1. Terminology

2. Technology laws, policies, plans and regulations

2.1. Education technology legislative and policy framework

2.2. Technology infrastructures, technological capacity of schools and learning environments

2.3. Technology competencies of learners and teachers

2.4. Cybersecurity and safety

3. Governance

3.1. Institutions in charge of technology in education and coordination mechanisms

3.2. Roles of schools


1. Terminology

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is described in the 2021-2026 National Strategy of Education to include computers, tablets, SMART phones, interactive whiteboards and other accessories during the teaching and learning process. 

The Albanian 2014 curriculum framework, defines ICT as “a set of technological tools and resources that are used to transmit, collect, create and exchange information. These technological tools and resources include computers, the Internet or other digital devices.” 

Learning through ICT is defined as, “Forms of formal and informal learning through the use of ICT, relevant to lifelong learning as well as blended learning and distance education.” 

The definition of the term "Blended Learning" is the use of traditional classroom teaching methods combined with the use of online learning for the same students studying the same subject and the same content.  

Distance Education is defined in the Law No. 69 on the Pre-university Education System as “a way of education, where most of the learning process is carried out when the teacher and the student are not usually in the same place and at the same time and is carried out mainly with the help of communication and information technology.” 


2. Technology laws, policies, plans and regulations

2.1. Education technology legislative and policy framework

Constitution and laws: Albania’s 1998 Constitution (amended in 2016) guarantees everyone the right to education and mandates free public education. It also states that copyright is protected by law. Law No. 69 on the Pre-university Education System in the Republic of Albania, amended in 2015, 2018 and 2023 states that in the pre-university education system, students are to “use new technologies.” The law also allows for distance education as one of three main forms of education and explicitly cites the use of communication and information technology to enable learning. Digital competence is also one of the main basic competencies for all students. 

The law No. 80/2015 “On higher education and scientific research in the Republic of Albania”  regulates higher education and scientific research in higher education institutions (HEI) in Albania. This law is based on the academic freedon and the autonomy of  HEIs. Academic freedom is guaranteed through the right to design and develop market based study programs, and of course in line with the lasted development on ICT and green transition. 

A new law “On Science in the Republic of Albania” is drafted and is under public consultation with all the stackholders such as Line Ministries, Civil Society Organiations, Bussineses Community and Higher Education Institutions. The draft law defines the rules and procedures for the organization and operation of the science system in the Republic of Albania, on the support of the development of scientific research, technology, and innovation. The state supports a wide range of activities aimed at acquiring, enhancing, and disseminating scientific and technological knowledge in/across all fields. 

Policies, plans and strategies: The government of Albania recognized the need to widely introduce ICT in the country to achieve higher living standards and economic growth. Since the early 2000s, the country has prioritized the development and implementation of various plans and strategies across all sectors.  

The Pre-University Education Strategy 2014-2020 states that secondary education can be offered “at a distance,” though it has not yet been implemented. The strategy does call for the “digitization of the learning process”. It introduced ICT into the learning process through the development of a contemporary curriculum in the field of ICT, with the aim of training students in accordance with European standards. This was accompanied by the modernization of technological infrastructure at all three levels; school, local educational unit and ministry. The strategy also called for the creation of libraries in schools, improving the internet connection in schools, and the development of an e-learning program. All of these work to provide a safe and functional infrastructure that offers opportunities for using digital content in the learning process. Special importance was to be given to cooperation with partners to help create digital educational content for primary and secondary education in the Albanian language and the development of a platform to encourage companies to invest in the field of ICT for the benefit of education. Finally, the strategy was able to improve the teaching accreditation process and implemented reform in the professional development system. Both were “enriched with the subject of ICT.” 

The 2015-2020 National Strategy for Development and Integration called for improving "Quality Education for All" service through the development of contemporary models of teaching combined with an increase in the use of technology. Similarly, the 2017-2021 Government Programme calls for the strengthening ICT in education through: “designing a platform and national action plan for the implementation of ICT in education; creating a sustainable, widely usable infrastructure as well as digital resources in schools; development of teachers' pedagogical skills for the use of ICT; as well as improving online safety for children and young people.” 

