- Early childhood care and education (Entry/Establishment ○ Financial operation ○ Quality of teaching and learning ○ Equitable access ○ Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability)
- Primary and secondary education (Entry/Establishment ○ Financial operation ○ Quality of teaching and learning ○ Equitable access ○ Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability)
- Tertiary education (Entry/Establishment ○ Financial operation ○ Quality of teaching and learning ○ Equitable access ○ Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability)
The country’s main education law is the Act CXC of 2011 on National Public Education (hereafter Public Education Act). Public education “may be established and operated by the State, nationality self-governments and church legal persons registered in Hungary as well as other organisations or persons on condition that they have obtained the right for conducting such activity…”, whereas preschool education “institutions operated by the state and the local governments as well as by nationality self-governments, church and private institutions taking part in the performance of the duties of the state” (Public Education Act, Section 2).
Vocational education and training is governed by the Act LXXX of 2019 on Vocational Education and Training (hereinafter referred to as the VET Act) respective the Government Decree 12/2020 on its implementation (hereinafter referred to as the VET Decree)
Higher education institutions may be established, individually or jointly by the following parties: a) the Hungarian state, national minority self-governments, b) ecclesiastical legal persons (“ecclesiastical maintainer”), c) companies established in the territory of Hungary, d) foundations, public foundations and organizations engaged in religious activities registered in Hungary (2011 Higher Education Act).
Education is free and compulsory between the ages of 3 and 16. At 14, children have a choice between grammar school (gimnázium) devoted to academic studies, or a vocational school (technikum, szakképző iskola, szakgimnázium or szakiskola). The right to education in Hungary is guaranteed in the Fundamental Law (Magyarország Alaptörvénye). Compulsory schooling is provided in state, county municipal, town/district municipal schools.
In Hungary, most kindergartens are operated by municipalities. The majority of primary and lower secondary education (6-14-years-olds) are operated by school districts with state-funding, and most of upper secondary education (14-16-year-old) are also state schools.
Non-state managed, state schools
The Public Education Act stipulates those educational institutions that are maintained either by a church, non-state or non-local government entity, may take part in the implementation of public education only if a written agreement is concluded between the educational institution with the Minister responsible for education (Public Education Act, Section 31/2e). This school type occurs too; an example is Gandhi High School, College, Primary School and Basic Art School which is maintained by Gandhi High School Public Nonprofit Ltd. Currently, the ownership rights are 100% state-owned by the background institution of the Ministry of the Interior, the Directorate-General for Social Opportunity. The Ministry of Human Capacities concluded a public education agreement with Gandhi High School.
Non-state funded, state schools
No information found.
Independent, non-state schools
There are 2425 international schools in Hungary, whose budget primarily consists of tuition and other fees, however, those who adapt the National Core Curriculum may be entitled to the same amount of budgetary support as inland-situated non-state schools. These schools are negligible in number and are mainly situated in Budapest. An example of such school is the American International School of Budapest, originally established for the children of US Embassy employees. The school is considered an independent nonprofit day school, which offers education to 3-18-year-olds and finances its operations through tuition. International schools that adapt the National Core Curriculum receive the same budget support as domestic private schools.
State-funded (government-aided), non-state schools
State-funded (government-aided), non-state schools are sometimes referred to as “government-dependent private schools.” Among the state-funded non-state schools, the most important categories are schools operated by churches or other ecclesiastical maintainers (378 schools); and private schools, including foundations schools (75 schools). National statistics also indicate there are 57 schools classified as state-funded, non-state schools without a clear provider. Apart from the church or ecclesiastical actors, most schools are operated by non-profit organizations (alapítvány, non-profit LLC/Kft.), , and public benefit organization (közhasznú egyesület).
According to the Section 22/a of the VET Act VET institution can be founded by the state, self-governments of national minorities, ecclesiastical legal entities or religious associations, economic businesses, foundations, and associations, if they fulfil the requirements defined by the VET Act and the VET Decree.
In terms of funding, as stipulated in the Public Education Act, through its central budget the state guarantees financial support to any institution maintained by a non-state body – including churches and national minority self-governments, as well as private maintainers – for the performance of education tasks, under the condition that the institution carries out its activities in accordance with all laws and regulations. Non-church private schools usually generate additional revenue through tuition and fees, but no official and public statistics exist (Ercse and Radó 2019, 24).
