Climate change communication and education

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1. Context

2. Climate change education and training in the country

3. Climate change communication in the country

4. Monitoring and evaluation


  1. Context

i. Climate change context

According to the World Bank Climate Change Portal, Senegal is a country of 196,722 km2 located at the western extremity of the African continent with a population of about 18.3 million in 2023. It shares borders with the Islamic Republic of Mauritania to the north, Mali to the east, the Republic of Guinea to the southeast and Guinea-Bissau to the south. The majority of the population lives on the Atlantic coast, especially in the area of Dakar, the capital, which makes up only 0.3 % of the country’s territory.

With a real GDP per capita of USD $1.631 in 2021, Senegal is a low-income country. According to the Africa Policy Research Institute, the Sodano-Sahelian climate is tropical in the south and semi-desert in the north, with a dry season from November to June and a hot, humid season from July to October. The country is highly vulnerable to climate change due to its location in the Sahelian zone and its wide coastal strip. It is specifically susceptible to drought, locust invasions, flooding and related health epidemics, sea-level rise, coastal erosion and associated phenomena, and bush fires. Average annual temperatures could rise by 1-3°C by 2060, with faster warming rates in semi-arid regions and the central basin and more frequent hot days and nights.

The Global Carbon Atlas indicates that Senegal’s emissions were approximately 0.8 tCO2 per person in 2021. According to the Climate Action Tracker report (2022), agriculture accounts for almost half of its emissions, followed by energy. The industry and waste sectors contribute about an equal amount, with both representing less than 10% of emissions.

Senegal signed the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 1992, ratified it in 1994 and acceded to the Kyoto Protocol in 2001 as a Non-Annex I country. It signed the Paris Agreement on climate change in April 2016 and ratified the agreement in November 2016. Senegal accepted the Doha Amendment in May 2020.

ii. Relevant government agencies 

Climate change

According to decree no. 2022-1801 of September 26, 2022, under the authority of the prime minister, the Ministry of the Environment and Sustainable Development is the national institution in charge of developing and implementing Senegal's environmental policy. The ministry has the broad mandate to address pollution-related issues and represent Senegal at international climate meetings. The ministry is also responsible for the preservation of flora and fauna and has authority over national parks and other protected areas. In conjunction with local authorities, it is responsible for protecting marine flora and the coasts and estuaries affected by marine erosion.

Set up in 1994, the National Committee on Climate Change (COMNACC) is a consultative and coordinating body that supports the Ministry of the Environment and Sustainable Development. Established by a decree, the committee is a dynamic structure that is responsible for a number of climate change priority areas: information; awareness-raising; education; finance; programme implementation; and validation, monitoring and reporting on national, sub-regional, and regional programmes. The committee produces regular national reports on the negotiation challenges at the international level. It also takes part in sessions of the Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. COMNACC has numerous regional branches (Regional Committees on Climate Change-COMRECC), which mirror its operations at the local level. Each regional branch is composed of representatives from various de-centralized authorities, including local collectives, private sector associations, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and community organizations. COMNACC is organized into thematic groups: mitigation, adaptation, finance and carbon, technology transfer, capacity building and legal affairs.

Set up in 1986, the Centre for Ecological Monitoring, is a non-profit public organization, operating under the supervision of the Ministry of Environment, Sustainable Development and Ecological Transition. It provides scientific and technical support to the government on climate-related matters and has a climate office dedicated to providing guidance and support to decision-makers on environmental and ecological issues. While the purview of the climate office covers both adaptation and mitigation, the majority of its work focuses on adaptation. As the national implementing entity for the Adaptation Fund and the Green Climate Fund, the centre also plays a key role in accessing climate finance. The centre also coordinates the production of two key documents: i) the State of the Environment Report for Senegal (2020), which is published every five years; and II) the Yearbook on the Environment and Natural Resources of Senegal.

The Directorate of Environment and Classified Establishments sits within the ministry and is mandated to build awareness and knowledge among government agencies and international partners on climate change issues. Its mission is to:

  • Implement the appropriate means to ensure the prevention and control of pollution and pests;
  • Follow all the actions of the different services and agencies involved in the field of the environment;
  • Elaborate on the legislative and statutory texts concerning the environment;
  • Prioritize energy efficiency for better environmental protection through the rational management of its resources.

