Youth Affairs, and the Ministry of Health. ECCE services are provided through three different modalities which include kindergarten (3 years, ages 4 – 6), child-to-child services (1 year, in which older children play with younger siblings under the supervision of qualified teachers), and ‘O’ class (1 year reception class provided in government primary schools for children aged 6).
While most ECCE enrolments are in government-owned institutions (covering approximately 80% of enrolments) kindergarten is predominantly operated by communities, NGOs, faith-based organizations, and private institutions in urban areas (with the highest enrolments in Addis Ababa). ECCE is additionally provided by the government in collaboration with communities and NGOs in pastoralist and semi-pastoralist areas, while the majority of ECCE centres in refugee camps are community-based centres supported by NGOs. According to the Education Sector Development Program V 2015-20, ECCE is stated as one of the “top priorities” for education, with increased encouragement of non-state provision, particularly through low-cost services in disadvantaged communities and government funding.
Registration and approval: Communities, private providers, religious organizations, and NGOs can establish an ECCE service in Ethiopia by applying for registration with their REB and being certified with the government. All ECCE services (irrespective of ownership) are required to fulfil the national minimum standards in buildings, staff, curriculum, student-staff ratio, health and safety, and premises (with specific requirements at the regional level), while non-state providers are additionally required to submit a special motivation strategy along with their application which justifies the service’s establishment.
License: If the REB is satisfied that national and regional standards are met, the applicant is issued a license to operate.
Profit-making: ECCE services established by non-state actors in Ethiopia are allowed to operate on a profit-making basis.
Taxes and subsidies: The federal and regional government supports non-state ECCE provision in various forms, including through land provision, tax incentives, curriculum development, and teacher training. For more information, see Multi-level regulations.
Curriculum and education standards: The federal government has developed a national kindergarten curriculum (3-year program) and minimum education standards, which is adapted by REBs to guide kindergarten curriculum development at the regional level. According to the National Preschool Inspection Framework 2007, all providers (no matter whether state or non-state) are required to adopt a relevant and participatory curriculum, which is reflective of the child’s development, while the Education and Training Policy 1994 requires all kindergartens to use nationality languages as their language of instruction.
Teaching profession: All teachers in ECCE services (state and non-state) are required to fulfil the minimum qualification and certification standards (including training in special needs education), while the government funds and provides ECCE teacher training to both state and non-state providers. For more information, see Multi-level regulations.
Fee-setting: While non-state ECCE services are free to determine their fees for operation, the federal government plans to introduce cash transfers to non-state providers that will control the fees levied by these services, with the aim to reach more disadvantaged populations.
Admission selection and processes: No information was found on the federal level.
Policies for vulnerable groups: The federal government has introduced various policies to support NGOs and communities in the provision of ECCE to pastoralist/semi-pastoralist communities and refugee children in refugee camps. Moreover, according to the Education Sector Development Program V 2015-20, existing government assistance to non-state providers will be enhanced through additional tax incentives, cash transfers, and provision of learning material, to ensure disadvantaged populations are well represented at this level (which tends to be dominated by relatively wealthier families who can afford fee-paying services).
Reporting requirements: All ECCE centres are required to develop a transparent system of data collection, management, and reporting which must be submitted to the relevant REB or Woreda Education Officer when requested.
Inspection: REBs are responsible for overseeing the quality assurance of ECCE services within their jurisdiction through the use of the National Preschool Inspection Framework 2007, which is applicable to all services in the country (irrespective of ownership). All ECCE services in Ethiopia are inspected once every 3 years (with 2 weeks’ notice) based on the National Preschool Inspection Framework 2007 (specific for ECCE), in addition to the National General Education Inspection Guidelines No. 1/2013, National General Education Inspection Framework 2013, and the National School Classification Framework 2013 (the latter of which are also applicable to primary and secondary schools). See primary and secondary education for details on inspections and minimum standards monitored.
