NON-STATE ACTORS IN EDUCATION

1. Terminology

2. Typology of provision

2.1 State education provision 

2.2 Non-state education provision 

2.3 Other types of schools 

3. Governance and regulations

3.1 Regulations by distinct levels of education

3.2 Multi-level regulations 

3.3 Supplementary private tutoring 

 

  1. Terminology

The 2013 Law on Education (as amended in 2017) regulates Turkmenistan’s educational system from preschool to tertiary levels for state and non-state educational institutions. According to the 2013 Law on Education (amended in 2027), an educational institution is an institution that carries out educational activities, including the implementation of one or more educational programs for students must be established ad a legal entity and in accordance with the legislation of Turkmenistan and may be state, private and other forms of ownership.

 

  1. Typology of provision

2.1 State education provision

State schools

In Turkmenistan, most schools at primary (four years, beginning at age six), lower secondary (six years, beginning at age 10) and upper secondary education (two years, beginning at age 16) are state schools. Compulsory education includes primary and secondary level.

Non-state managed, state schools

No information was found.

Non-state funded, state schools

No information was found.

 

2.2 Non-state education provision

Independent, non-state schools

No information was found on the existence of non-state education institutions in Turkmenistan. The 2013 Law on Education (as amended in 2017) regulates and acknowledges non-governmental educational institutions; however, no statistical information on non-state educational institutions was found.

State-funded (government-aided), non-state schools

No information was found. 

Contracted, non-state schools

No information was found. 

2.3 Other types of schools

Homeschooling

No regulation was found on the regulation on homeschooling in Turkmenistan.

Market contracted (Voucher schools)

No information was found.

Unregistered/Unrecognised schools

No information was found.

 

  1. Governance and regulations

In Turkmenistan, the Ministry of Education governs the national education system, including state and non-state educational institutions, from preschool to higher education. According to the 2013 Law on Education (amended 2017), the Cabinet of Ministers of Turkmenistan is responsible for regulating and issuing regulatory legal acts for licensing of education and vocational training, state control over the quality of education and state accreditation of educational institutions.

At the local level, the local executive bodies are responsible for implementing and monitoring the educational programmes and policies issued at the central level for educational institutions from preschool to secondary level.

Vision: In Turkmenistan, the education sector has emphasized the need to master and implement the best practices of foreign countries and the world, and the country has benefited from international cooperation in education for training and capabilities development.

 

3.1 Regulations by distinct levels of education
 

According to the  Law on Education (2013 amended in 2017), early childhood care and education (ECCE) covers children between the ages of one and six years.  ECCE in Turkmenistan is divided into early development and preschool education for children ages one to five and preschool education for children ages five to six before entering primary education. The latter, one year of preschool education before entering primary education, is mandatory. Early childhood care and education is provided by various institutions, including nurseries, kindergartens, preschool institutions, and family settings.

Entry/Establishment

Registration and approval: The establishment of a preschool institution is determined by the decision of the Ministry of Education, relevant ministries, departments, provinces, municipalities, and municipalities, depending on their subordination and location. All preschool institutions must comply with the number of children according to age set by the regulations. Regulations specify groups for ages one to three years old to be between 15-20 children, and groups ages three to six must be 20-25 children. For more information, see Multi-level regulations.

Financial operation

Profit-making: See Multi-level regulations.

Taxes and subsidies:  No information was found.

Quality of teaching and learning

Curriculum and education standards: All preschool institutions must follow the state educational standards and are responsible for implementing preschool programs and providing suitable teaching methods according to the children’s age, developmental and health condition.

Teaching profession: See Multi-level regulations.

Equitable access

Fee-setting: See Multi-level regulations.

Admission selection and processes: No information was found. 

Policies for vulnerable groups: No information was found.

Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability

Reporting requirements: No information was found.

Inspection: Public administration bodies for education exercise methodological guidance and control over the activities of all preschool institutions, regardless of their departmental subordination and form of ownership. (Law on Education 2013 amended 2017)

Child assessment: No information was found. 

Sanctions: No information was found.

Entry/Establishment

Registration and approval: See Multi-level regulations.

Licence: See Multi-level regulations.

Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH): All educational institutions must ensure conditions that guarantee the protection of life and health promotion of students. For a licence to be granted, all providers must comply with the environmental, sanitary-epidemiological, hygienic, fire-fighting regulations.

Financial operation

Profit-making: See Multi-level regulations.

Taxes and subsidies: See Multi-level regulations.

Quality of teaching and learning

Curriculum and education standards: See Multi-level regulations.

Textbooks and learning materials: No information was found.

Teaching profession: See Multi-level regulations.

Corporal punishment: According to the 2013  Law on Education (as amended in 2017) discipline in an educational institution is supported based on respect for the human dignity of students and teachers; the use of methods of physical and mental violence concerning students is not allowed.

Other safety measures and COVID-19: No information was found.

Equitable access

Fee-setting: See Multi-level regulations.

Admission selection and processes: See Multi-level regulations.

Policies for vulnerable groups: See Multi-level regulations.

Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability

School board: See Multi-level regulations.

Reporting requirements: No information was found.