The Ministry of Water and Sanitation is responsible for supplying drinking water to populations in rural, urban and peri-urban areas. It is responsible for the construction, operation and maintenance of hydraulic structures. The ministry has an ambitious vision of providing all people in Senegal with abundant, high-quality water for all uses in a sustainable living environment. This vision takes into account the principles of universality, equity and quality in access to water and sanitation services, in line with the values and principles of sustainable development. The ministry houses a number of directorates, including the Directorate of Flood Prevention and Management. The directorate participates in the development and implementation of the flood risk prevention policy and coordinates mitigation actions. For example, the ministry has overseen the ‘Integrated Flood Management Project in Senegal’ (PGIIS) (2012-2022). Following a scientific and institutional approach, the PGIIS aims to support the Senegalese Government’s policy in terms of flood risk management, which goes beyond the construction of infrastructure. It thus contributes to establishing an integrated policy at the national level for the management of flood-related disaster risks.

Among the responsibilities of the National Agency of Civil Aviation and Meteorology, created in 2011, is: the coordination, supervision and control of all meteorological activities in Senegal in line with the standards of the World Meteorological Organization; and the management of the meteorological observation network, including installations, equipment maintenance and worldwide data exchange.

The Ministry of Petroleum and Energy prepares and implements policy in the oil and energy sectors as defined by the Head of State. It promotes, prospects and manages prospective hydrocarbon zones. It ensures the adequacy of specific technological choices for solar, hydro and wind energy sources and ensures the enhancement of scientific and technological achievements. The ministry works to promote renewable energy. However, at the time of writing, nothing related to climate change education had been referenced.

The Ministry of Health and Social Action aims to provide greater awareness of the risks associated with climate change and of adaptation measures. One commitment in this regard is that it aims to ensure that equipment for storing, transporting and preserving vaccines is environmentally friendly. It is in charge of a Climate-Health committee set up by the ministry and which comprises representatives from the ministries of environment, agriculture, and water and sanitation. It plays a leadership and coordination role by working closely with other sectors involved in matters related to health, the environment and climate change.

Set up in 2013, the National Agency for Renewable Energies is an autonomous agency operating under the technical supervision of the Ministry of Petroleum and Energy. It aims to promote the use of renewable energy, including bioenergy. The agency is expected to participate in: defining and formulating energy policy; conducting prospective and strategic studies for the development of renewable energy; contributing to the improvement of research and development; encouraging technological inventions for renewable energy; developing and implementing information, awareness and communication initiatives; promoting relevant technical education and training of technical interest; and promoting the economic, social and environmental aspects of renewable energy.

Established in 2012, the Economic, Social and Environmental Council (CESE) is Senegal’s second-highest constitutional assembly. It serves as a consultative forum offering expert guidance and research to the president, the National Assembly, the prime minister and other major decision-makers. CESE continually monitors progress on key social, economic and environmental issues, and recommends necessary adjustments to policies and regulations. It also aims to promote political dialogue and cooperation between local authorities and foreign entities. The council is divided into 10 commissions. Climate change matters fall under the remit of the Commission on the Quality of Life, Environment and Sustainable Development. The council regularly publishes analysis and recommendations on specific themes, some of which relate to climate mitigation, and it covers climate-related developments in its annual reports. For example, the annual report (2021) reported on the tackling of climate change through adaptation, and provided recommendations for intensifying information, education and communication actions (IEC) on environmental issues. This was all in support of the overarching goal of building resilience and the adaptive capacities of populations in the face of the effects of climatic changes.

Education and communication

The National Ministry of Education is in charge of basic education (pre-primary to lower secondary) and secondary education in Senegal. The ministry comprises multiple directorates and administrations, such as the Directorate of Pre-Primary Education, the Directorate of Elementary Education, the Directorate of General Middle and Secondary Education, and the National Institute of Study and Action for the Development of Education. However, nothing related to climate change education and communication is specifically mentioned.

The Ministry of Higher Education, Research and Innovation is the government ministry responsible for determining the policies and direction of the higher education system. The ministry’s main tasks are to prepare and implement higher education and scientific research policies defined by the Head of State. It exercises its powers in connection with universities, higher schools teaching and all applied research centres and coordinates the conduct of research policy with all departments.

The Ministry of Employment, Vocational Training and Handicrafts, in collaboration with the Ministry of National Education, is responsible for administering technical and vocational education and training (TVET). Specifically, the ministry is responsible for implementing TVET-related government policies and for improving and developing TVET-related structures at the national level. The development of the TVET programme for the national, regional and local levels is the responsibility of the Academy Inspector and the education and training inspection authorities (IEF) under the supervision of the Academy Inspector. However, no department or division that is dedicated to climate change existed at the time of writing.