Child assessment: According to the National Preschool Inspection Framework 2007, children in all ECCE services must be assessed based on daily observation by teachers and caregivers, which monitor every child’s social, physical, mental, and emotional development.
Sanctions: If any ECCE center (state or non-state) fails to meet the minimum standards, it will be inspected again after one year (during which it is monitored and required to comply with the given standards) and held accountable if the requirements remain unmet (without specifying exact sanctions).
Registration and approval: To establish a non-state school at primary and/or secondary level in Ethiopia, a private individual/organization, community, faith-based organization or NGO is required to submit an application for registration with their REB, along with a validated certificate of land ownership and any additional documents required by the REB. All applicants (including refugee schools) must meet the minimum standards in school infrastructure, land size, and pupil-teacher ratio (contextualized in each regional administration), with specific standards set for ABE schools in terms of infrastructure, land, space, classroom size, and health and safety listed in the Pastoral and Semi-Pastoral Alternative Basic Education Standards 2003.
License: If the REB is satisfied that the national and regional minimum standards have been met, the applicant is issued a certificate of registration.
Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH): According to the National School Classification Framework 2013, all schools (state and non-state, including ABE centres) from early childhood to secondary level are required to have a sufficient number of toilets (separated by sex), and adequate provision of clean and drinkable water. In 2021, the Amhara National Regional Education Bureau developed specific guidelines to ensure all schools in the region have access to standard drinking water and latrines.
Profit-making: No regulation was found prohibiting profit-making at the federal level, with schools allowed to be established by private investors as profit-making entities.
Taxes and subsidies: The government provides various incentives for non-state actors to engage in education at all levels of education (see Multi-level regulations), with specific arrangements for non-state secondary schools, refugee schools, and ABE schools. Non-state actors are encouraged to establish schools at secondary level through tax exemption, land provision, and government subsidies, refugee schools are provided with government grants, while ABE centres were provided with government capitation grants under the General Education Quality Improvement Project II in 2015-19. The use of the school grants provided to ABE centers could be determined by each center based on their priority areas, with at least 50% spent on the School’s Improvement Plan. Moreover, as stated in the School Grants Guidelines 2015, ABE centers were prohibited from using the grants for staff salaries, television, weapons, fuels, or new building construction. For more information, see Multi-level regulations.
Curriculum and education standards: All schools in Ethiopia (irrespective of ownership) are required to follow certain minimum standards of the Curriculum Framework for Ethiopian Education (KG-Grade 12) 2009 to ensure that a federal standard is maintained throughout the country. The national curriculum is developed by the REBs at primary level (based on a region’s unique circumstances), and the federal government at secondary level. According to the Education and Training Policy 1994, primary education can be provided in a region’s nationality languages (with Ahmaric taught as a language of national communication) , whereas the language of instruction at secondary level must be English (being taught as a subject from Grade 1). The Ethiopian curriculum must similarly be used in refugee schools (with a mixed curriculum allowed at lower primary) and ABE centers (which, according to the Pastoralist Area Education Strategy 2009, follow an adapted version of the primary education curriculum).
Textbooks and learning materials: According to the National General Education Inspection Framework 2013, all schools in Ethiopia (state and non-state) are required to meet the minimum standards in student-textbook ratio, reference books, and libraries, and follow the regional textbook policy (adapted be each REB from the national textbook policy). In the case of ABE centers, the Pastoral and Semi-Pastoral Alternative Basic Education Standards 2003 state that each center is required to provide students with the essential textbooks and learning materials (with at least one textbook for each student).
Teaching profession: Irrespective of whether a school is owned by the state or non-state actors, all teachers at primary and secondary level must be licensed, with a recognized a validated certification. Specifically, secondary school teachers are required to have obtained degrees, while all lower primary and upper primary school teachers must have certificates and diplomas respectively. The Pastoral and Semi-Pastoral Alternative Basic Education Standards 2003 list the minimum requirements for teachers in ABE centers, which are required (at a minimum) to have completed Grade 10. For more information, seeMulti-level regulations.
