NON-STATE ACTORS IN EDUCATION

1. Terminology

2. Typology of provision

2.1 State education provision 

2.2 Non-state education provision 

2.3 Other types of schools 

3. Governance and regulations

3.1 Regulations by distinct levels of education

3.2 Multi-level regulations 

3.3 Supplementary private tutoring 

 

  1. Terminology

The 2005 Education Act (as amended in 2009) governs all education levels from early childhood to tertiary education and distinguishes between ‘private schools’, ‘assisted private schools’, and ‘denominational schools’ of non-state educational institutions categories operating in Saint Kitts and Nevis. A ‘private educational institution’ is defined as a school other than public school and assisted private school which is owned, managed, and financed by trusts, individuals, bodies, or any incorporated or unincorporated bodies and include a school, a class, or an educational institution attended by twelve or more students continuously for more than eight hours per week and which has a permit issued by the Minister. A ‘denominational school’ is an educational institution established, managed and maintained by a religious community at its own expense.

 

  1. Typology of provision

2.1 State education provision

State schools

In Saint Kitts and Nevis, most schools at primary education (seven years, beginning at age five) and secondary education (five years, beginning at age 12) are state schools. Compulsory and free education is provided for 12 years from ages 5 to 16.

Non-state managed, state schools

No information was found.

Non-state funded, state schools

No information was found.

2.2 Non-state education provision

Independent, non-state schools

Private schools are established, managed and financed by non-state actors, including private proprietaries, individuals, denominational bodies, trusts, individuals or bodies. These schools can collect tuition fees, organize as for-profit institutions, and implement their own curricula.

State-funded (government-aided), non-state schools

According to the 2005 Education Act (as amended in 2009), assisted private schools may be established through three types of school-government partnerships. An assisted private school can be an educational institution owned and managed by an individual, legal person, denominational bodies, or trusts that receive state assistance in the form of financial assistance or non-financial aid. The second type of assisted private school is jointly owned by the Crown and a private proprietor or denominational body. These schools are managed by both the proprietor (private proprietor or denominational body) and the MoE. The third type of assisted private schools is those educational institutions owned by the Crown but managed by the MoE. According to the Education Act 2005, state assistance for all types of schools can include the maintenance of the educational institution, provision of equipment or furniture, building provision, payment of staff salaries, or any other purpose approved by the Minister. Assisted private schools must follow the national curricula and MoE educational guidelines as state schools.

Contracted, non-state schools

No information was found.

2.3 Other types of schools

Homeschooling

In Saint Kitts and Nevis, parents can choose homeschool education for their children. According to the Education Act 2005, before starting a homeschool education program, parents or legal representatives must register the students with the Chief Education Officer at the MoE and thereafter every year as long as the student is receiving home education. Additionally, parents or legal representatives must submit three months before starting the home education program an initial education plan for a minimum of three school years based on the national curriculum and include a description of all learning activities. When in the opinion of the Chief of Education a homeschool, program does not meet the requirements for its establishment or that the student's achievement is lower than those in public schools, the Chief Officer of Education may request the home education program to be terminated.

Market contracted (Voucher schools)

No information was found.

Unregistered/Unrecognised schools

No information was found.

 

  1. Governance and regulations

The Ministry of Education is the central governing body for Saint Kitts and Nevis educational system for state and non-state actors. The Chief Education Officer is responsible for the general administration, authorization, and policy of the system following the Education Act 2005. Currently, no Council on Early Childhood Education has been created. Higher Education is under the Ministry of Education and the Board of Accreditation under Saint Christopher and Nevis Accreditation of Institutions Act 2017.

Vision: The 2017-2021 Education Sector Plan included fostering the increase of the ECD spaces in combinations of public and private assisted centers and encouraging and strengthening partnerships with society groups, private sector NGOs, and other development partners.

 

3.1 Regulations by distinct levels of education
 

Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) in Saint Kitts and Nevis covers children aged cero to five delivered through nurseries (ages cero -three), day care centers (ages cero – five) and preschool centers (ages three to five).  Most ECCE is provided by non-state actors including family-run facilities and church ECCE centers The CARICOM Regional Guidelines for Developing Policy, Regulation and Standards in Early Childhood Development Services set a guideline to align and standardize Early Childhood Development Services throughout the CARICOM community.