While the National Office of Vocational Training was created by law 86-44 in 1988 as an autonomous public agency to guide the government on TVET policy, it ultimately became a funding agency. Its mission was to help the government determine and implement vocational training objectives and assist public and private institutions in the implementation of their activities. This was to be done by monitoring their results, carrying out employment studies, developing professional qualifications, and coordinating interventions.

The Ecological Monitoring Centre (CSE) is a national entity whose core activities include environmental monitoring, natural resource management and conducting environmental impact assessments. It has built partnerships at the local (sub-national) and national levels, as well as with international donors, to develop climate change projects and programmes, particularly in the areas of environment, agriculture and livestock.

The Young Volunteers for the Environment is a non-governmental organization (NGO) founded in 1984, which aims to promote sustainable development by empowering young people to take action on environmental issues. The organization focuses on a variety of environmental issues, such as waste management, water resource protection and reforestation. One of its main programmes is the ‘Eco-Citizen’ programme, which is designed to raise awareness and educate young people about sustainable development.

Nebeday, meaning ‘tree of life’, is a Senegalese association created in 2011 whose purpose is the protection, management and enhancement of natural resources by and for local populations in the fight against climate change. The association runs several projects such as raising awareness about the challenges of reducing the consumption of wood-based products for combustion, and promoting the use and dissemination of straw charcoal in local markets. According to the annual report 2021/2022, during the 2020-2021 school year, Nebeday engaged with 105 schools within the communes of Diofior and Foundiougne and the islands of Sine-Saloum, holding environmental education sessions with 10,500 students and 315 teachers.

The Association for Research Action Development and Environment in the Sahel was created in August 2012. The association works to protect the environment, helps to create green jobs for women and young people, and develops strategies and measures for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The association fosters cultural diversity and intergenerational exchange to promote collaborative and productive development. The association is developing an initiative called the School Leadership Development Programme, involving the participation of local authorities, beneficiary schools and partners. The programme aims to prepare young people to become leaders and agents of change by training them in leadership and social entrepreneurship. The programme’s ultimate goal is to have a well-educated, well-trained, well-informed and competent youth, who can be a positive force for Africa and the world in the face of climate change, desertification and violence in all its forms.

iii. Relevant laws, policies, and plans 

Climate change

The Renewable Energy Law (2010) establishes the legal framework for the sustainable development of renewable energy. Goals outlined in this legislation include: reducing dependence on fossil fuels, diversifying the energy mix, reducing GHG emissions, and facilitating domestic energy production. The law directs the Ministry of Energies Renewable Energies (now called the Ministry of Petroleum and Energies) to establish and regulate incentive schemes for renewable development, including: i) a tax exemption for the purchase of equipment required for renewable generation intended for domestic consumption; and ii) a tax relief scheme for renewable energy technology research. However, the law does not mention climate change education and communication.

Senegal’s Law on the Prevention and Reduction of the environmental impact of plastic products (2020) aims to prevent and reduce the environmental and human health impact of single-use plastic waste. The law bans the production, import, stocking with the intention to sell, advertising the selling, actually selling, positioning it to be used, and the use in any form – of single-use or disposable plastic. However, the law does not mention climate change-related issues or education and communication.

Law no. 2023-15 (2023) on the Environment Code recognizes the environment as a common good, a national heritage at the service of life, while guaranteeing every person the right to a healthy environment in accordance with the constitution and under the conditions laid down by the international agreements to which Senegal is a party. Article 12 of the code stipulates that: ‘the State guarantees all citizens the right to environmental education. Within this framework, public and private institutions in charge of teaching, research or communication contribute to education, training, information and raising public awareness of environmental issues’ (p.14).

The National Adaptation Plan of Climate Change (2006) developed by the former Ministry of Environment and Protection of Nature identifies priority sectors and government projects, focusing on areas that are most vulnerable to climate change. These include: reforestation; restoration of mangrove swamps; the biological stabilization of dunes; physical protection against beach erosion and saline intrusion (using ditches, barriers, or other protection means); irrigation projects; the restoration of soil fertility; water conservation methods; the use of alternative crops; and improved education and awareness-raising on adaptation.

After the implementation of the first phase of the Emerging Senegal Plan (PSE) 2014-2018, Senegal developed the Emerging Senegal Plan 2019-2023 (2018). The 2019-2023 plan revolves around the vision of an ‘emerging Senegal in 2035 with a cohesive society under the rule of law’ and is broken down into three strategic axes: structural transformation of the economy and growth (axis i); human capital, social protection and sustainable development (axis ii); and governance, institutions, peace and security (axis iii). Reducing the degradation of the environment, natural resources and the adverse effects of climate change is highlighted as the tenth strategic objective of the plan. However, climate change education is not mentioned specifically.