Contracted, non-state schools
There are 39 non-church and non-national self government minority private schools whom the Ministry of Human Capacities signs a contract with.Other types of schools
Parents and caregivers are allowed to homeschool their children, and since 2019, the only form of homeschooling is “study based on independent learning plan” (egyéni tanrendes tanuló), the previous homeschooled (magántanuló) status was phased out. For the 2019/20 academic year, 5214 students were homeschooled, which is an approximately 45% decrease from previous years.
To enroll in a study-based learning plan, the parent/caregiver submits a petition to The Educational Authority (Oktatási Hivatal) that decides on individual cases of students. Then, children may remain registered with their school, which they are not obligated to attend. Homeschooled children can be assisted primarily by their parents or caregivers at home, or they might join learning groups, which are unrecognized learning institutions, where they can study in groups.
Unregistered/Unrecognised schools: Learning groups (tanulóközösség, tanulókör)
Learning groups provide alternative educational approaches to students, many of whom are registered as studying based on an independent learning plan. In 2019 there were 22 such student groups according to a database of a national public network dealing with homeschooling matters. These groups are legally and financially independent from the state, often charging tuition fees or asking for 1% income tax donations. They are not accredited and do not officially provide education. For example, a learning group was established by Prezi, a Hungarian video and visual communications software company founded in 2009, which provided education at various levels. This informal setting was known as Budapest School, where students received an education while registered at public schools with an individual learning plan. In 2020, the school received state accreditation atafter successfully concluded negotiations with the request from the authoritiesMinistry of Human Capacities’ representatives.
The Ministry of Human Capacities is responsible for primary and secondary education, while the Ministry for Innovation and Technology is responsible for school-based vocational education and training, vocational adult education, adult learning and higher education. With that, vocational training was phased out from the public education system (starting on 1st July 2020 . The Act CCIV of 2011 on National Higher Education is the primary regulation, which states that “the state shall be responsible for ensuring the operation of the system of higher education, while the responsibility for ensuring the operation of higher education institutions shall lie with their maintainers” (chapter 1, section 2, article 2).
Early childhood education in Hungary consists of nurseries (bölcsőde) (0-3 years old) and kindergartens (óvoda) (3-6 years old). Kindergartens are compulsory and part of the education system. According to the Central Statistical Office, in 2019/2020, there were 4608 kindergartens in Hungary. Based on the data of the official Statistical Yearbook of Public Education of 2018-19, state kindergartens amount to about 84.7% of all institutions, while church kindergartens and other private kindergartens amounted to 7.7% and 7.6%, respectively.
Registration and approval: See Multi-level regulations.
Licence: See Multi-level regulations.
Profit-making: See Multi-level regulations.
Taxes and subsidies: See Multi-level regulations.
Curriculum and education standards: Pre-schools within the system of education follow their pedagogical programme, which is “either issued by the Minister responsible for Education or developed internally and approved in accordance with the provisions of this Act” (para. 21/section 26). The Government Decree 363/2012 (XII. 17.) on the National Core Programme of Kindergarten Education and Care, which is a decree applicable to all kindergartens in the education system regardless of the maintainer, provides the National Core Program of Kindergarten Education (with guidelines, expectations and tasks) as a framework and foundation for local pedagogical programs prepared at institutional levels.
Teaching profession: According to the Public Education Act, all “pre-school teaching positions may be filled by individuals holding conductor pre-school teacher qualifications” (section 98, para. 3). Furthermore, Annex 3 to Act CXC of 2011 in the Public Education Act, stipulates the qualification and training requirements for pre-school teachers in educational institutions as “pre-school teacher training”. Since 2013, there is an average salary-based subsidy to all kindergartens. The guaranteed remuneration and payment categories for pre-school teachers are defined in Annex 7 of Public Education Act. This remuneration is supplemented by local (district) budget in state kindergartens.
Fee-setting: See Multi-level regulations.
Admission selection and processes: According to the Public Education Act, pre-schools, including privately operated or church-based ones, accept children from 3 years of age, but the government department in charge may grant exemption until the age of 4 or upon a second request of the parent until the age of 5 from participating in the compulsory, at least 4-hour per day pre-school activities (chapter 6, section 8, para. 2). Generally, kindergarten education in Hungary is free, but in the above mentioned institutions, admission may be tied to a payment obligation (chapter 23, section 31, para. 2). If the educational institution is committed to a religion or ideology, then it may be a precondition of admission for children and may be tested in the context of an admission examination procedure (chapter 23, section 31, para. 2). In cases when public education agreement reached between operators of church and private institutions, and the Minister responsible for education, then “within the framework of a public education agreement, education for the children and students will become free of charge” (Public Education Act, chapter 23, section 31, para. 4)
Policies for vulnerable groups: See Multi-level regulations.
