The term information and communication technologies (ICT) is mainly used in government documents, including in the 2019-2028 Strategic Plan for the Information Society.
Constitution and laws: Mozambique’s 2004 Constitution (as amended in 2018) states that the Republic of Mozambique promotes an education strategy aimed at national unity, the eradication of illiteracy, the mastery of science and technology, as well as the moral and civic formation of citizens (Article 113).
The 2018 National Education System Law No.18 includes the provision of distance education (Article 20), mentions promoting the use of information and communication technologies as one of the general objectives of the National Education System, and aims to provide training on practical and technological activities in the education system.
Policies, plans and strategies: Numerous policies and strategies have detailed the intention of the government of Mozambique to integrate ICT in the education system.
In 2003 the Science and Technology Policy was approved, with the main objective of “stimulating national innovation for the benefit of development and the fight against poverty”. This is a Policy based on four pillars, namely: education, research, productive activities and dissemination (MEPT, 2020). In 2006, the Council of Ministers approved the Science, Technology and Innovation Strategy for Mozambique with a 10-year horizon that has been updated and extended. This strategy also included the 2007 General Secondary Education Curriculum Plan introducing the subject of ICTs (Information and Communication Technologies) throughout Secondary Education.
The Ministry of Education and Human Development of Mozambique developed the Mozambique Technological Plan for Education in 2011 to transform isolated initiatives into a comprehensive strategic and operational approach to ICT in education. The Technological Plan for Education focuses on the use of ICT in three main areas: teachers, school administration and the classroom.
The 2019 Information and Communication Technologies Policy in Education (PTICE, 2019), which brings the general guidelines in this sense, based on five pillars, namely: the creation of: (a) Safe and needs-based learning environments; (b) Development of quality and accessible educational resources; (c) Training of Human Resources for the Education sector; (d) Development of innovative digital skills and abilities among students; and development of (e) Information and Management System for Education; and in the (ii) Strategic Plan for Education 2020 – 2029, which among its strategic objectives is the guarantee of Inclusion and Equity in Access, Participation and Retention which, in turn, presupposes “the diversification of teaching modalities, benefiting from opportunities offered by information and communication technologies, such as open and distance education”.
The 2019-2028 Strategic Plan for the Information Society includes the strategic axis on Education and Human Development and defines ICTs in the Education System as an area of action. The integration of ICTs in the Education System strives for the integration of ICTs, which includes from an infrastructure perspective (equipment for teaching and learning, internet, and electricity), incorporating ICTs in the curricula of all levels of education, and promoting and adopting interactive and digital content to use in the teaching-learning process. Furthermore, the 2019-2028 Strategic Plan for the Information Society calls for the development of an ICTs in Education Policy which covers secure learning environments based on school needs, accessible digital content for all devices, empowering teachers and educational managers, digital skills of students and innovative practice and creativity of students and teachers, Information System and Management for education and financing, monitoring and evaluation.
The 2012-2016 Education Strategic Plan and the 2020-2029 Education Strategic Plan include the use of ICT as a priority to foster in the education system. The 2020-2029 Education Strategic Plan outlines the use of ICT, by teachers and students, as an interactive tool and facilitator of the teaching-learning process, for example, through the use of digital and multimedia teaching curriculum materials for teachers and students.
Digital competency frameworks: There is no digital competency framework for teachers or students. However, the 2019-2028 Strategic Plan for the Information Society proposes updating academic curricula, considering competencies in using ICTs as a learning tool. Also, the curriculum in Mozambique is competency-based and incorporates the development of skills in Information and Communication Technologies.
2.2.1. Technology infrastructure and digital capacity of schools
Electricity: The 2020-2029 Education Strategic Plan considers a priority the construction, maintenance, and rehabilitation of school infrastructure, including access to electricity in schools. The Strategic Plan for the Information Society 2019-2028 mentions the need to equip schools with basic infrastructure and adequate conditions, including access to energy networks.
Computers and devices: The 2020-2029 Education Strategic Plan supports the promotion and provision of school materials, such as computer equipment, to motivate and facilitate learning within and outside of the school classroom. The 2019-2028 Strategic Plan for the Information Society aims to increase school equipment to promote and develop the teaching model through the use of ICTs.
The 2011 Technological Plan for Education seeks to increase school access to technological equipment.
Internet connectivity: The 2019-2028 Strategic Plan for the Information Society aims for the continuation of the infrastructure process of educational institutions through the acquisition of IT equipment and connectivity, to support the implementation of the interactive education system and the administrative functioning of schools.
The 2011 Technological Plan for Education intends to increase school internet connectivity.
