Mongolia's Constitution of 1992, with Amendments through 2001, and the 2002 Law on Education do not mention the terms “educational technology (Edtech)” and “information and communication technology (ICT)”.
Similarly, the 2021 Law on Personal Data Protection and the 2021 Law on Cybersecurity do not mention the terms Edtech and ICT. The 2021 Law on Cybersecurity mentions the term "information technology" in Article 13, Article 17, and Article 19; however, no definition is provided.
The 2020-2024 Action Plan of the Government of Mongolia, the 2021-2030 Education Sector Mid-Term Development Plan (ESMTPD), Mongolia's Long-Term Development Policy – Vision 2050, and the State Policy on the Development of ICT up to 2025 mention the term ICT and "distance learning". However, no specific definition is provided.
Constitution and laws: Article 38 of Mongolia's Constitution of 1992, with Amendments through 2001, emphasises the development of integrated policies on science and technology for national economic and social development.
The 2002 Law on Education aims to implement education programmes that meet the evolution of national traditions, science and technology and students' interests.
The 2021 Law on Personal Data Protection and the 2021 Law on Cybersecurity aim to regulate the system, principles, and legal framework for ensuring cybersecurity, safety, confidentiality, and accessibility of information within cyberspace.
Policies, plans, and strategies: The 2016-2020 Government of Mongolia Action program aimed to streamline science management and organisational structure in line with international development trends, introduce a results-based financing system, develop knowledge-based innovation, technology and production, and increase scientific production.
The 2020-2024 Action Plan of the Government of Mongolia aims to overcome the economic and social difficulties caused by COVID-19 using technology. It also aims to create a legal environment to facilitate e-learning in the country. Ensuring the holistic development of citizens with competencies to thrive in the digital technology era as active participants in a knowledge-based society that enables lifelong learning through quality, open, inclusive and flexible education services is the primary goal of the 2021-2030 Education Sector Mid-Term Development Plan (ESMTPD). Moreover, the 2021-2030 Education Sector Mid-Term Development Plan (ESMTPD) envisages the education system's transition into the digital system by 2030.
One of the central visions in the human development area of Mongolia's Long Term Development Policy – Vision 2050 is to create an enabling environment for educational institutions as per required standards by improving the school dormitory, green development facilities, sports and art halls, canteen, and information technology classrooms. Moreover, it also aims to provide an accessible learning environment for students with disabilities and make the learning environment child and user-friendly.
The National ICT Policy aims to make citizens digitally literate; promote IT advancement to develop the education, knowledge and capability of Mongolian people. Digital Infrastructure, e-Government, information security, digital literacy, innovation and production, and national development accelerator are the six main goals the ICT Authority identified for Mongolia to become an e-Nation.
Some of the main goals of the Mongolian Sustainable Development Vision 2030 (approved by the Parliament in 2016) are to establish lifelong learning systems and increase access to technology in the education sector.
Mongolia also adhered to the 2015 Qingdao Declaration on ICT in Education – the first global declaration on ICT in education. It outlines "how technology can be used to achieve educational targets for equity, access, quality and lifelong learning in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)."
Digital competency frameworks: According to the 2021-2030 Education Sector Mid-Term Development Plan (ESMTPD), Mongolia has successfully developed a national qualification framework (NQF) in the technical and vocational education and training (TVET) sub-sector.
The 2020 Ministerial Decree No. A/67 has approved the ICT Competency Standards for Teachers. The ICT Competency Standards for Teachers has six domains: 1) ICT Policy in Education, 2) curriculum and assessment, 3) pedagogy, 4) ICT, 5) organisation learning and management, and 6) teacher development. To better prepare teachers in the digital world, Mongolia adheres to the UNESCO ICT Competency Framework for Teachers (ICT-CFT). To develop and strengthen students' digital skills, Mongolia adheres to the International Computer Driving Licence framework. Furthermore, the Accelerator Lab of UNDP Mongolia uses the DigComp framework as a fundamental guiding framework to assess the digital skills of vulnerable populations in the country.
Changes occurred as a result of COVID-19: There are no changes occurred in laws, policies, and plans due to COVID-19.
2.2.1. Technology infrastructure and digital capacity of schools
Electricity: To create a healthy, safe and student-friendly environment in terms of social, psychological and infrastructural services at all levels of education, the 2016-2020 Government of Mongolia Action program aimed to add streetlights, crosswalks, traffic lights, cameras and speed bumps around kindergartens and schools.