Reporting requirements: See Multi-level regulations.
Inspection: See Multi-level regulations.
Child assessment: Based on the Ministerial Decree 20/2012. (VIII. 31.) (Ministry of Human Resources) on the Operation of the Educational Institutions and on the Use of Names of the Public Education Institutions, In kindergarten, the assessment is based on continuous observation of the child, which is the decisive assessment for continuing education in schools.
Sanctions: See Multi-level regulations.
Registration and approval: See Multi-level regulations.
Licence: See Multi-level regulations.
Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH): The 26/1997 Decree stipulates the hygienic examination and health checks of all children from the age of 3 participating in compulsory education. Only recommendations have been made by the National Public Health Center regarding additional hygienic and sanitary measures that pre-schools and schools should implement.
Profit-making: See Multi-level regulations.
Taxes and subsidies: See Multi-level regulations.
Curriculum and education standards: See Multi-level regulations.
Textbooks and learning materials: Decree 20/2012 (VIII. 31.) of the Minister of Human Capacities contains the list with the minimum set of aids and equipment of educational institutions. The Minister responsible for education is responsible for issuing a list of textbooks yearly, from which institutions select. Each student studying in all schools (including vocational schools) – regardless of maintainer –receive free textbooks. According to the Public Education Act, church-based or private schools may operate as an institution committed to a religion or ideology (chapter 23, section 31, para. 2).
Teaching profession: See Multi-level regulations.
Corporal punishment: According to the Public Education Act, all children and students participating in compulsory education must be protected against mental and physical violence (chapter 27, section 46, para. 2).
Other safety measures and COVID-19: No information was found.
Fee-setting: See Multi-level regulations.
Admission selection and processes: See Multi-level regulations.
Policies for vulnerable groups: See Multi-level regulations.
School board: School operators must ensure in the institutional budget operating conditions for school boards, parental organizations and councils (chapter 43, section 73; chapter 48, section 84). According to the Ministerial Decree 20/2012. (VIII. 31.) (Ministry of Human Capacities) the the school board includes multiple members from the teaching staff, parents, and representatives from the students’ union (chapter 38, section 122).
Reporting requirements: See Multi-level regulations.
School inspection: See Multi-level regulations.
Student assessments: See Multi-level regulations.
Diplomas and degrees: The secondary-school leaving examination (érettségi) is a state examination with uniform requirements in the entire country (Public Education Act, chapter 4, section 6).
Sanctions on school closures: See Multi-level regulations.
In Hungary, there are two types of tertiary institutions: non-university institutions (colleges) and universities; higher education institutions can be state-owned or run by legal entities determined by the law. These can include: a) the Hungarian state, national minority self-governments, b) ecclesiastical legal persons (hereinafter referred to as “ecclesiastical maintainer”), c) companies established in the territory of Hungary, d) foundations, public foundations and organisations engaged in religious activities registered in Hungary.
The state-owned HEIs are accountable to, and receive funding since 2019 from the Ministry for Innovation and Technologyand non-state HEIs can be established and operated by enterprises, foundations, public foundations, public interest trusts, organisations engaged in religious activities, and maintenance bodies.
Based on the Act XI of 2021. on the Foundations of Public Tasks, significant changes in the state funding of Higher Education in Hungary also happened, with several state Higher Education institutions maintained by foundations. This means a change in the operational and funding model. The list of such universities has been published. Currently, according to Annex I of ACT CCIV of 2011 on National Higher Education,, among the recognised higher education institutions in Hungary in 2021, , there are 5 state universities and, 24 non-state (private) universities, 10 non-state (private) universities of applied sciences; 1 state (public) college and 24 non-state (private) colleges.
Registration and approval: Higher education institutions may be established (individually or jointly) with other right holders, by: a) the Hungarian state, national minority self-governments, b) ecclesiastical legal persons (hereinafter referred to as “ecclesiastical maintainer”), c) companies established in the territory of Hungary, d) foundations, public foundations and organisations engaged in religious activities registered in Hungary (chapter 1, section 1, article 4). The last two categories are jointly referred to as private higher education institutions.
According to the Act CCIV of 2011 on National Higher Education, all higher education institutions must be granted state recognition by the Hungarian National Assembly (chapter 2, section 3, article 6). Recognition is granted if all conditions exist – human resources, organisational conditions and physical and financial assets, and the required institutional documents – and the institution is authorized to deliver at least 4 programs in at least 2 fields of study or discipline (chapter 2, section 2, article 6).