Corporal punishment: Corporal punishment is explicitly prohibited in all school settings in Article 36(1) of the Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia 1994, which states that “every child has the right to be free of corporal punishment or cruel and inhumane treatment in schools and other institutions responsible for the care of children”. However, there is no explicit mention of whether this applies to non-state schools as well.
Other safety measures and COVID-19: No information was found.
Fee-setting: While no regulation was found regarding fee-setting at the federal level (with schools given the freedom to determine their own fees), the government plans to subsidize non-state schools to have leverage to control their fees and any increases made.
Admission selection and processes: No regulation was found on admission selection processes at the federal level.
Policies for vulnerable groups: The federal government has several strategies in place to increase non-state education access to disadvantaged communities, including the funding of ABE centres (which cater to pastoralist and semi-pastoralist communities) through the Pastoralist Area Education Strategy 2009, and the gradual integration of refugee children into the national education system (within host community schools and through the provision of scholarships) through the Refugees Proclamation No. 1110/2019, and Ethiopia Refugee Education Strategy 2015-18. Moreover, the federal government encourages and supports the equal participation of women in all schools in Ethiopia (state and non-state).
School board: The Education and Training Policy and Its Implementation 2002 enables communities, parents, teachers, and students to play a prominent role in both state and non-state school administration, through the establishment of School Management Committees and Parent-Teacher Associations. In establishing these bodies, each school (including ABE centres) must ensure that teachers, parents, students, and community members are adequately and democratically represented, encouraging the equal participation of women. According to the National School Classification Framework 2013, schools are required to forge these strong partnerships with local communities and parents and are classified based on the strength of their participation in school administration.
Reporting requirements: All schools in Ethiopia (state and non-state) are required to undertake their own school classification, research on education quality assurance, and self-assessment at the beginning or end of each academic year. As stated in the National General Education Inspection Guidelines No. 1/2013, all schools remain accountable for the quality of education provided in their institution and the student outcomes they achieve.
School inspection: The federal MoE has established different government bodies at the regional level (REBs), city level (Zone/City Administration Education Offices), and Woreda level (WEOs) that are responsible for the quality assurance of all schools (state and non-state) within their jurisdiction. At the federal level, the General Education Inspection Directorate (GEID) has developed certain consistent national standards to inform the quality monitoring and inspection of all schools in Ethiopia (from ECCE to secondary level, including state, non-state, and ABE centers), which are detailed in the National General Education Inspection Guidelines No. 1/2013, National General Education Inspection Framework 2013, and National School Classification Framework 2013. In refugee-hosting regions, the REBs supervise the quality and capacity development of all refugee schools within their region.
School inspections are conducted once every 3 years (with a 2-week notice) by 2 inspectors (from either regional office) for 2 – 3 days. Schools are chosen for inspection each year based on a sample made jointly by the REBs, City Administration Education Offices, and WEOs based on a clearly defined set of guidelines with a focus on school buildings, facilities, learning and teaching environment, financial resources, student outcomes, health and safety, and the school’s engagement with the parents and the community. Through observations, questionnaires, documents, reports, and discussions, schools are then classified and graded based on input, process, and output.
Student assessment: The federal MoE is responsible for preparing and administering national examinations through the National Educational Assessment and Examinations Agency, while REBs administer regional examinations in all schools (including non-state and refugee schools).
Diplomas and degrees: REBs are responsible for granting national certificates to students for transitioning to each education level, while students in ABE centres are required to achieve a specific set of learning outcomes to transition to the next education level.
Sanctions: While national guidelines on school inspections are very detailed, the sanctions in cases of non-compliance of these standards are left vague and up to the discretion of each regional administration. The National General Education Inspection Framework 2013 states that if any school is found to not comply with the minimum standards, it will be inspected again after one year, and “relevant bodies will be held into account” if the school has failed to make the required changes within the given time period. According to the National General Education Inspection Guidelines No. 1/2013, any matters not covered within the national inspection guidelines are decided by each REB, zonal/sub-city education office, or WEO as necessary.