Entry/Establishment

Registration and approval: See Multi-level regulations.

Licence: See Multi-level regulations.

Financial operation

Profit-making: See Multi-level regulations.

Taxes and subsidies: See Multi-level regulations.

Quality of teaching and learning

Curriculum and education standards: No information was found.

Teaching profession: See Multi-level regulations.

Equitable access

Fee-setting: According to Education Act (2005), institutions providing early childhood services are allowed to charge a fee for their services; however, no information was found on regulations regarding the increase, fee establishment, or caps that facilities may charge.  

Admission selection and processes: No information was found.

Policies for vulnerable groups: The government established the ECHO programme to improve the knowledge and skills of parents, tutors, and caregivers in early childhood care and education topics and provide early stimulation in home-based nurseries, which involves home visitations, toy lending, and training of parents.

Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability

Reporting requirements: No information was found on current reporting requirements. However, the 2005 Education Act allows the Minister to make regulations regarding the records submitted by private education facilities that provide early childhood education services.

Inspection: See Multi-level regulations.

Child assessment: No information was found.

Sanctions: See Multi-level regulations.

Entry/Establishment

Registration and approval: See Multi-level regulations.

Licence: See Multi-level regulations.

Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH): All private and private assisted educational institutions must follow the same health and sanitary requirements as state schools. Following the advice of the Chief Medical Officer, the Minister may mandate the closure of a private educational institution to prevent the spread of a disease or any other circumstances that may endanger the student and staff’s health.

Financial operation

Profit-making: See Multi-level regulations.

Taxes and subsidies: See Multi-level regulations.

Quality of teaching and learning

Curriculum and education standards: According to the  Education Act 2005, assisted schools must follow the curricula established by the MoE and follow the guidelines on examination and testing.

Textbooks and learning materials: Assisted private schools must use the list of textbooks preestablished by the MoE following the national education standards. Private Assisted schools managed by denominational organizations can determine their textbooks for the religious education of each school. Private schools determine their textbooks and learning material according to their curricula.

Teaching profession: See Multi-level regulations.

Corporal punishment: According to the 2005  Education Act, the enforcement of discipline through degrading or injurious punishment must not be administered in any educational institution ( public, private assisted, or private school). The Education Act 2005 includes that corporal punishment may be administered where no other punishment is considered suitable or effective with the clarifications on who may enforce it and the subsequent registration on the punishment book.

Other safety measures and COVID-19: The OECS Education Sector Response and Recovery Strategy to COVID-19  established the region's guiding principles to harmonize the education sector's policy response, transition to a Digital Education System, strengthen safety nets for students, and promote engagement.

Equitable access

Fee-setting: No information was found.

Admission selection and processes: Educational institutions cannot refuse admission to a student eligible for admission based on discriminatory grounds such as race, place of origin, political opinion, creed, gender, or disability.

Policies for vulnerable groups: According to the 2017-2021 Education Sector Plan the government has implemented assistance programs for children from disadvantaged backgrounds to access educational programmes providing meals, textbooks, and uniforms where applicable.

Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability

School board: Assisted private and public schools are required to be managed by a Board of Management. The Board of Management must include individuals nominated by the proprietor or the denominational organizations, the institution's principal, academic staff, a member of the local community, a member from the Parent-Teacher Association, and individuals appointed by the MoE.

Reporting requirements: The Education Act (2005) establishes that every principal must maintain a student record for each educational institution. The Chief Education Officer must keep a Private Educational Institutions Register with all private and private assisted educational institutions operating in Saint Kitts and Nevis.

School inspection: See Multi-level regulations.

Student assessment: Assisted private schools must follow the MoE guidelines on student assessments to ensure students achieve the attainment targets and participate in the Caribbean Examinations.

Diplomas and degrees: The MoE is responsible for issuing private assisted schools certificates.

Sanctions: If as a result of total or partial building destruction by hurricane, earthquake, fire, or flood or as a result of an outbreak of any infectious or contagious disease in an assisted private school, the Minister can request for the school to be temporarily or permanently closed.