Computers and devices: Rolled out in the 2005 Government Resolution No. 216, the main target of the Digital Mongolia National Programme was to distribute computers so that one computer is assigned to every ten students in upper secondary classes by the end of the year 2020.
Within the program to develop online training platforms and programs and disseminates online content and resources prioritised in the 2021-2030 Education Sector Mid-Term Development Plan (ESMTPD), providing computers to all teachers and establishing smart schools and smart class projects is essential.
During the Covid-19 quarantine period, the 2020 Ministerial Decree No. A/140 of the Ministry of Education and Science (MoES) instructed kindergarten schools to i) prepare distance learning such as television, online and radio instruction to ensure continuity of lessons and learning activities and ii) develop and implement a plan to strengthen the content of distance learning curriculum during quarantine restrictions.
Internet connectivity: The 2016-2020 Government of Mongolia Action program aimed to increase the accessibility of wireless internet, and enable its usage in recreation and camping areas, and libraries.
Approved by the Government in 2017, the State Policy on the Development of ICT up to 2025 aims to improve ICT network and infrastructure, ICT services, ICT innovation and research.
One of the objectives is to expand information technology and telecommunications coverage, install and increase the use of high-speed networks in rural areas, and launch a national satellite. The objective is planned to be carried out in three phases - Phase I (2016-2020), Phase II (2021-2025), and Phase III (2026-2030). In all three phases, the Mongolian Sustainable Development Vision 2030 aims to provide high-speed Internet connection for at least 70 percent of the population and increase the information flow speed running through the high-speed network connecting Asia and Europe by 10 times. Moreover, the Mongolian Sustainable Development Vision 2030 aims to ensure that at least 70 percent of the rural population uses broadband Internet services in Phase II (2021-2025).
2.2.2. Technology and learning environments
According to Article 20 of the 2019 Law on Broadcasting, through the Broadcasting Development Fund, the Government shall support producing and broadcasting genres of programs that are more expensive to produce, such as national history, culture, tradition, children, and educational topics. However, the 2019 Law on Broadcasting does not specify the nature of educational topics that will be covered.
The 2016-2020 Government of Mongolia Action program aimed to support Mongolian schools and kindergartens established abroad by delivering books, learning materials and methodology. During the Covid-19 quarantine period, the 2020 Ministerial Decree No. A/17 ordered schools to organise quality TV lessons for kindergarten children in cooperation with the Mongolian Television Association.
In the 2020 Resolution of the Executive Committee of the State Great Khural, the concerned government authorities were tasked to prepare "draft amendments to the 2002 Law on Education and other legislation to create a legal environment for e-learning and online learning at all levels of education". And their efforts are reflected in one of the main goals of the 2020-2024 Action Plan of the Government of Mongolia: creating opportunities to support lifelong learning for citizens of all ages by developing e-learning platforms, e-training programs, e-content and e-lessons. Furthermore, the 2020-2024 Action Plan of the Government of Mongolia aims to enable households without access to TV and the Internet to participate in e-learning.
Increasing citizens' opportunities to access equal and inclusive lifelong education services is one of the main priorities in the 2021-2030 Education Sector Mid-Term Development Plan (ESMTPD). Moreover, to realise the priority mentioned above, the Government of Mongolia aims to a) develop online training platforms and programs and disseminate online content and resources; b) register and verify the quality of open, online and distance learning content, resources and tools; c) develop computational linguistics in phases, produce online content and training resources and utilize in a lifelong education context.
In the context of increasing children's opportunities to access pre-primary education services regardless of their development features, geographical location and socioeconomic status, the 2021-2030 Education Sector Mid-Term Development Plan (ESMTPD) also aims to develop open, online and distance learning content and resources for parents in cooperation with related professional organisations, universities and civil society organisations, companies.
To provide necessary support and equitable access to education, Mongolia's Long Term Development Policy – Vision 2050 during the stage of 2021-2030 aims to establish an open education system, develop an integrated online and distance learning platform, and introduce online training at educational institutions of all levels. Moreover, developing and delivering online learning programs and content in massive open online courses and open educational resources for learners and citizens of all ages, and recognising and supporting the nonformal education system is also mentioned in Mongolia's Long Term Development Policy – Vision 2050. Furthermore, during the third stage of 2041-2050, Mongolia's Long Term Development Policy – Vision 2050 aims to strengthen an open education system that supports lifelong learning by enriching the content and curriculum of open education and introducing artificial intelligence-based technologies at all levels of education.
The Mongolian Sustainable Development Vision 2030 aims to build a science and technology cluster and park in accordance with priority development areas during Phase II (2021-2025) to meet the objective of advancing the tertiary education system and improving the lifelong education system.