The Territorial Climate Energy Plan of Dakar 2021-2025 aims to provide a concrete solution to the climate change problem, by offering: effective sustainable management of resources; the development of renewable energies; the promotion of eco-citizen behaviour; the promotion of the awareness of production and consumption patterns; and the promotion of an awareness of the layout of urban spaces, allowing all spaces to participate in these solutions.

The National Forest Policy 2005-2025 (2005), developed by the former Ministry of Environment and Protection of Nature, provided the basis for national plans and programmes in these areas. Based on the principle of decentralization and the fight against poverty, the main objective of the plan is to contribute to poverty reduction by promoting sustainable management and conservation of biodiversity and forest resources, ultimately attaining a socio-environmental balance. The policy does not specifically mention climate change but it highlights the necessity to ‘strengthen environmental education to better manage and preserve natural resources and the environment’ (p.26).

The National Strategy for Economic and Social Development 2013–2017 (2012) seeks to accelerate economic growth through increased productivity and wealth creation, with agriculture identified as a top priority. Environmental policy was a priority in the strategy, which acknowledged that adapting to climate change was starting to present a major challenge, with phenomena such as flooding, coastal erosion and land salinization becoming more frequent. The strategy thus calls for: ‘Strengthening capacities in environmental and natural resources management through promotion of environmental education, production and broadcast of information on the state of the environment and natural resources and capacity building of environmental stakeholders; Promote green economy and the creation of green jobs’ (p.44).

In 2015, with the support of the Partnership for Action on Green Economy (PAGE), the Government of Senegal elaborated Senegal’s National Strategy for the Promotion of Green Jobs Strategy 2015-2020 (2015) to formalize jobs in the circular economy (for example, in recycling) and to transform these activities into decent jobs. The strategy states that green jobs would include all professions and work that directly and indirectly contributes to preserving the environment. While climate change is not referenced specifically in the document, the strategy emphasized that education, training and research on the economy and green growth must be integrated into formal and non-formal education, with a simultaneous focus on the strengthening of institutional capacity.

The National Strategy for Sustainable Development (2015), developed by the Ministry of Environment, Sustainable Development and Ecological Transition, includes climate change as one of its priority areas. Based on the UN 2030 Agenda, Senegal has defined strategic objectives, indicators and lines of action that relate to reducing the vulnerability of populations to shocks resulting from climate change, as well as preserving the resource base needed to support strong growth over the long term.

The strategy outlines measures to reduce emissions and strengthen the country's adaptive capacity, such as:

  • Raising awareness among different stakeholders at the decision-making level;
  • Promoting renewable energy usage;
  • Eradicating illegal dumping of garbage through the creation of eco-districts in the major urban centres.

Climate change education, however, is not mentioned.

The Policy Letter for the Environment and Sustainable Development Sector (LP/SEDD) 2016-2025 (2015) developed by the Ministry of Environment, Sustainable Development and Ecological Transition reports that the overall objective of the environmental policy is ‘to create a national dynamic for improving the management of the environment and natural resources, integrating the principles of sustainable development into policies and strengthening people's resilience to climate change.’

The Environment, Sustainable Development and Ecological Transition Sector Policy Letter 2022-2026 (2022) defines the sector's vision as ‘ecological transition, a means of making the benefits of the Senegal Emerging Plan sustainable by 2026’. Three strategic areas have been selected for implementing this policy: i) managing the country’s natural heritage; ii) ecological transition and improvement of the living environment; and iii) green governance.

The Framework Document for Sustainable Financing (2023) mentions different actions to adapt to climate change. These include a protection programme through the management of forest ecosystems (including monitoring and signposting systems), particularly against bushfires (with the planting of fire-retardant plant hedges); and a programme to consolidate fragile coastal areas such as beaches, barrier beaches and mangrove areas (mudflats), in particular by reforesting mangroves, and installing coastal protection structures such as dykes, Maltese groynes and breakwaters. However, there is no reference to climate change education in the document.

Education and communication

The National Education Framework Act No. 91-22 of 30 January 1991 sets out the general principles of national education and states three main objectives for education: creating conditions that enable development within the whole country; promoting Senegalese values; and enhancing the culture. However, the Act does not mention climate change or the environment in any reference.