Foreign higher education institutions may operate in Hungary only if there is a bilateral agreement between the two states (institutions’ home government and Hungary). Their operation in Hungary must be authorized by the Hungarian Educational Authority. Currently, there are 16 such institutions, according to the Educational Authority database.
Licence: Operating authorization is conditioned on the following: Higher education institutions shall have permanent seats and permanent academic teaching and research staff; all conditions necessary for the operation of the higher education institution exist; founding charter and its amendments shall be adopted by the maintainer (chapter 2, section 4, article 7-8). Only institutions –state and non-state – included in Annex 1 of Act CCIV of 2011 can provide higher education.
Profit-making: According to the Act on Higher Education, besides the state-provided support, which is included in the annual national budget, HEIs have can generate income from tuition fees paid by their self-financing students and from the income of their activities. In addition, the state offers normative subsidies (for students’ dormitories, accommodation, textbooks, sport and cultural activities, and scholarships). The Act states that fees charged should be determined by the rules on fees and allowances, “on the basis of which the student and the higher education institution shall lay down the amount payable in an agreement” (chapter 23, section 51, article 83). Institutions have the autonomy to set their fees: “The rules for organisation and operation shall contain the rules which form the basis of the rector’s decision, in the case of students participating in self-funded programmes, on the benefits due on the basis of academic results, or available on the basis of social needs, and the permission for payment in instalments (chapter 23, section 51, article 83). Furthermore, private higher education institutions that are not operating as public benefit organisations perform their activities) performance of educational, academic research and artistic creative activities) as business activities (chapter 26, section 95, para. 1).
Taxes and subsidies: Founders of HEIs are the maintainers who operate as budgetary units. The 389/2016 Decree on Financing of Higher Educational institutions applies to state, church and private HEIs alike, which details the calculations behind state subsidies. Non-state higher education institutions are eligible for state support under an agreement with the state. The Decree also stipulates additional funding for students with disabilities.
Curriculum and education standards: The Act CCIV of 2011 on National Higher Education states that “higher education institutions shall develop the curricula for bachelor, master and tertiary vocational programmes in accordance with the programme and outcome requirements issued by the minister, and freely for postgraduate specialisation programmes. Curricula shall be revised every five years” (chapter 4, section 7, article 15, para. 1). Recognized foreign and international universities may conduct education in a foreign language with a system of education that may differ from that of Hungary (Ministry of Human Capacities).
All higher education institutions deliver their education on the basis of an educational programme, within these programmes, HEIs develop the curricula (for BA, MA and tertiary vocational programmes) in accordance with the requirements issued by the minister, and freely for postgraduate specialisation programmes. Curricula is be revised every five years (Act CCIV of 2011 on National Higher Education, chapter 4, section 7, article 15).
Teaching profession: The Hungarian HEI system made a commitment to the European Higher Education Area and Bologna process. In the private sector, the employment of teachers is governed by the Labour code, whereas public sector employees are considered public servants. In higher education institutions, the rector has the employer’s right, regarding education and scientific research. In general, requirements for those employed in HEIs are stipulated in the Act CCIV of 2011 on National Higher Education and the higher education institution’s requirements of employment, usually based on academic achievement and the academic degree as prerequisites of advancement.
Fee-setting: In Hungary, students can continue their studies in fully state-funded, partially state-funded scholarship, and self-financed forms of funding; students must sign a student scholarship agreement in order for the state to support their studies, and one person is entitled to twelve publicly state supported semesters ( Act CCIV/2011 on National Higher Education, §47). The Government Decree 51/2007 (III. 26.) stipulates all fees paid by students.
HEI students may qualify for performance- and need-based scholarship, paid by funds from the central budget and additional revenues (Act CCIV of 2011 on National Higher Education, chapter 24, section 53, article 85/B). Students enrolled in foreign higher education institutions operating in the territory of Hungary do not have access to full or partial Hungarian state scholarships (Act CCIV of 2011 on National Higher Education, chapter 20, section 45, article 76, para, 7).
Tertiary institutions – irrespective of being state or non-state – offer full or partial state scholarships to students, based on the international agreements or agreements concluded by the Government or the Minister, or private higher education institutions (chapter 11, section 23, article 39).
