The 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia does not mention the terms “information and communications technology (ICT)” and “educational technology (EdTech)”, instead it mentions the term "science and technology" in Article 28C and Article 31.
The 1999 Telecommunications Law refers to the terms "information technology" and "telecommunications technology" without defining them.
The 2003 National Education System Law mentions the terms ICT and distance education. However, the 2003 National Education System Law only defines the latter as "education provided in a situation in which learners are separated from their educators, and the teaching-learning processes are conducted by means of the utilization of information and communication technologies and other media".
The 2008 Electronic Information and Transactions (EIT) Law and the 2022 Personal Data Protection Act do not mention the terms ICT and EdTech. However, the former mentions the term "information technology" and defines it as "a technique to collect, prepare, store, process, announce, analyse, and/or disseminate information".
The 2020-2024 National Medium-Term Development Plan (RPJMN: Nasional Rencana Pembangunan Jangka Menengah) mentions the term ICT without any specific definition.
Constitution and laws: Article 28C of the 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia provides the right to individuals to get an education and to benefit from science and technology, arts, and culture to improve the quality of their life and for the welfare of the human race.
The 2003 National Education System Law highlights the importance of technology in society and education systems. It encourages the curriculum to be developed considering the development of science and technology.
The 1999 Telecommunications Law aims to consider the anticipation of technology development and global demands.
Policies, plans and strategies: The 2020-2024 National Medium-Term Development Plan (RPJMN: Nasional Rencana Pembangunan Jangka Menengah) emphasises the necessary role of digital skills development in boosting the country’s digital transformation. The 2020-2024 Strategic Plan for Acceleration of National Digital Transformation of the Ministry of Communications and Informatics aims to accelerate digital transformation for governance; realize an efficient and fast public service delivery, for instance, in the education and health sectors; consolidate and optimize infrastructure and shared services; and realize community inclusion in the priority development areas and encourage equality by opening opportunities for women and persons with disabilities to participate in the e-commerce chain.
Digital competency frameworks: The 2020-2024 Strategic Plan for Acceleration of National Digital Transformation of the Ministry of Communications and Informatics comprises four frameworks for digital skills, safety, ethics and culture. Indonesia has also adopted the UNESCO ICT Competency Framework for Teachers to improve teachers' ICT training and teaching.
Changes occurred as a result of COVID-19: There are no changes occurred in laws, policies, plans and strategies as a result of COVID-19.
2.2.1. Technology infrastructure and digital capacity of schools
Electricity: The National Committee for the COVID-19 Response and Economic Recovery (PEN: Pemulihan Ekonomi Nasional) together with the COVID-19 Task Force (Satgas COVID-19) ensures providing electricity subsidies to affected groups and communities, especially vulnerable groups, due to COVID-19. Before COVID-19 and during COVID-19, the electricity subsidy program of the Government of Indonesia was covering 31.2 million households.
The 2019-2038 National General Plan for Electricity (RUKN: Rencana Umum Keternagalistrikan Nasional), the new 2021-30 Electricity Power Supply Business Plan (RUPTL: Rencana Usaha Penyediaan Tenaga Listrik), and the 2020 National Energy Policy (KEN: Kebijakan Energi Nasional) aim to provide electricity access to rural areas of the country. Furthermore, the 2020 National Energy Policy (KEN: Kebijakan Energi Nasional) aims to provide electricity subsidies to people living in rural areas.
Computers and devices: The 2020-2024 Strategic Plan for Acceleration of National Digital Transformation of the Ministry of Communications and Informatics and the 2020-2024 National Medium-Term Development Plan (RPJMN: Nasional Rencana Pembangunan Jangka Menengah) aim to provide computers for students.
Internet connectivity: According to the 1999 Telecommunications Law, "every telecommunications network operator and/or telecommunications service operator is obliged to provide a contribution to universal services." This contribution can consist of telecommunications facilities and infrastructure and/or other compensation. Furthermore, according to the 2000 Government Regulation No. 52, the Government of Indonesia created the Universal Service Obligation Fund (USOF) to provide access to telecommunications services. In 2007, services covered by universal service obligations (USO) were expanded to include providing telecommunications and information technology services, public phone service 24 hours a day, independent technology, local content priority, Internet, and broadband. The Telecommunications and Information Accessibility Body (BAKTI) of the Ministry of Communication and Informatics (MOCI) is providing public Internet access services, which are focused on specific public locations such as schools, vocational training centres, and government offices located in rural areas and areas that still need telecommunications and information facilities and infrastructure. This is done with the help of funding from the Universal Service Obligation Fund (USOF).