Tertiary education is provided through 50 public universities (accounting for over 85% of total enrolments) and over 200 private (non-state) higher education institutions (HEIs), based on MoE data in 2017. While public universities are established by the MoSHE and governed exclusively by the Higher Education Proclamation 2019, the majority (over 90%) of private HEIs are established as for-profit Private Limited Companies under the Commercial Code 1960, only four of which had been granted official university status in 2017. Private HEIs are owned by individuals, organizations and associations with profit or non-profit orientation (the latter of which are established and governed by the Civil Code 1960). Private HEIs established with profit-making motives rely almost exclusively on student fees for funding, while non-profit HEIs are funded both by student fees and government subsidies.
Registration and approval: While the educational operations of private HEIs are conducted in accordance with the Higher Education Proclamation 2019, they are required to initially be established under the Civil Code 1960 (as amended in 2009) or Commercial Code 1960 (and additionally governed by those laws). Specifically, non-profit private HEIs must be established by two or more persons as associations under the Civil Code 1960 (as amended in 2009), while for-profit HEIs must be established by legal bodies as business organizations under the Commercial Code 1960. Once established as legal entities under the applicable laws, the institutions must submit their memorandum of establishment to the MoSHE, along with their objectives, scope of activities, funding sources, and management bodies. The MoSHE will then establish the institution as a university, university college/college, or institute based on the national minimum standards set for each category in terms of curriculum, enrolment, research, and program.
License: If the institution meets the national minimum standards, the MoSHE classifies the private HEI, and issues the provider a license to operate.
Profit-making: Private HEIs are only allowed to operate on a profit-making basis if they have been established as business organizations under the Commercial Code 1960. Associations established under the Civil Code 1960 (as amended in 2009) are prohibited from operating for-profit, but are eligible for government subsidies.
Taxes and subsidies: According to the Higher Education Proclamation 2019, non-profit private HEIs may apply for government subsidies or capacity building support to the MoSHE based on a minimum set of standards and criteria. The MoSHE determines applications based on student enrolments, academic staff, past achievements, existing funding sources, and the number of students who do not pay fees. Private HEIs of particular high quality or which offer specific fields of studies may receive additional government subsidies and further incentives determined by the MoSHE. For more information, see Multi-level regulations.
Curriculum and education standards: While all HEIs in Ethiopia (state and private) have the freedom to develop a curriculum that matches the academic programs offered, the curriculum must meet the national standards set by the MoSHE, including being research-based, up-to-date, and enabling the student to achieve the appropriate learning outcomes in scientific knowledge, independent thinking skills, professional values, and communication skills.
Teaching profession: All HEIs (state and private) are required to have an adequate supply of qualified academic staff (listed in the Higher Education Proclamation 2019) based on specific student-teacher ratios, qualifications, and research requirements that remain consistent with international practice. For more information, see Multi-level regulations.
Fee-setting: While the Higher Education Proclamation 2019 does not regulate fee-setting for private HEIs, the Civil Code 1960 (as amended in 2009) may limit the amount of fees levied by a non-profit HEI (established as an association) based on its memorandum of establishment and statute. For-profit HEIs (established as business organizations under the Commercial Code 1960) are free to determine their own fees.
Admission selection and processes: All private HEIs are required to comply with any directives issued by the MoSHE in regard to student admissions (based on merit and university entrance examinations), while each institution must ensure special admission procedures for disadvantaged students.
Board: Each HEI in Ethiopia may determine their own organization, management structure, and responsibilities, provided that the structures developed guarantee the effective delivery of research and education.
Reporting requirements: Each private HEI in Ethiopia is required to undertake regular self-evaluations on student performance, academic staff, and research performance on an annual basis, with the evaluation results made public to the community and formally reported to the HERQA.