Admission selection and processes: According to the Fundamental Law of Hungary, participation in tertiary education is guaranteed to all Hungarian citizens without discrimination, who are eligible have the ability to participate in higher education, after fulfilling the admission procedure. However, the right to Higher Education is neither compulsory nor free. The Baccalaureate certificate (érettségi) taken at the end of secondary school education, entitles to admission in higher education institutions. To eliminate inequality of opportunity, students belonginf to equity groups, among others disabled persons receive extra points in the admission process, and special accommodations must be made in the learning and assessment process ( Act CCIV/2011 on National Higher Education, §49(8)). The maximum number of students that can be accepted at any institution is published by the Educational Authority.
Board: The governing body of the higher education institution is the senate. The senate shall be chaired; headed and represented by the rector; the chancellor or economic leader shall be responsible for the preparation of management measures and proposals (Act CCIV of 2011 on National Higher Education, chapter 3, section 5, article 12, 13).
Reporting requirements: According to the National Higher Education Act of 2011, “Private higher education institutions shall record their revenues and expenditures in accordance with the applicable accountancy provisions,” and they are required to publish their balance sheets and annual accounts each year (chapter 26, section 95, para. 6, 7).
Inspection: The Educational Authority reviews operating authorizations at least every five years, including foreign and international universities (Act CCIV of 2011 on National Higher Education, chapter 2, section 4, article 8). The Hungarian Accreditation Committee is “is an independent national expert body established for the purposes of the external evaluation of the quality of educational, academic, research and artistic activities performed in higher education and the internal quality assurance systems operated by higher education institutions, and the provision of expert services in the procedures related to higher education institutions” (Act CCIV of 2011 on National Higher Education, chapter 18, section 41, article 70). The Committee provides expert opinion to the Educational Authority upon request for authorization or inspection of HEIs in Hungary.
Assessment: According to the National Higher Education Act of 2011, fulfilment of course studies in HEIs is expressed in credits and quality of performance is expressed in marks. After final certification (absolutorium), students take a final examination and if successfully passed, receive their diplomas, which can be issued by staterecognized institutions.
Students with disabilities should be assessed through examination in a “manner adapted to their disabilities” (chapter 13, section 29, article 49-50).
Diplomas and degrees: The prerequisite of a Higher Education diploma is the successful completion of the final examination and – unless otherwise provided in the law – the passing of the required language examination ( Act CCIV/2011 on National Higher Education, §51(1)). According to the Act CCIV of 2011 on National Higher Education, the cycles of higher education leading to tertiary degree are bachelor studies, master studies, doctoral studies; non-degree programs can be offered within higher education in the form of tertiary vocational programs and postgraduate specialization programs (Article 3).
Sanctions: With the 2017 amendment to the Act CCIV of 2011 on National Higher Education, foreign-owned universities registered in Hungary were also obligated to provide courses in their country of origin, and have a bilateral agreement with Hungary. On the grounds of this amendment Central European University had to discontinue teaching in Hungary. According to theAccording to the a new Aamendment of the Act CCIV of 2011 on National Higher Education in 2021, a foreign higher education institution established in the territory of Hungary that is not a party to the Agreement on the European Economic Area (hereinafter: a non-EEA state) may pursue training activities leading to a diploma if a) is included in an international agreement concluded by the Government of Hungary and the Government of the state where the foreign higher education institution is located on the equivalence of higher education qualifications and degrees, b) the training provided in Hungary is equivalent to the training of Hungarian higher education institutions, c) the admission requirements for the training it provides in Hungary are equivalent to the admission requirements for a state-recognized higher education institution providing training equivalent to that of the institution, and d) his / her diploma training activity has been approved by the education office upon request
Government Decree 87/2015. (IV. 9.) on the Implementation of Certain Provisions of the Act CCIV of 2011 on National Higher Education, the Educational Authority carries our regular inspections of registered HEIs, as a result of which the Educational Authority can initiate action by the maintainer, legality check by the Minister or impose a fine, as well as inform the authorities of home country in case of a foreign institution.
The Public Education Act (YEAR) refers to all levels of public education, which includes pre-school and school education (primary and secondary school education). The VET Act refers to upper-secondary and post secondary vocational education and training and adult learning. Entry/Establishment
Registration and approval: Non-state parties as defined in the Public Education Act may establish their educational institutions providing education if the following criteria are met for registration: Deed or of foundation (alapító okirat), documents of the name and right of representation of the person entitled to represent the educational institution, proof of permanent seat (rent agreement or property ownership proof). Within 8 days of registration, the institution must submit their tax ID number and cash account numbers (para. 19/section 21) For the approval of a non-state VET institution an operating licence (működési engedély) and registration is needed. For its registration the VET institution has to annex its Deed of foundation, and in case if does not perform its "core tasks" (szakképzési alapfeladat)under a legal mandate the document proving that it is entitled to perform VET "core tasks", documents of the name and right of representation of the person entitled to represent the VET institution respective the proof of the permanent seat of the VET institution.