The Ten-Year Programme for Education and Training (2007), developed by the National Ministry of Education, is a comprehensive plan that constitutes the framework for the implementation of the general education policy statement for the period 1999-2008, which the Government of Senegal adopted in February 2000. Phase I was implemented between 2000 and 2004 and that period saw progress in access to primary education. However, there is no reference to climate change education, nor environment or sustainable development-related issues.

The Presentation Document of the Support Program for Development of Education in Senegal-PADES 2019-2023 (2018), developed by the French Development Agency (AFD) calls for ‘the development of integrated programmes with researchers, based on the achievements of innovative teaching methods in the field, and the development of awareness and training initiatives, linked to major contemporary issues, especially around the theme of sustainable development and climate change’ (p.91).

The Education and Training Quality, Equity and Transparency Improvement Programme (2018, PAQUET-EF), was established for the period 2013-2025 and revised to align with the international agenda (SDG 4, Strategy 2030). Developed by the National Ministry of Education, the programme is considered to be the country’s Education Sector Plan (ESP). The sector plan focuses on the primary objectives of quality, equity and good governance, while specifically homing in on the principle of equitable access by reducing vulnerabilities, developing the pre-primary level and consolidating the basic cycle (basic education curriculum for 10 years + 1 year of pre-primary school). The programme calls for: ‘Scientific research and innovation capacities redirected in collaboration with the private sector to address the development of sectors in the Senegalese economy and specific adaptation needs related to climate change.’ (p.2).

Senegal’s Nationally Determined Contribution (2020) calls for developing an effective communication strategy, where political actors must be aware of the effects of climate change, in the same way as affected communities. In line with this, the document notes the need to adopt a ‘citizen’ and ‘decision maker’ oriented communication strategy. (p.40)

iv. Terminology used for Climate Change Education and Communication

Most of Senegal’s climate change-specific documents refer to climate change communication and education regarding environmental protection, energy conservation, greening and sustainable development. For example, Article 4 of the Environment Code (2023) emphasizes that ‘the environment is a common good, a national heritage at the service of life. The protection, implementation, restoration and rehabilitation of the environment are the responsibility of all and contribute to the objective of sustainable development.’ (p.12).

The Renewable Energy Law (2010) mentions that ‘through this present bill and other subsequent texts, the legal framework that will be established will enable the preservation of the environment and climate within the framework of energy production and consumption activities’ (p.1).

The National Adaptation Plan of Climate Change (2006) uses the term adaptation, noting: ‘Trying to integrate the dimension of climate change and adaptations to climate change into sectoral development policies in Senegal’. The document makes ‘sustainable development’ a key element and states that ‘the adaptation strategies should be aligned with the drought and desertification control programs carried out in Senegal for several years. They are also in line with the elements and principles of the sustainable development strategy, which is currently being finalized, to improve income and productivity’ (p.21).

The National Strategy for Economic and Social Development 2013–2017 (2012) focuses on ‘greening’, specifying that the promotion of an ecologically rational use of resources is an entry point for transitioning into a green economy that will contribute to reducing poverty directly and sustainably.

The Ten-Year Programme for Education and Training (2007), the National Education Framework Act No. 91-22 of 30 January 1991, and The Education and Training Quality, Equity and Transparency Improvement Programme do not mention any terminology related to climate change, environment, sustainability or greening.

Senegal’s Nationally Determined Contribution (2020) refers to climate change education and communication in terms of ‘adaptation’, ‘mitigation’, ‘sustainability’ and ‘renewable energy’. For example, the Contribution states that ‘several studies reflect a high vulnerability of Senegal's ecosystems, necessitating the implementation of specific mitigation and adaptation actions in response to future climate prospects to control their potential impacts’ (p.4).

v. Budget for climate change education and communication

The Presentation Document of the Support Program for Development of Education in Senegal-PADES 2019-2023 (2018) mentions the importance of funding for school projects that have been identified as priorities for sustainable development programmes linked to climate change.

According to the World Bank, total government expenditure on education in Senegal (as a percentage of GDP) was reported at 5.4979% in 2020. However, there is no publicly available information on the specific national budget allocation for climate change communication and education.

In 2023, a new economic and financial programme was agreed between the Government of Senegal and the International Monetary Fund (IMF). Developing climate resilience is an important focus of this new programme. In support of this, the government will strive to strengthen policies for adapting to and mitigating the impacts of climate change through the implementation of a suite of institutional, organizational and budgetary reforms.