School inspection: See Multi-level regulations.

Student assessment: See Multi-level regulations.

Diplomas and dMulti-level regulations.

Currently, Turkmenistan does not have any private institution of higher education. Tertiary education comprises 24 state higher education institutions, being the State University of Turkmenistan is the largest institution of higher education. Two state universities are classified as international universities, the International University of Oil and Gas and the International University of Humanities and Development.  State International Universities are structured in a two-tier system offering bachelor's and master's degrees and providing classes in English as their language of instruction.

 

Financial operation

Profit-making: See Multi-level regulations.

Taxes and subsidies: See Multi-level regulations.

Quality of teaching and learning

Curriculum and education standards: See Multi-level regulations.

Teaching profession: See Multi-level regulations.

Equitable access

Fee-setting: See Multi-level regulations.

Admission selection and processes: See Multi-level regulations.

Policies for vulnerable groups: See Multi-level regulations.

Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability

Board: See Multi-level regulations.

Reporting requirements: No information was found.

Inspection: See Multi-level regulations.

Student assessment: See Multi-level regulations.

Diplomas and degrees: See Multi-level regulations.

Sanctions: See Multi-level regulations.

3.2 Multi-level regulations

The 2013 Law on Education (amended in 2017) regulates education in Turkmenistan from preschool to tertiary education for state and non-state educational institutions.

Entry/Establishment

Registration and approval: To establish and operate an educational institution in Turkmenistan, all proprietors (domestic or foreign legal entities, public associations, national or foreign citizens) must apply for licensing of activities in the field of education and vocational training.  According to the 2019  Law about licensing certain types of work, all providers must fulfill the requirements on staff’s qualifications, facilities, structures, equipment, and other technical means with special conditions according to the type of work, and compliance with including environmental, sanitary-epidemiological, hygienic, fire-fighting rules and regulations. Furthermore,  state accreditation of the educational activities of non-governmental educational institutions is mandatory.

Licence: The validity period of a license shall not be less than three years; its validity period may be reduced, but not less than one year. (Law about licensing certain types of work 2019)

Financial operation

Profit-making: In the revised regulations, the word "for-profit" was not found. However, the legislation allows institutions to charge for their educational services and distinguishes between institutions considered an educational business and not (Law on Education 2013 amended in 2017). Educational institutions have the right to conduct entrepreneurial and other income-generating activities under the legislation of Turkmenistan.

Taxes and subsidies: Educational institutions that use their profits to develop and improve the institution, including salaries, are not considered educational businesses.

Quality of teaching and learning

Curriculum and education standards: According to Turkmenistan Constitution, all educational institutions must  follow the state educational standards. The 2013 Law on Education (amended 2017) specifies that all educational institutions, regardless of their ownership, shall have the Turkmen language as their main language of instruction. Educational institutions of foreign states may conduct their lessons in the language according to their organization but must ensure that the national education standards classes are conducted in Turkmen language.

Teaching profession: Regardless of the type of institution in which they work, all teachers must meet the professional qualification established according to the level they will be teaching.

Equitable access

Fee-setting: The legislation establishes the possibility for educational institutions to charge for educational services; however, no information was found on regulations on fee setting or prices to be charged.

Admission selection and processes: No specific information was found that regulates the admission of students to a non-governmental educational institution; however, the institution is obliged to familiarize students, their parents or tutors with the institution’s educational charter and other documents regulating the organization of the educational process.

Policies for vulnerable groups: Within the limits of available extra-budgetary funds, educational institutions can independently provide social support to students in need. (Law on Education 2013 amended in 2017)

Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability

Board: No obligation to incorporate a board of directors for the institution's administration was found in the reviewed regulations. The Law on Education (2013 amended in 2017) establishes that a director will manage the institution and comply with the responsibilities and procedures established in each institution's educational charter.

Inspection: As part of the State control of quality assurance, the public administration body of education may perform planned or unscheduled inspections of students' content and quality of training, their compliance with educational programs implemented in educational institutions. The Cabinet of Ministers of Turkmenistan establishes the procedure for attestation of an educational institution and conducting inspections. (Law on Education 2013 amended in 2017)

Assessment: All students at general secondary education programs and professional educational programs must sit for an obligatory state assessment.

Diplomas and degrees: According to the 2013 Law on Education (as amended in 2017), certified and accredited non-state educational institutions at general secondary education or professional educational programs may issue graduates who have successfully passed the final state certification, a corresponding state-recognized document on education, certified by the signature of the director and the seal of the corresponding educational institution.

Sanctions: An educational institution can be reorganized or liquidated following the legislation of Turkmenistan.

3.3 Supplementary private tutoring

According to the 2013 Law on Education (amended in 2017) students in all educational institutions have the right to receive additional (including paid) educational services.

Entry/Establishment

According to the 2013 Law on Education (amended in 2017) the private pedagogical labor activity, which is carried out with income, is considered entrepreneurship, and it is subject to registration following the legislation of Turkmenistan.

Financial operation and quality

No information was found.

Teaching profession

No information was found.

 

 

Last modified:

Tue, 07/12/2021 - 10:20