The National Committee for the COVID-19 Response and Economic Recovery (PEN: Pemulihan Ekonomi Nasional), together with the COVID-19 Task Force (Satgas COVID-19), ensured assisting children and youth with "School from Home" or Distance Learning (PJJ: Pembelajaran Jarak Jauh) in the form of internet packages to 39.78 million pupils and 8.24 million university students.
The 2021 Government Work Plan (RKP) aims to increase the distribution of quality education by providing internet network infrastructure.
2.2.2. Technology and learning environments
The 2021 Government Work Plan (RKP) aims to develop digital technology to support virtual learning, especially during the pandemic (school from home).
To support embedding technology in education, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Research, and Technology in Indonesia introduced Portal Rumah Belajar (Home Learning Portal). The portal provides learning materials and communication facilities that can be used by students and teachers of early childhood education, elementary schools, junior high schools, senior high/vocational schools and equivalent.
During COVID-19, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Research, and Technology has also introduced the Emancipated Curriculum and Emancipated Teaching Platform (Platform Merdeka Mengajar). The main aim of the platform is to conduct teaching and learning with the full 2013 Curriculum, the Emergency Curriculum, and the Emancipated Curriculum. The platform provides three types of features for teachers: teaching, learning, and creating. The first feature is for improving teachers' lesson plans according to the Emergency Curriculum. The second feature offers opportunities for teachers to learn and upgrade their competencies anytime and anywhere. The third feature provides an application to teachers so that they can create their portfolios to inspire and spark collaboration between educators.
The Indonesian government has introduced an educational program through television broadcasts known as TV Edukasi (TV-E) which was aired in October 2004. This program is aiming to support educational access equity, quality improvement of education, and support of 9-year compulsory basic education.
In the same year, the national program IGOS (Indonesia Go Open Source) was released to the public, which initiated five ministries of Indonesia, namely the Ministry of Education, Culture, Science, and Technology, the Ministry of Communication and Informatics (MOCI), the Ministry of Law and Human Rights, and the Ministry of State Apparatus Empowerment and Bureaucratic Reform.
According to Article 37 of the 2003 National Education System Law, science and mathematics are compulsory subjects for basic and secondary education.
The 2021 Government Work Plan (RKP) aims to increase productivity and competitiveness, through revitalizing vocational education and training in line with the needs of the industry, creating digital-based education, developing a credible and world-class labor market information system, and implementing vocational training and apprenticeship in Industry 4.0.
Through the Smart Indonesia Program (PIP: Program Indonesia Pintar), the Government of Indonesia aims to increase access to education by providing education cash assistance to school-age children (aged 6-21 years) from low socioeconomic groups. Other programs such as the Prosperous Family Card (KKS: Kartu Keluarga Sejahtera) and the Family Hope Program (PKH: Program Keluarga Harapan), provide educational cash assistance to persons with disabilities and victims of natural disasters. However, providing subsidies to parents and/or students for the purchase of technological devices for education is not explicitly mentioned in these programs' descriptions.
The 2020 Digital Talent Scholarship programme of the Ministry of Communication and Informatics (MOCI) aims to improve human resources skills and competitiveness in information and communication technology.
Initially designed to support pre-service and in-service teachers during the pandemic, the opening of the Guru Belajar platform and webinar series have now a fully online professional development program. Currently, most training opportunities are focused on teachers’ digital literacy skills (20/25 programs) and remote teaching and learning (21/25), some include subject-specific pedagogy, student assessment, classroom management, or counselling.
The Merdeka Mengajar platform offers teachers diverse opportunities for engagement in socialization and training endeavours to acquire them with the new curriculum. The primary objective is to equip teachers with the necessary resources and best practices essential for effectively implementing the new curriculum.
Indonesia has also adopted the Teacher Competency Test (Uji Kompetensi Guru (UKG)) to measure essential competencies in the field of study and pedagogy for teachers. The Teacher Competency Test (Uji Kompetensi Guru (UKG)) is not just implemented but has been regulated based on the legal basis that has been previously established, including the 2003 National Education System Law; the 2005 Law concerning Teachers and Lecturers; the 2005 Government Regulation concerning National Education Standards; the 2008 Government Regulation concerning Teachers; the 2007 Minister of National Education Regulation concerning Academic Qualification Standards and Teacher Competencies; the 2009 Regulation of the Minister of State Apparatus Utilization and Bureaucratic Reform concerning Functional Teacher Positions and Credit Numbers; the 2010 Joint Regulation of the Minister of National Education and the Head of the State Civil Service Agency concerning Instructions for the Implementation of Teacher Functional Positions and Their Credit Numbers; the 2010 Minister of National Education Regulation concerning Technical Instructions for Implementing Teacher's Functional Positions and Credit Numbers; the 2010 Minister of National Education Regulation concerning the Organization and Work Procedure.