According to Senegal’s National Strategy for the Promotion of Green Jobs Strategy 2015-2020 (2015), the total budget of the National Environmental Program of Senegal (SNPEV) is estimated at 2,998,500,000 (West African CFA francs) (US$5.1 million) for the period 2015-2019, where 55,000,000 (West African CFA francs) (US$92,905.40) is dedicated to the promotion of mainstreaming green jobs in planning. However, nothing related to climate change education and communication is included.

According to the Centre for Ecological Monitoring report (2020), as of August 2019, the Green Climate Fund (GCF) had a project portfolio of over US$5.23 billion, comprising 111 projects spread across 99 developing countries. The GCF has approved its first eight projects, including two in Africa. Senegal is among the first of these, represented by the Centre for Ecological Monitoring (CSE), which is the national implementing entity. The three largest approved projects to date focus on sustainable energy and energy efficiency. They involve partnerships with the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) at a total of US$378 million, the French Development Agency (AFD) at US$279.7 million USD, and the Global Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Fund (GEEREF) at US$265 million.

The Climate Action Tracker calls for establishing a formal mechanism for tracking climate-related budgeting within the Ministry of Finance and the Budget to support the systematic integration of climate-oriented actions toward transition into the national budget.

The Multiannual Budgetary and Economic Programming Document (DPBEP) 2024-2026 states that:

In the field of the environment, the main thrust is to lay the foundations for sustainable development that incorporates ecological and climatic resilience, compatible with the ambition for structural transformation of the economy. Greater emphasis will be placed on coherence in climate policy with the aim of strengthening the protection of environmental ecosystems, with a specific strategy for the protection of marine environments. The government will do its utmost to meet its commitments in terms of the Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) by taking greater account of measures to mitigate and adapt to climate change, which will be better taken into account in the budgetary process. These include priority investments linked to improving water management in the agricultural sector, managing resilience to coastal erosion and managing climate risks. All related measures will be reflected in sectoral policies and related reforms.

Senegal’s Nationally Determined Contribution (2020) mentions that between 2020 and 2030 ‘the financing needs for Greenhouse Gas (GHG) mitigation amount to approximately $8.7bn US dollars, with $ 3.4 bn in unconditional funding and $5.3 bn in conditional funding; the financing needs for climate change adaptation in Senegal over the specified period amount to approximately $4.3 bn, with $1.4 bn in unconditional funding and $2.9 bn in conditional funding’ (p.41-42). However, nothing related to climate change education and communication is included.

  1. Climate change education and training in the country

i. Climate change in pre-primary, primary, and secondary education 

The overall management of the education sector is carried out by three ministries, including the Ministry of National Education, which is in charge of pre-primary education through to secondary education, as well as youth and adult basic education.

The Presentation Document of the Support Programme for Development of Education in Senegal-PADES 2019-2023 (2018) aims for the educational establishments that are vulnerable to climate change to benefit from programmes to reinforce students’ commitment to sustainable development, or by encouraging parental support for the development and educational success of their children.

The Education and Training Quality, Equity and Transparency Improvement Programme (2018, PAQUET-EF) states that children aged between 0 and 5 years should develop a sense of citizenship as well as skills related to scientific and technological awareness and environmental protection. It also notes that climate factors have an impact on learning time. For example, the early onset of winter in the south-eastern regions of the country leads to the premature closure of schools where classrooms are constructed with makeshift materials. Similarly, the high daytime temperatures in the southern and northern regions of the country result in schedule changes that are responses to the natural conditions. Afternoon hours are shifted from 15.00–17.00 to 16.00-18.00, instead of the usual schedule in most regions of the country. The programme also highlights the increased risks of vulnerability due to climatic and social disturbances, such as flooding, rising sea levels, drought, bushfires, armed conflicts and rapid urbanization.

According to the Territorial Climate Energy Plan of Dakar 2021-2025, through an inter-school competition, 32 public and private schools in Dakar, Pikine and Guédiawaye were selected based on the criterion of excellence. They were introduced to environmental and climate issues in Senegal and around the world. The organization of a day of reforestation involving some schools in the municipality of Parcelles Assainies has also made it possible to raise awareness among children about the importance of trees in urban areas.