Licence: Licence is necessary for all educational institutions that are not founded by government office. The application for registration must be obtained from “at the government office competent for the registered seat of the public education institution” if it meets the minimum requirements to fulfil their tasks (para. 19/section 21). The minimum requirements are: a) it has a permanent seat or site for performing its tasks, b) it has its own permanent staff, and c) it has the equipment, documents and policies defined by law and d) it has the financial assets necessary for its operations (para. 19/section 22). The licence may be denied if the institution is not complying with the requirements. According to the Section 62/1 of the VET Act for the obtainment of an operating licence non-state VET institutions have to annex its professional programme (szakmai program) with the content and form defined by the state administrative VET authorithy, documents that proves that the institution meets the conditions regarding the resources in staff and equipment and has the financial assets necessary for its operation. The licence may be denied if the professional programme of the non-state VET institution is not complying with the legal requirements or does not meat the requirements needed for the fulfillment of his tasks.
Profit-making: Education institutions may engage in profit-making, but only if it is “ without prejudice to the performance of their basic tasks”. The Act also stipulates that “the profit from such activities shall be disregarded when establishing the budget for fulfilling the basic tasks of the public education institution and shall not be abstracted from the institution provided that such profit is used for the performance of basic duties of the public education institution or the remuneration of the students participating in the activity” (para. 19/section 22). In cases when education agreement reached between operators of church and private institutions, and the Minister responsible for education, then “within the framework of a public education agreement, education for the children and students will become free of charge” (Public Education Act, chapter 23, section 31, para. 4)
Taxes and subsidies: The state provides guaranteed financial support to all institutions of education; in the case of non-state schools, subsidies are paid under the condition that all regulations are met. In the case of non-state schools, the subsidy from the central budget is a wage subsidy (átlagbéralapú költségvetési hozzájárulás). Non-state schools can supplement teachers’ salaries and provide further benefits from other sources.
Operational costs of schools maintained by churches and the national self-governments of minorities are still funded on a per capita basis by the state budget and teachers’ salaries are financed from the national budget too; the state budget provides funding for the operational costs of all schools except for non-church private schools (Radó, 2019: 12). Only established churches automatically receive a supplementary subsidy for the schools’ operating expenses. (Other religious groups can receive the supplementary operational subsidy only if the Prime Minister's Office signs a contract with them.) All schools – regardless of maintainer – schools receive support for school meals and free textbooks Each student studying in all schools (including vocational schools) – regardless of maintainer –receive free textbooks (Eurydice).
A list of interest activities are exempt from VAT (with a standard rate of 27%) if they are provided by service providers. The exempt services include, among others: services, education, child and youth protection, and day care (Act CXXVII/2007 Section 85(1), (4)). The operational costs of state maintained VET institutions affiliated to VET centres are funded according to the provisions of the Budget Act which defines the annual financial and management plan of Hungary. In case of non-state maintained VET institutions the financing authorithy is the Hungarian State Treasury. (Magyar Államkincstár).
The state maintained VET institutions and the non-state maintained VET institutions which have a cooperation agreement with the Ministry in charge provide freely for those who are entitled to participate free of charge in VET the activities closely related to vocational education and training: the learning and processing of teaching materials, the every day physical education, the grading exam and the final examination respective the make-up exams related to them. They provide freely the health development and the compulsory regularly supervision of health condition, the participation in out of school activities related to vocational education, study trips or other vocational programmes, catching-up and development services, the learning materials used by students during their education and training, the working clothes and protective equipment. Students have to pay for the meal and dormitory. Quality of teaching and learning
Curriculum or education standards: The government-issued compulsory regulation is the National Core Curriculum (NCC, Nemzeti Alaptanterv), issued in 2012 and regularly amended, most recently in 2020 (Government Decree 110/2012 (VI. 4.)). The National Core Curriculum, which contains uniform contents, as well as weekly and daily workload of the students participating in school education, must be followed (para.3/section 5). The document contains: pedagogical-theoretical-philosophical grounds for education, content and development tasks of school education.