The 2015-2020 Digital Agenda Strategy of Albania is the cross-sectoral strategy for the digitization of the country. The strategy prioritizes "Policy for the development of ICT infrastructure and electronic communications in all sectors," which emphasizes the need for the "digitalization of the education system in order to increase the quality of education and contribute to the creation of a society based on knowledge, through increasing access to digital curricula and enabling their connection to the Internet (100%)". Activities aimed at achieving this objective include: equipping schools with functional infrastructure for the use of information (computers, laptops, smart tablets); high-speed internet and the possibility of online access also in other environments within the schools, not only in laboratories; technical support that ensures efficient use of the infrastructure; access to education portals, in accordance with the planned curriculum; access to portals for students with disabilities; and specifying the legal and infrastructural framework for the online exchange of information between educational structures.  

The 2021-2026 National Strategy of  Education consists of three policy goals and four thematic areas, one of which is also the “digitalization of education”. Several objectives within the goals relate to education technology including the advancement of ICT infrastructure and digital services for public HEIs and developing digital competence through better use of information and communication technology for teaching and learning. The strategy also calls for the drafting of a policy to govern the use of technology at the school level, and regulate the provision and maintenance of ICT equipment and infrastructure, the use of equipment by school staff school and students, protecting children from dangers on the Internet, electronic communication, etc. Special support will be provided for the improvement of the services of the faculties of technology and information, which will include the programs of teaching in the ICT field. This may also include a BYOD strategy. 

One of the 2022-2026 Digital Agenda Strategy’s core pillars is focused on enabling and developing basic and advanced digital skills to broadly involve the population in ICT services and increase the number of ICT professionals. The strategy also calls for the institutionalization of weekly information technology (IT) classes in all secondary education classes, implementing digital skills subjects in all curricula of higher education institutions, establishing digital citizen centers to provide online learning courses through user-friendly platforms, and creating a systematic certification mechanism for digital skills programs. In the education sector, the plan specifically calls for creating a digital culture of learning to develop digital skills throughout the educational ecosystem. Broad goals include the development of digital content, the development of synchronous and asynchronous education tools and platforms, as well as the infrastructure and equipment. The strategy calls for the addition of coding into the curriculum. Following the program for "Improving equal access to High Standard Public Services through Operation GovTech", the Ministry of Education and Sports (MAS) is involved in the SmartLabs component, thus supporting the objectives of the Digital Agenda 2022 - 2026, where one of them is the 'improvement of digital skills'. In this framework, the appropriate infrastructure is being created for the creation of SmartLabs at 200 schools, the piloting of distance learning and the raising of the necessary capacities for quality and innovative teaching/learning. 

Other national strategic documents contributing to the digital skills’ development includes the National ICT Strategy, the 2005 Master-plan for E-Schools Programme in Albania, the 2008-2013 Cross-cutting Strategy for the Information Society (ISSIS 2008-2013), the 2019 – 2022 National Employment and Skills Strategy, and the 2017-2022 National Strategy for Scientific Research, Technology and Innovation

Digital competency frameworks: According to the 2015-2020 Digital Agenda Strategy, digital literacy can be determined within four competency fields (information, communication, content creation and problem solving) and categorizes the level based on the activities they were able to perform. Digital standards are in the process of being developed and will be based on the Framework for digital competence of the EU

Changes occurred as a result of COVID-19: After the COVID-19 pandemic, many policy changes can be seen in the 2021-2026 National Strategy of  Education which notes that “in the case of unpredictable situations such as a pandemic or natural disasters, ICT offers opportunities for the organization of distance learning, while in normal situations, technology can be used to advance the learning process in schools.” Firstly, the strategy focused on developing digital competency among the population. For example, digital competency has also been added to its teacher standards and a digital competency framework is in development. The future ICT use in schools policy will be guided by these standards. The Agency for Quality Assurance in Pre-University Education (ASCAP) is also designing the methodology for the development of online learning, both under normal conditions and in cases of emergencies. The blended learning approach will be preferred, but the system must also “be prepared to provide full online learning in exceptional situations such as: pandemics, natural disasters, and the like.”

2.2. Technology infrastructures, technological capacity of schools and learning environments

2.2.1. Technology infrastructure and digital capacity of schools

Electricity: Albania has a liberal electricity supply market. KESH Gen Sh.A, the predominant electricity generator owned by the Ministry of Development, Economy, Trade and Free Entrepreneurship, provides approximately 98% of the public electricity generated in Albania. Suppliers are charged with the obligation of universal service supply as a public service obligation in accordance with the 2015 Law No. 45 on the Energy Sector. The country’s 2018-2030 National Strategy of Energy aims to reach 42% of renewable energy by 2030.  