The EnQuete + newspaper published an article in May 2021 about climate change education being incorporated into school education. The article states that in the context of adaptation to climate change, Senegal seeks to integrate climate issues into its education system, through the development of a strategy that promotes skills-building for a climate-resilient society. The Senegalese Government launched the Adapt'Action strategy to integrate the challenges of climate change into the Senegalese education system. The Adapt’Action strategy is supported by the French Development Agency, through the Adapt’Action Facility, an initiative set up to implement the Paris Climate Agreement. The development of the strategy was steered by the Department of the Environment and Classified Establishments and the Centre for Environmental Education and Training of the French Ministry of Ecological Transition, in close collaboration with sectoral ministries in the field of education and training, such as: the Ministry of National Education; the Ministry of Vocational Training, Apprenticeship and Integration; and the Ministry of Higher Education, Research and Innovation. The strategy also aims to improve the quality of training in the country by ensuring continuity between the different levels of education. The overall aim is to strengthen the knowledge, skills and competencies of learners in relation to adaptation and the ecological transition, so they are able to exercise active citizenship and have access to relevant employment in the field, such as low-carbon jobs.

The Nebeday Association’s 2021 annual report, Environment at the Heart of Development, states that the environmental education of children is considered crucial for protecting the environment. In the 2020-2021 academic year, Nebeday ran events in 105 schools in the communes of Diofior, Foundiougne and the islands of Sine-Saloum, to provide environmental education sessions with 10,500 students and 315 teachers.

The Ivory Foundation supports the Nebeday association through an environmental education project for children. The aim of the partnership is to implement an environmental education campaign for children and teachers in 20 schools in the Fatick region in the south of the Saloum Delta – targeting 1,500 children and 50 teachers. The educational materials feature Mia Moké, a little girl in love with nature, who expresses the values ​​of sustainable development and encourages initiatives that preserve the environment. Materials include digital content (such as applications), comic strips, booklets, posters and school notebooks, which Nebeday has distributed in many schools.

In April 2019, two representatives of the Young Volunteers for the Environment of Senegal (JVE Senegal) led an awareness-raising workshop called ‘Eco-citizen awareness’ during the football school tournament at DSC.

On March 23, 2023, under the theme ‘engaging students in the fight against climate change’ high school students from schools linked to the African Institute for Mathematical Sciences (AIMS) participated in the celebration of World Meteorological Day. At the event, students visited the stalls of the meteorological station in Dakar and the partners of the National Agency for Civil Aviation and Meteorology of Senegal (ANACIM): the Ecological Monitoring Centre, the Department of Water Resources Management and Planning (DGPRE), the Department of Civil Protection (DPC), the Department of Protection and Fisheries Surveillance (DPSP), as well as the start-up organization Jokalante, which works with ANACIM in the dissemination of climate information.

Other initiatives include those organized by UNESCO's Regional Office in Dakar. For example, a field initiative in 2021 aimed to raise environmental awareness about ocean protection and to promote marine cultural heritage in Senegalese coastal populations. These activities have targeted public schools and fishing communities in the Dakar region. For example, students from the Samba Diéry-Diallo Barracks school, located on the coast, discussed the country’s marine biodiversity and underwater heritage with an underwater archaeologist, and the environmental hazards of these areas.

Future Au Present is an association created in 2012 by Senegalese and French social workers. It operates in the main cities and regions, particularly in Ziguinchor, the capital of Casamance, as well as in France. One of the programmes the association runs is ‘Climate justice’, which includes the SNAP project (New Solidarity and Action for the Planet). SNAP is an exchange project between French and Senegalese students, focusing on issues of climate, biodiversity and environmental inequality. The aim is for children to acquire an understanding of the causes and consequences of climate change nationally and internationally and develop a commitment to combating it. The project started in 2021 and aims to benefit 4,300 children by 2023. The project also published a pedagogical booklet for the year 2022, highlighting the different activities for effective climate change education.

TERANGA LAB is a non-profit Senegalese association founded in 2016. The association is based in Rufisque and encourages citizen engagement and raising ecological awareness of young people through environmental education. The association runs projects in different regions. For instance, the interschool debate on climate change is part of the three-year Climate Media Collaborative project. School debates are intended to foster a culture of intellectual questioning and critical thinking. The final competition took place in 2023.

ii. Climate change in teacher training and teaching resources

The website of the Ministry of National Education refers to the work of the Office for Climate Education (OCE). The OCE provides multilingual educational resources on climate-related topics for teachers, trainers and the general public. These resources cover a number of themes such as: climate action, agriculture and food, biodiversity, the climate system, climate change impacts, land and oceans, climate change origins and mechanisms, and education. Available resources include classroom activities, scientific documentation, multimedia animations, videos and professional development materials.

The Senegal Association Education for Development (SEN EAD) brings together many teachers from the Saint-Louis Region. For over 20 years, it has been carrying out educational activities in international citizenship and sustainable development on different themes such as waste management, biodiversity, hygiene and water. SEN-EAD is the promoter of the Centre for International Citizenship Education and Sustainable Development (CECIDD). The centre provides a resource to Senegalese teachers for strengthening the Climate Change Education Programme. At the time of writing, however, no links to the training being offered were available.