The Literacy Through Distance Learning Programme (LTDLP) initiated by the National Centres for Non-Formal and Distance Education (NCNFDE) aims to deliver basic and advanced literacy skills training to individuals who are not attending school, as well as to those who are illiterate or have limited reading and writing abilities. The programme is carried out through distance education and has been implemented in 12 out of the country's 21 aimags (provinces). The primary responsibility of the NCNFDE is to furnish learners with learning materials such as books and CDs, as well as deploy mobile facilitators who assess their learning progress and provide personalized assistance when needed. This approach is particularly suitable for nomadic families, as it allows facilitators to monitor their educational advancement without disrupting their nomadic lifestyle. Additionally, supplementary lessons utilizing information and communication technologies (ICTs) like radio, video CDs, and DVDs are made available. The distance learning training is conducted over two months.
The Literacy Through Distance Learning Programme (LTDLP) of the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science (MoECS) encompasses a range of themes, including health (preventive measures and HIV/AIDS, nutrition and hygiene); literacy for economic self-sufficiency and community/rural development; and ICT skills training.
Mongolia's Long Term Development Policy – Vision 2050 highlights the need to upgrade the ICT training curriculum and content up to the internationally accepted level for training on electronic literacy and cybersecurity of the learners.
The 2019 Ministerial Decree No. A/491 has approved the inclusion of ICT in the new school curriculum.
Article 42 of the 2002 Law on Education emphasises that educational institutions need to provide facilities and equipment to meet the professional requirements of teachers and other staff. However, the 2002 Law on Education does not mention the provision of pre-service and in-service training for teachers.
The importance of digital skills, information technology, foreign languages, green education, and conversion skills as part of teacher training and continuous professional development is mentioned in the 2021-2030 Education Sector Mid-Term Development Plan (ESMTPD), but only in the context of improving the quality of TVET sector.
Improving teachers' capacity and skills in the use of ICT in teaching, facilitation of online and distance learning programs, and the English language is mentioned in Mongolia's Long Term Development Policy – Vision 2050.
With support from the Asian Development Bank (ADB) in 2013, the Institute of Teachers Professional Development (ITPD) developed a teachers' portal site for all kindergartens and secondary school teachers so that they can promote mutual knowledge.
2.4.1. Data privacy
According to Article 16 of Mongolia's Constitution of 1992, with Amendments through 2001, "citizens and their families have the right to privacy, personal liberty and safety. Their confidentiality of correspondence and communication shall be protected by law".
The 2021 Law on Personal Data Protection (adopted by the Parliament of Mongolia on 17 December 2021) and the 2021 Law on Cybersecurity apply to matters related to personal privacy and relations in connection with the collecting, processing, using, and security of personal data of an individual, as well as the collection, processing and use of an individual's data with the help of technology and software. However, the above-mentioned laws do not mention data privacy from the use of technology in education.
The State Policy on the Development of ICT up to 2025 also aims to improve information security and enhance public awareness and education on information security and create polite and ethical usage. However, the policy does not mention data privacy from the use of technology in education.
2.4.2. Online abuse and cyberbullying
According to Article 8 of the 2019 Law on Broadcasting, the issue of a broadcasting service license is subject to meeting all the requirements established by the Regulatory Commission for investment, human resources, technology, and safety. However, the 2019 Law on Broadcasting does not describe in detail the requirements set by the Regulatory Commission.
The 2016 Law on the Rights of the Child explicitly confirms children's right to be protected from violence: "children have the right to be protected from crime, offences or any forms of violence, physical punishment, psychological abuse, neglect and exploitation in all social settings." However, the above-mentioned laws do not mention preventing and responding to online abuse and cyberbullying of students from the use of technology in education.
The National Centre for Non-Formal and Distance Education (NCNFDE), under the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science (MoECS), is responsible for the Literacy Through Distance Learning Programme (LTDLP).
The Mangolian Education Informational Technology Centre (established by combining the Education Information System project team and the Erdemnet network center) is responsible for developing the education sector information system.
According to Article 11 of the 2021 Law on Cybersecurity, a non-staff Cyber security council (led by the Prime Minister is responsible for providing cyber security activities with unified supervision, coordinated facilitation, organised implementation, and ensuring the exchange of information.
In 2018, the cabinet decided to ban mobile phones in schools. However, an exception was made for the use of smartphones at kindergartens for children with disabilities due to their special needs during training activities, such as contacting parents if necessary.