Technical Assistance (TA) required for the development of the Energy Efficient Schools Buildings in Albania (EnE4Schools) has been approved under the Western Balkans Investment Framework (WBIF) Grant Application WB27-ALB-ENE-02. The grant was approved in July 2022 with the main deliverables as follows: Preparation of the detailed energy audit reports for approximately 60 public buildings (schools); Environmental and Social Management Plan; and the Feasibility assessment report. 

The project is fully in line with the Economic and Investment Plan for the Western Balkans Priority ‘Investing in clean energy’ and the national IPA programme for Albania, as well in the line with the foreseen ‘EU renovation wave’; refurbishing and improving building stock (Flagship 6 – Renovation wave). 

Computers and devices: The Master-plan for E-Schools Programme in Albania and the 2008-2013 Cross-cutting Strategy for the Information Society both called for the introduction of computer labs into all schools in the country. Key indicators in the 2014-2020 National Strategy for Development of Pre-University Education include improving the computer-to-student ratio; the number of computers, laptops, and tablets; and the number of students equipped with tablets. The 2021-2026 National Strategy of  Education also provides funding for the addition of digital equipment in schools including computers, projectors, interactive whiteboards, wireless networks, and various accessories. 

The 2022-2025 Digital Agenda Strategy states that “Teaching technology laboratories should be functional in educational institutions of all stages and with up-to-date technology. The main functions that teaching technology labs must guarantee are related to continuous access to online activities and courses for a standard class size and generally allow the conduct of activities and courses on coding, which requires the use of the Internet, personal computers and/or or other devices.” 

Internet connectivity: In Albania, regarding the Decision of Ministral Council “Nr. 673, date 22.11.2017”, AKSHI is the central authority and the provider of ICT and electronic services for citizens, businesses, government and schools. Internet connection is provided by various private companies. The 2014-2020 National Strategy for Development of Pre-University Education sought to provide internet in schools so that students and teachers could access learning resources. Key indicators include the number of schools with ICT laboratories, number of school libraries connected to the internet, speed of internet provisions in schools, and the number of schools with internet access. 

The 2015-2020 Digital Agenda Strategy sought to develop the infrastructure necessary to connect the whole territory and 90% of the population with Broadband (NGN/LTE/5G) coverage by 2020. The most recent 2020-2025 National Plan for the Sustainable Development of Digital Infrastructure, Broadband aims to connect 100% of schools with high-speed broadband connection with 1 Gbps by the end of 2025. The plan also seeks to connect 100% of all households, businesses, and public institutions by 2025. The 2022-2026 Digital Agenda Strategy objectives for broadband include, “sustainable development of broadband infrastructure; reducing the digital divide and providing comprehensive broadband services; and increasing demand and developing the digital economy for a gigabit society.” 

2.2.2. Technology and learning environments

Online education during the COVID-19 pandemic varied depending on each school. The Albanian Ministry of Education and Sport (MAS) took on the responsibility of creating online resources in the form of video recordings, while the Agency for Quality Assurance in Pre-University Education (ASCAP) issued guidelines (primary, lower secondary, higher secondary) for the organization of distance learning in conditions of global emergency. Many teachers and students relied on the national TV channel “RTSH Shkolla” which showed video lessons for every level and subject from elementary to high school. The lessons were also available on the platform, which was developed by MASR (MAS by that time was named Ministry of Education, Sports and Youth - MASR) and UNICEF. The platform created opportunities to carry out online learning, and was also able to combine classroom and online learning. hosts more than 5000 videos from Albanian teachers explaining a wide variety of school subjects. A mobile application is in development. The government started to pilot SELFIE (Self-reflection on Effective Learning by Fostering the use of Innovative Educational Technologies), an application designed to help schools incorporate digital technologies into teaching, learning and assessment. A campaign by Vodafone Albania's brought the donation of over 15 thousand tablets and phones for children in need. Most teachers used conferencing platforms such as Zoom for their online classroom needs. 

2.3. Technology competencies of learners and teachers

2.3.1. Learners

The Ministry of Education and Sport (MAS) alongside the National Information Society Agency (AKSHI) are in the process of developing digital standards based on the Framework for digital competence of the EU. The current 2014 curriculum defines digital competence as the “critical and effective use of ICT at work, over time, freely and during communication. It relies on the basic skills of using a computer to find, produce, create, present and exchange information, as well as for collaborating in informational networks on the Internet.” At the end of upper secondary education, students who are digitally competent should be able to interact and collaborate with peers, experts or others using a variety of digital media; use different media and formats to communicate information and ideas effectively to multiple audiences; develop awareness about globalization and cultural diversity by being involved in interactions with students from other cultures; contribute to increasing the work yield in project groups to create original products or to solve problems; preserve the ethics of personal and group communication; find, organize, analyze, evaluate, process and use information from a variety of sources and media; select information sources or digital tools based on their suitability for performing and solving a series of tasks (or specific problems); maintain virtual identity security and personal privacy; select and use applications effectively and productively; solve problems of systems and applications; and understand and use technology systems correctly.  