2.4.1. Data privacy
The 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia grants various rights related to privacy. Although the right to privacy is not explicitly mentioned in the 1945 Constitution, it is embodied in the right to personal protection, freedom of religion, freedom of expression, and other similar rights granting personal protection to the individual.
Ratified by Indonesia's parliament on September 20, 2022, the 2022 Personal Data Protection Act is the first comprehensive data protection law. It stipulates that both public and private entities that handle Indonesian residents' data ensure the protection of the data in their systems. There are also sanctions for the mishandling of personal data imposed by the 2022 Personal Data Protection Act.
Data protection and privacy concerns are also mentioned in the management of the 2008 Electronic Information and Transactions (EIT) Law as amended by Law No. 19 of 2016 regarding the Amendment of EIT Law, Government Regulation No. 71 of 2019 regarding Provisions of Electronic Systems and Transactions and its implementing regulation, and the Ministry of Communication and Informatics (MOCI) Regulation No. 20 of 2016 regarding the Protection of Personal Data in an Electronic System.
Article 40 of the 1999 Telecommunications Law (Law No. 36), partially amended by the 2020 Omnibus Law on Job Creation (Law No. 11), prohibits tapping information transmitted through any telecommunications network. Article 1 of the 1999 Telecommunications Law (Law No. 36) defines a "Telecommunications network" as a set of telecommunications equipment and its paraphernalia used in any emission, transmission, and/or reception of information in the forms of signs, signals, writing, images, voice and sound through the wire, optic, radio, or other electromagnetic systems. Article 42 paragraph (1) of the 1999 Telecommunications Law (Law No. 36) stipulates that any telecommunications services operator must keep confidential any information transmitted or received by a telecommunications service subscriber through telecommunications networks or telecommunications services provided by the relevant operator.
However, the above-mentioned legal instruments do not explicitly mention guaranteeing data privacy and protection from using technology in education.
2.4.2. Online abuse and cyberbullying
Protection against cyberbullying is indirectly provided under the 2022 Personal Data Protection Act. However, there is no mention of preventing and responding to online abuse and cyberbullying of students.
According to Article 45B of the new amendment of the 2008 Electronic Information and Transactions (EIT) Law, cyberbullying is now finally considered a form of harassment.
The movement 'SiBerkreasi' started by the Ministry of Communications and Informatics (MOCI) aims to overcome the threat of the biggest potential dangers faced by Indonesia, namely the spread of negative content through the internet such as hoaxes, cyberbullying, and online radicalism.
In 2021, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Science, and Technology also issued a Regulation (Permendikbudristek) concerning the Prevention and Handling of Sexual Violence in Higher Education (Permendikbudristek PPKS). However, the Regulation (Permendikbudristek) does not explicitly mention preventing and responding to online abuse and cyberbullying of students from using technology in education.
According to the 2021 Presidential Regulation Number 61, some of the main functions of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Research, and Technology are to formulate and determine policies in the fields of educators and education personnel, early childhood education, basic education, secondary education, vocational education, higher education, culture, and science and technology.
One of the crucial responsibilities of the Ministry of Communication and Informatics (MOCI) is to disseminate national information by creating open access to information and building and developing telecommunications infrastructure for the benefit of all citizens.
Established as the only national research body according to Presidential Regulation No. 33 of 2021, the National Innovation Research Agency of the Ministry of Research and Technology is responsible for facilitating the exchange of information on science and technology between elements of knowledge and technology Institutions of the country.
Furthermore, according to Article 4 of Presidential Decree No. 78/2021, the National Innovation Research Agency is also responsible for "formulating, determining, and implementing policies in the field of coaching, competency development, professional development, talent management, and supervision and control of human resources in science and technology, research and innovation infrastructure, research and innovation facilities for the use of research and innovation".
responsible for preparing the 2019-2038 National General Plan for Electricity (RUKN: Rencana Umum Keternagalistrikan Nasional). The Ministry of Finance determines and administers the budget allocation for electricity subsidies and infrastructure as per the 2019-2038 National General Plan for Electricity (RUKN: Rencana Umum Keternagalistrikan Nasional).
According to Chapter XII of the 2003 National Education System Law, each formal and non-formal education unit provides adequate facilities and infrastructure to meet educational needs following the growth and development of student's physical potential and intellectual, social, emotional, and psychological intelligence. However, no specific responsibilities of schools concerning the use of specific devices such as mobile phones or tablets are defined in current laws and policies.
This profile has been reviewed with inputs from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Research, and Technology (below listed as order):
1. Secretariat of Directorate General for Vocational Education
2. Bureau of Planning
3. Directorate General of Teacher and Education Personnel:
a. Directorate of Professional Development of Teacher
b. Directorate of Teacher for Primary Education and Secondary Education
4. Secretariat of Directorate General of Early Childhood Education, Primary Education, and Secondary Education