Entry/Establishment

Registration and approval: All institutions of higher education must apply at the Accreditation Board for registration or accreditation (in the case of accredited international institutions) for establishing or operating an institution of higher education in Saint Kitts and Nevis (Saint Christopher and Nevis Accreditation of Institutions Act, 2017).

Licence: No information was found.

Financial operation

Profit-making: See Multi-level regulations.

Taxes and subsidies: According to the Value Added Tax register educational institutions are exempt of the value-added tax at all levels of education.

Quality of teaching and learning

Curriculum and education standards: All institutions must follow the National Qualifications Framework and adapt their curriculum and educational standards as those established by the National Qualifications Framework (Saint Christopher and Nevis Accreditation of Institutions Act 2017).

Teaching profession: According to the 2005 Education Act, the state can make regulations regarding the qualification of private education institutions.

Equitable access

Fee-setting: No information was found.

Admission selection and processes: No information was found.

Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability

Board: No information was found.

Reporting requirements: The MoE must keep a Register with all tertiary institutions registered and accredited, including their accredited programs and awards.

Inspection: Higher education institutions are subject to monitoring, inspection, and scheduled visits from the Board of Accreditation to ensure compliance with the accreditation and registry conditions. In the case of a complaint from a student, the Board may conduct a surprise visit to the institution.

Assessment: No information was found.

Diplomas and degrees: Accredited higher education institutions can award valid degrees.

Sanctions: The Board may revoke an accreditation certificate to higher education institutions for non-compliance with the conditions for registry and accreditation standards. The Board issues a warning to the institutions over three years; If the suggesting improvements are not accomplished, the Board can order for the intuition closure.

3.2 Multi-level regulations

This section covers regulations on the establishment, operation, and quality of non-state institutions from pre-primary to secondary education level, based on the 2005 Education Act.

Entry/Establishment

Registration and approval:  According to the 2005 Education Act, for establishing a non-state educational institution, the proprietor (individual, legal entity, or partnership) must apply for authorization at the MoE.  Approval is granted based on the MoE being satisfied with the educational institution's academic instructions, school staff, and adequate premises, including proper accommodations and furniture, considering the number of students, age, and gender. In addition, private educational institutions in Saint Kitts and Nevis must hold a liability insurance policy covering injuries for individuals and property loss or damage. After the application is submitted with the prescribed fee, a site visit will follow to ensure the information included in the application and suitability of the educational institution. The ministry determines the maximum number of students who may be admitted to a particular school.

Licence: Upon initial approval, a permit is granted three years, after which educational institutions need to apply for renewal. When fulfilling all the preestablish requirements for renewal, a permit is issued for five years. All permits include information on the proprietor's name, address, premises, the maximum number of students authorizes to be enrolled, and the permit's validity.

Financial operation

Profit-making: Private educational institutions in Saint Kitts and Nevis can be organized as for-profit or non-profit educational institutions.

Taxes and subsidies: According to the Education Act 2005, Private educational institutions in Saint Kitts and Nevis can apply to become a private assisted educational institution through a mutual agreement with the MoE (Education Act 2005). The government provides the institution with financial and non-financial subsidies.  According to theValue Added Tax, registered educational institutions are exempt from the value-added tax at all levels of education.

Quality of teaching and learning

Teaching profession: All teachers working in private assisted schools and private schools must have the minimum academic and professional qualifications as teachers employed in a public educational institution. The Chief of Education may declare that a person who does not possess the minimum qualifications required cannot be employ at a private educational institution.

Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability

Inspection: The Education Act 2005 allows for the Minister of Education, the Chief Education Officer, or an authorized person to enter and inspect the premises of a private or private assisted educational institution during the institution’s operating hours to assess whether the institution is meeting the standards and approval requirements.

Sanctions: If a private educational institution fails to comply with the Education Act 2005 or any other regulation, the Minister issues a warning requiring the educational institution to address the shortcomings in a determined period which, if not met, may result in the cancellation of the institutions’ permit and registration. Educational institutions which have had their registration canceled may apply for re-registration demonstration the conditions for registration are met.

3.3 Supplementary private tutoring

Entry/Establishment

No information was found.

Financial operation and quality

No information was found.

Teaching profession

No information was found.

Last modified:

Fri, 10/12/2021 - 10:17