The next level of regulation is framework curricula, which regulates curriculum and methodology, based on NCC. The framework curricula are issued by the Ministry of Human Capacities..
The third level of regulation is the pedagogical programme of schools. Education in all pre-schools and schools must be conducted in accordance with the pedagogical programme, which is adopted by the educating staff and approved by the head of the institution (para. 21/section 26). More specifically “As part of the pedagogical programme of the school, unless otherwise provided for by this Act, a local curriculum shall be developed to complement the framework curriculum issued by the Minister” (para. 21/section 26). The VET Act defines that the teaching of vocational subjects should be organised on the basis of the programme curricula (programtanterv) and the programme and outcome requirements (képzési és kimeneti követelmények – KKKs) established for each vocational occupation.
The basic data listed in the programme and outcome requirements (KKKs):
- basic data related to the vocational education (e.g. EQF, HuQF level, sector, related partial qualification, period of continuous vocational practice);
- the most significant activities, jobs related to the given vocational occupation
- entry requirements for the VET programme (pre-school education, eligibility requirements: occupational health conditions, professional attitude criteria)
- necessary equipment resources - list of tools both for sectoral and specialized professional education
- Programme and Outcome Requirements (KKKs) - defined with the following descriptors: skills, competences, knowledge, expected behaviour, attitudes, level of autonomy and responsibility
- description of the sectoral basic exam and that of the final vocational exam, criteria for assessing and evaluating the exams (written and practical exams)
Based on the KKKs and programme curricula each VET institution has to work out its professional programme. If an economic businesses provides practical training or specialised vocational studies has to work out also a professional programme.
Teaching profession: Kindergarten teachers (ISCED 0) are considered as teachers. The employment of teachers is regulated by Act CXC of 2011 on National Public Education and Government Decree 326/2013 (VIII. 30.) on the implementation of Act XXXIII of 1992 on the career system of teachers and the status of public servants in public education institutions, and their salaries are set according to the Act CXC of 2011 on National Public Education. From 2013, the, rules and regulations regarding the teaching profession apply to all teachers, regardless of the maintainer. to increase the effectiveness of teaching and learning and to encourage teachers' professional development, in order to ensure a uniform career and salary system in Hungary, on a uniform basis, recognizing teachers' performance. The 277/1997 Decree regulates professional development and compulsory training for teachers. Church-operated schools may have religious criteria as employment preconditions (Public Education Act, chapter 23, section 33, para. 1). Annex 3 to Act CXC of 2011 stipulates the required qualification and training requirements for teaching positions in educational institutions. In IVET with no regarding to the maintainer the teacher profession is regulated by the VET Act. As of 1 July 2020, VET institutions are no longer included in the scope of the Public Education Act which means that the teachers employed by these institutions no longer have the legal status of civil servants: they are now considered VET teachers and trainers, and their employment is governed by the Labour Code. Teachers CPD is regulated by the VET Act. The IKK Innovative Training Support Centre Plc (IKK Innovatív Képzéstámogató Központ) operates a VET Teacher Further Training System (Oktatói Továbbképzési Rendszer).
In IVET a full quality assurance system has to be implemented by the end of the year 2022. Elements of the VET institutions quality assurance system are:
• every 2 years self-assessment of the VET institutions
• every 3 years evaluation of the VET teachers
• every 4 year external evaluation (body responsible for it: IKK Plc.)
In 2020 was worked out the evaluation system of the VET teachers, and was applied during the differentiation of their wage raise. The criteria for the new assessment of VET teachers were created based on the EQAVET guidelines.
Regardless the maintainers the VET Act distinguishes three main groups of VET teachers and trainers within the framework of formal VET institutions :
- General subject teachers teach in accordance with the provisions of the general knowledge framework curriculum issued based on the National Core Curriculum . The minimum required educational background of general subject teachers in
technicums is: specialised university level/Master’s degree in teaching,
in vocational schools: specialised Bachelor’s degree qualification in teaching
- Vocational subject teachers can be further divided into vocational theory and practice teachers. The teaching of vocational subjects should be organised on the basis of VET curricula and the programme and outcome requirements for each vocational occupation.
The minimum required educational background of teachers of vocational theorethical subjects in technicums is: master’s degree in secondary vocational education or specialised degree in higher education, as well as vocational qualification in vocational schools: specialised degree in higher education, as well as vocational qualification or degree in higher education, and specialised vocational qualification.