Inspection: The Higher Education Relevance and Quality Agency (HERQA, under the MoSHE) is responsible for evaluating the quality of all HEIs in Ethiopia (state and private), while private HEIs are additionally accountable to the bodies under which they are registered (such as the Ministry of Trade and Industry). Moreover, private HEIs are required to be accredited by the HERQA, perform regular self-evaluations, and submit detailed annual reports to the HERQA on their activities, research, education, and training. While the Higher Education Proclamation 2019 states that the HERQA may conduct investigations and inspections of any private HEI (without notice) as necessary, there is no mention of how often these inspections take place or what exactly they entail.
Assessment: All private HEIs are required to ensure that minimum quality standards in regard to student assessment, grading, and examination are maintained through a well-defined, transparent assessment and evaluation system.
Diplomas and degrees: Only accredited HEIs are authorized to issue diplomas and/or degrees to students, while the federal government may determine the equivalency of any foreign certificates. If any institution is found to be issuing diplomas or degrees without being accredited by the HERQA, they will be civilly and criminally liable.
Sanctions: If a private HEI fails to comply with the provisions set in the Higher Education Proclamation 2019 or fails to rectify any defects within a given time period given by the HERQA, the HERQA may revoke the institution’s accreditation and cease its operations. Any institution which has had its accreditation revoked by the HERQA is required to take any necessary measures to ensure the students affected continue their studies in other appropriate HEIs.
This section covers all education levels from early childhood to tertiary education, based on the 1994 Education and Training Policy.
Taxes and subsidies: According to the 1994 Education and Training Policy, Education and Training Policy and its Implementation 2002, and Ethiopian Education Development Roadmap 2018-30, the federal government of Ethiopia has established a system in all regions whereby private investors are incentivized to build education establishments at all levels of education (from early childhood to tertiary) and increase their income capacity by being offered real estate for free or at a nominal price. The Ethiopian Education Development Roadmap 2018-30 additionally plans to introduce even further incentives to non-state actors which would increase the government’s leverage to control certain aspects of non-state provision (such as fee-setting).
Teaching profession: All teachers employed in non-state education establishments from early childhood to tertiary level in Ethiopia are required to be certified and have obtained the necessary qualifications set by the federal and regional government administrations. The Education and Training Policy 1994 additionally states that particular attention must be given to teacher training, professional codes of ethics, salary, working conditions, professional growth, and the participation of women. All teachers in Ethiopia under an employment contract are entitled to the working conditions stipulated in the country’s federal Labor Law 1993, which include provisions on conditions for payment, working hours, and leave. There are also specific provisions on the working conditions of women and young workers.
In Ethiopia, the perceived decline in education quality, competitive examinations, and full switch to an English curriculum in secondary level have been strong factors in the expansion of supplementary private tutoring in the country. According to a study conducted in 2017, 67% of primary school students in urban areas had received some form of private tutoring, which includes one-on-one classes (57.8%), whole classes (25.4%), and small groups (16.6%). Private tutoring is mainly regulated by REBs, with specific regulations applying to different regions.
In Addis Ababa (which houses the majority of private tutoring centers in Ethiopia), private tuition centers are required to be registered and licensed by the REB and follow similar minimum standards to primary and secondary schools (with re-registration demanded every 2 years).
According to regulations issued in 2004, the Addis Ababa REB regulates the premises, class size, location, teacher qualifications, curriculum, and learning hours of private tutoring centers in the region. Specifically, tuition centers must provide facilities with a minimum of 600 square meters, be located away from noisy areas, have a maximum of 10 students, follow a similar curriculum to the national curriculum, and provide classes for a maximum of 45 minutes per day (at a maximum of 5 days per week). Finally, similar to state schools, tutors employed in private tuition centers are required to have a minimum teaching diploma for tutoring primary students and a degree for tutoring secondary students, in addition to pedagogical training certificates. If any person or body fails to comply with the minimum standards, the regulations state that they will be punished (without however specifying the nature of this punishment).
No information was found.