Technology and ICT is its own area of learning for each educational level and the relevant curriculum levels. A major goal for this learning area is the development of technological capacity in students. Technological capacity enables students to realize the most sought-after professional opportunities and transform into informed citizens in a rapidly changing world. Students are asked to “apply and demonstrate these knowledge, skills, attitudes and values through the use of ICT to search and receive information from online sources; to manage projects in working groups; and to discuss and share their findings at length. Students will be able to analyze problems; to reason and analyze concepts, computer connections and IT processes; formulate and organize ideas in all areas of learning.” 

For the period 2018-2021, the program "Schools of the 21st Century" funded by the Government of the United Kingdom and implemented by the British Council, had as a vision to develop the skills in digital communication, coding, critical thinking and problem solving, for students aged 6 to 15 years. The program included 1191 schools of pre-university education, where 120 thousand students benefited. Currently, it is released the training platform "Critical thinking, problem solving and micro:bit", where 500 primary education teachers are being trained, 2475 users have registered on the platform, 1502 have completed the online training and 973 are in the certification process. 

According to the 2022-2025 Digital Agenda Strategy, the subject of information and communication technology and knowledge of coding was to be integrated into the curriculum from the start of the 2022 school year. The new ICT program in the first grade was drafted and approved by the Ministry of Education and Sports. Two manuals have been drawn up to support teachers and students for the first grade.  In the school year 2022-2023, the implementation of the ICT subject has started from the first grade with a focus on coding in 100 pilot schools in 34 cities of the country, where the beneficiaries are 7079 students. Code Monkey platform is for developing coding skills for the students since first grade. In this framework, the ICT subject program for the second grade has also been approved, as well as manuals have been drawn up to support teachers and students. 

Regarding the Law No. 45/2023, negotiations with the World Bank for the extension of this project to another 200 schools have been closed, thus ensuring the appropriate infrastructure with a unique typology for the creation of suitable environments for the development of sustainable ICT competencies.  

2.3.2. Teachers

The 2014-2020 National Strategy for Development of Pre-University Education improved teacher education by adding ICT to training programs. According to the strategy all educational workers, regardless of their specialization, must be trained and supported in ICT use. The end goal was to increase the number of teachers with professional competences who use digital content in accordance with international standards. One of the key indicators was the “number of teachers trained for digital content.” In the more recent 2021-2026 National Strategy of Education, “digital competence” is explicitly mentioned as a skill future teachers should be equipped with and as a professional development module. The inclusion of digital competence in teacher standards was also included in order to help with designing programs for initial teacher training and professional development, as well as for evaluating their performance. "Teacher's professional standards for the use of information and communication technology" have been approved by the Ministry of Education and Sports. Guidelines and training materials for the use of ICT in the teaching-learning process, using online platforms and implementing blended learning are developed by ASCAP to support teachers.  

The 2022-2025 Digital Agenda Strategy calls for the retraining and/or advancing teaching staff with new skills so they can use these new technologies in the classroom. The training of teachers and educators will “start with workshops to introduce them to the basics of computer science and will continue with more structured training throughout the year.” 

The project "Development of teachers' competencies for a comprehensive system of professional development of teachers" helped design and implement training modules for digital learning. Teacher accreditation is conducted by the Agency for Quality Assurance in Pre-University Education (ASCAP). Accredited modules for the 2022-2026 period includes multiple courses on Education Technology including “Blended Learning through Technology Integration, Relationship between Critical Thinking and ICT, Use of Technology to Support Learning, Advantages of the Use of ICT in the Education System and the Results in the Gain of Competencies, and Use of ICT Equipment in the Classroom and at Home.” 

According to the curriculum framework, effective teaching and learning “relies on ICT”. It states that “Learning through ICT plays an important role in the methods of teaching. Schools should explore not only the possibilities of using ICT to support the ways of teaching, but also its spaces, to create new and different ways to learn.” 