The minimum required educational background of teachers of practical subjects both in technicums and vocational school is: secondary school-leaving certificate and vocational qualification for the sector in question
-Auxiliary educational and teaching staff may perform the following duties, among others: librarian, child and youth safety supervisor, remedial teaching assistant, leisure time organiser, school social worker, psychopedagogical professional. Regarding to their educational attainment the Annex 6 of Government Decree No. 326/2013 (VIII. 30.) on the teacher promotion system and the implementation of Act XXXIII of 1992 on the Legal Status of Public Servants in public education institutions shall apply.
Fee-setting: Based on the Government Decree 229/2012 (VIII. 28.) on the Implementation of the Act on National Public Education stipulates that education institutions maintained by the church or private entities can decide autonomously (by the school leader, intézmény vezető) regarding their fees, as well as policies concerning payment options and discounts (section 16, para. 37). Foreign and international schools can establish tuition fees, which must be reduced to the amount in the agreement with the minister responsible for education, if such an agreement was established (section 16, para. 37). According to the Public Education Act non-state institutions with education agreement (between the institution and the state) may not charge tuition fees. In the case of schools with no such agreement, the maintainer can determine both the amount of the tuition fee and the rules for the discounts that may be granted (Eurydice).
Admission selection and processes: According to the Public Education Act, in church-based and private schools may stipulate religion as a precondition of admission for children or students and it may be tested in admission exams (chapter 23, section 31, para. 2). The same applies for VET institution too.
Policies for vulnerable groups: According to the Public Education Act, there is funding allocated to the operator of educational institutions for ensuring discounted meals for children from poor families (chapter 50, section 89). Schools that qualify for head-count-based state funding, students with special needs are accounted as 2 (or 3) pupils. The VET Act worked out three flexible learning pathways (bridging programmes) for students with disadvantaged backgrounds, regardless the school maintainers. Students involved in IVET regardless the maintainers receive general scholarship and career starter allowance respecive monthy wage if they are involved in practical training at a work placement in the framework of a voactional employment contract. It is in progress to work out the definitions of a new scholarship called "Apáczai" which will provide further financial incentive for students with disabilities and with disadvantaged backgrounds respective SNI students.
Reporting requirements: The same rules of accountability and record-keeping apply to ecclesiastical and private institutions as to state educational institutions (keeping records on teachers’ data, children’s and students’ data, etc) (Public Education Act, chapter 26, section 41). In IVET also the same rules of accountability and record-keeping apply to ecclesiastical and private institutions as to state educational institutions ( Act LXXX of 2019 on Vocational Education and Training.
THe NEPTUN_KRÉTA Core System of Registration and Studies in Public Education operates across the entire public education system, and serves as an electronic interface for the planning, organisation and administration of VET (e.g. teacher record books, school timetable, distribution of subjects, control functions). Inspection: According to the Public Education Act, government offices are responsible for keeping records and checking the maintenance and legality of education institutions maintained by churches or other non-state and non-local government entities (Public Education Act, Section chapter 34, section 1). The minister responsible for education is responsible for the rules and principles of quality assurance and performance evaluation (chapter 52, section 94).
Assessments: Teachers are responsible for the assessment of students’ academic performance, behaviour and diligence and progress in the form of grades (1-5) (Public Education Act, chapter 32, section 54). In addition, since 2008, all primary and secondary schools students have a “personal assessment identifier” in order to track their academic achievements (OECD, 2015). According to the VET Act (Section 60/1) the performance and progress of students are assessed by their VET teachers regularly during the school year with grades. If the students special vocational education is provided outside the school, the students' performance and progress in relation with their vocational studies is assesed and qualified together by the dual work placement and the students' VET teachers. The standards of assessment are laid down in the professional programme of the VET institution regardless of the maintainer.
Sanctions: According to the Public Education Act, the government office conducts “at least bi-annual legality checks over the maintenance activities of public education institutions maintained by churches or other non-state and non-local government entities” and in case detecting unlawfulness, the operator is called on to stop infringements with a set deadline for compliance, and upon failure to comply, the government office strikes the educational institution from the records (chapter 23, section 34, para. 2,3).
A recent 11/2020 (II.7.) Act on adult education now requires registration or in some cases authorization of teaching institution or person, as well as reporting of certain information about students. Registration of activity is 15.000HUF and failure to do so will result in a penalty.
In Hungary, private tutors have to pay income taxes and thus usually become sole proprietors with education as their activity.
No information was found.
This profile was drafted by the Network of Education Policy Centers (NEPC). It was reviewed by the Ministry of Education.