2.2.2. Technology and learning environments
The provision of distance education is highlighted in numerous government policy and strategy documents. The 2018 National Education System Law No.18 includes the provision of distance education and aims to provide all citizens who, unable or unwilling to study in person, wish to attain an education.
The 2020-2029 Education Strategic Plan, includes the strategic objectives to guarantee inclusion and equity in access, participation and retention, which, in turn, presupposes “the diversification of teaching modalities, benefiting from the opportunities offered by information and communication technologies, such as open and distance education.” The 2020-2029 Education Strategic Plan encourages using different partnerships and learning support programs, such as Distance Learning - which ensures alignment with the needs of the education market work and further studies.
The 2019-2028 Strategic Plan for the Information Society aims for the modernization of Open and Distance Learning programs through the use of interactive program content and e-Learning platforms, to promote the diversification and attractiveness of this teaching model.
Through a broad 2014-2018 Distance Education Strategic Plan (PEE), the government defined distance education as “teaching that is distinguished by the separation between student and teacher, using technology to mediate learning, including bidirectional communication that allows the interaction of students among themselves, as well as between students and tutors and the possibility of conducting face-to-face meetings for tutoring.”
During the COVID-19 outbreak, the government enacted measures to contain the spread of the Coronavirus supported by Presidential Decree no 11/2020, ratified by Law no 1/2020 and regulated by decrees no 12/2020 and 14/2020 - which, among other determinations, suspended face-to-face classes in all public and private schools, from pre-school education to university education, until its resumption, through Decree no 110/2020.
The 2018 National Education System Law No.18 dictates for the inclusion and development of ICT skills in students by including technological activities in the learning process and specifically mentions the term technological activities to be included in school learning.
The 2020-2029 Education Strategic Plan and the 2019-2028 Strategic Plan for the Information Society support the integration of technology into the teaching and learning process of student ICT skills in schools. The 2019-2028 Strategic Plan for the Information Society sets for the updating of academic curricula, taking into account key competencies for the development of Mozambican society and boosting the use of ICTs as a learning tool.
Following the 2018 National Education System Law No.18 Mozambique’s curricula is structured as a competence-based curriculum which establishes the core element of the pedagogical project, it is what enables the teaching and learning process. The 2020 Elementary School Curriculum Plan and the 2007 General Secondary Education Curricular Plan includes Information and Communication Technologies as a mean to acquire knowledge and also as a skill to be developed. Moreover, the 2020 Elementary School Curriculum Plan and 2007 General Secondary Education Curricular Plan are organized into three areas of study: Communication and Social Sciences, Natural Sciences and Mathematics, and Practical and Technological Activities. The area of Practical and Technological Activities consists of Visual Education and Crafts, Information Technologies and Communication and Physical Education.
According to the 2020 Elementary School Curriculum Plan, Information and Communication Technologies are a means for acquiring knowledge in different disciplines and should be explored in different formats (radio, television, cell phone, computer). Whenever possible, the school should create conditions for the student can develop skills in the use of information and communication technologies. Also, it mentions that in subjects in the Area of Practical and Technological Activities, there is no obligation to complete a written test.
The development of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) is the Education Strategic Plan 2020-2029, which dictates providing special attention to the teaching of STEM subjects (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) and encouraging young women to choose academic options related to science, technology, engineering and mathematics.
The 2019-2028 Strategic Plan for the Information Society includes initiatives for teachers and school principals' training on the use of ICT as a pedagogical tool. It proposes to integrate into the curricula of teacher training institutes and include ICT disciplines and develop the basic ICT skills of teacher trainees.
The 2011 Technological Plan for Education integrates teacher training as one of its primary objectives, to teach teachers how to use ICT tools to enhance the teaching process and pedagogical management.
2.4.1. Data privacy
The 2004 Constitution (as amended in 2018) provides for the protection and privacy of data; however, there is no specific legislation on data protection or privacy. The 2019-2028 Strategic Plan for the Information Society aims for the development and implementation of a legal framework for the protection and privacy of data.
2.4.2. Online abuse and cyberbullying
The 2022 National Cybersecurity Policy and Strategy aims to create and develop an institutional and operational capacity to create a safe cyberspace environment, including the protection of public and private information.
The Department of Information and Communication Technologies is responsible for implementing the ICT policy within the Ministry of Education and Human Development, in collaboration with the respective National Directorates that administer the various education subsystems. Resolution 17/2016, which establishes the Statute of the Ministry of Education and Human Development, defines the functions of the Department of Information and Communication Technologies.
Mozambique has no national legislation governing the use of mobile devices in schools. Individual schools may have internal regulations governing the use or prohibition of mobile devices.