2.4. Cybersecurity and safety

2.4.1. Data privacy

Interference in computer data and systems is a punishable offense based on the 1995 Criminal Code of Albania. The Law on the Pre-university Education System in the Republic of Albania 69/12 states that student personal data is protected and process in accordance with the 2008 Law No. 9887. The law discusses the protection of personal data. The Law of the Pre-university Education system also states that consent to use personal data comes from the parents or guardians until the person reaches the age of 18. The students are legally obligated to provide personal data to educational institutions who inform, collect, and process the personal data of persons and places them in official documents. Personal data is protected by the educational institution, who do not have the right to make available to others, outside the institution, the person's personal data. The personal also has the right to know his or her personal data. If the data is to be used outside of the educational institution it must be done anonymously and with consent. 

Regulation is conducted by the Information and Data Protection Commissioner ('IDP'). One of the activities under strategy 2, objective 1 in the 2015-2020 Digital Agenda Strategy is “Promoting and protecting of personal data for the online services, mobile applications, cloud services, big data and the Internet of Things, as well as the protection of intellectual property rights in the internet field.” The 2020-2025 National Cybersecurity Strategy has four policy goals, one of which is to “ensure cybersecurity at the national level through the protection of information infrastructure and strengthening technological and legal tools.” 

2.4.2. Online abuse and cyberbullying

The 1995 Criminal Code of Albania prohibits the non-consensual recording, preservation, or publishing of someone’s voice or image. The Ministry of Education and Sports (MAS) in cooperation with the National Authority for Electronic Certification and Cyber Security (AKCESK) have put into operation the section "Report illegal content", which is linked to the online portal, of AKCESK, for blocking access to websites with illegal content, which helps children, persons exercising their parental responsibility and young people to report illegal content encountered while browsing the Internet. 

Based on the document "European framework for the digital competence of teachers, DigComEdu1", in the ICT competence framework for teachers (ICT CFT, version 3) 2 from UNESCO, ASCAP has drafted: Modules and materials for teacher training and Digital citizenship and online safety in digital environments. 

ASCAP has developed the document "Professional standards of the teacher for the use of information and communication technology", which in part aims to understand the basic principles of cyber security, media and information literacy. 

Two documents have been approved for the functioning of the psycho-social service, which also deal with situations of violence, bullying and online abuse in schools: Work practice of the psycho-social service and General ethical principles of psycho-social service.

The Law 18/2017 “On the Rights and Protection of Child” and the “Criminal Justice for Children Code” support the goal of ensuring child online safety. The law “On the Rights and Protection of the Child” mandates that all internet delivery centres, educational institutions, and any other public or private institution providing Internet access must apply technical instruments and other measures to protect children from access to illegal or harmful content. Similarly, the 2018-2020 “For the safer internet for children in Albania” Action Plan sets common responsibilities for children’s rights protection by public institutions, civil society organization, teachers, parents, media, and industry of communication.  

The country recognizes that “three main forms of exposure of children to online risks are: accessing age-inappropriate or illegal content; 2) bullying and/or sexual abuse; and 3) involvement in dangerous virtual communities that encourage anorexia, self-harm, suicide, violence, hatred or extremism” as mentioned in the 2021-2026 National Strategy of Education.  

Product A1.7 of this strategy aims for safe and child-friendly environments at schools by creating a system for identifying, preventing and reporting violence, bullying and extremism in schools. The 2020-2025 National Cybersecurity Strategy seeks to develop safe cyberspace education and raise awareness in society regarding professional capacity building in the information security field. The strategy also calls for developing mechanisms required for child safety in cyberspace, while preparing the younger generation to benefit from the advantages of technology and overcome development challenges. 

Albania has set up a legal and operational framework for the online reporting of cybercrime. For online safety concerns, children can contact, the Albanian National Child Helpline at “ALO 116 111”. Unfortunately, information is limited, and the system lacks reporting mechanisms for issues such as child online protection and cyberbullying. 

3. Governance

3.1. Institutions in charge of technology in education and coordination mechanisms

The Ministry of Education and Sports (MAS), Agency for Quality Assurance in Pre-University Education (ASCAP), and especially the National Agency for Information Society (NAIS - AKSHI) are responsible for technology in education.  

3.2. Roles of schools

According to the 2021-2026 National Strategy of Education, it is up to each school to determine their own ICT use policies. Schools also may draft their own curriculum on the basis of the curriculum framework and standards approved by the ministry. Much of the responsibility for the curriculum lies at the school level. 


This profile has been reviewed, thanks to the Albanian Ministry of Education and Sports (MAS).

Last modified:

Thu, 03/08/2023 - 19:10