In 2018, as part of the National Green Growth Week, a training workshop was held on the concept, policies and integration of environmental economics into educational curricula, at the West African Research Center (WARC) in Dakar. The training was for education professionals, including teachers, researchers and doctoral students. It was attended by 30 people from universities and research organizations from around the country, and it aimed to encourage them to include environmental economics in their curricula.

There is no reference to teacher training on climate change issues in either the Nationally Determined Contribution of Senegal (2020) or the Second National Communication (2010).

iii. Climate change in higher education

The National Adaptation Plan of Climate Change (2006) notes that research activities should focus on: the fight against desertification; improving the use of water in agriculture; better recovery of wastewater for agricultural production; the selection of plant varieties that tolerate adverse environmental conditions; and the development of suitable technical activities. However, there is no specific reference to climate change.

The Education and Training Quality, Equity and Transparency Improvement Programme (2018, PAQUET-EF) notes the need for scientific research and innovation capabilities to align with the private sector, so that sectors in the Senegalese economy that respond to specific needs for climate change adaptation can be better developed.

Several universities and research centres have set up programmes and departments focused on climate change and related fields. The institutions offer undergraduate and graduate courses on climate change, environmental science, sustainable development and renewable energy. For example, Sine Saloum El Hadj Ibharima Niass University offers a bachelor's degree in environment and sustainable development. This degree aims to provide students with the scientific and methodological skills to: carry out environmental and social impact studies for projects; preserve biological diversity; learn about the sustainable management of the environment; promote social equity, economic efficiency and environmental preservation; and understand the legal and social dimensions of the environment.

The Institute of Environmental Sciences is administratively attached to the Faculty of Sciences and Techniques of the Cheikh Anta Diop University of Dakar. The institute provides a wide range of themes related to: forest resources and the efficient management of forest ecosystems; solid household and industrial waste (recycling and recovery); atmospheric pollution; urban ecosystems (under-integrated habitats); climate change, population vulnerability and adaptation strategies; and the effects of environmental problems on the health of populations.

The Department of Hydrosciences and Environment at the University of Thies offers a master's programme on the environment. The programme aims to provide students with the conceptual and practical tools necessary for the management of natural resources and risks, while familiarizing students with the processes and methods used to develop, execute and monitor the environmental assessment of a project, programme or policy.

Created in 1974, the Senegalese Institute of Agricultural Research is a public scientific and technology entity, which aims to have a responsive research and development agenda that integrates the vision and concerns outlined in public agricultural policies while contributing to improving food security and reducing poverty. The institute runs several projects including: ‘Sustain Sahel’, which is implemented by the Senegalese Institute of Agricultural Research (ISRA), the Ecological Monitoring Centre (CSE) the National Council for Consultation on Rural Cooperation (CNCR), the Cheick Anta Diop University of Dakar (UCAD) and African Forum for Agricultural Advisory Services (AFAAS-RESCAR). The programme aims to promote practices that can improve soil quality, build resilience to climate change, and contribute to food security and improved livelihoods for rural populations living in the Sahel.

In 2017, the Assane Seck University of Ziguinchor and local stakeholders celebrated World Environment Day by emphasizing ‘the urgency of preserving the ecosystem’ in the southern part of Senegal. Subsequently, the students of the department of geography and the directorate of environment and security have started awareness, reforestation and waste collection activities at the university.

The Université Alioune Diop de Bambey set up the Directorate of Environment and Safety in 2015 to promote the environment, sustainable development and improved quality of life. The directorate has set up several programmes such as ‘Green University’ and ‘One Citizen-one Tree’. The programmes’ main objectives are to set up a sustainable university around three areas: the maintenance of green spaces; development of new spaces; and the sustainability of achievements.

Senegal’s Second National Communication (2010) notes the lack of funding for research projects relating to climate change, as well as the technical resources for carrying out climate simulations and data archiving. It therefore highlights the need to strengthen the training and research capacities of universities and national laboratories (p.152).

iv. Climate change in training and adult learning 

The National Adaptation Plan of Climate Change (2006) notes the need for institutional support and training of policymakers on the scientific challenges of climate change, to strengthen their analytical and forecasting capacities, and thus their responsiveness.

The Territorial Climate Energy Plan of Dakar 2021-2025 notes the importance of stakeholder participation,. Once stakeholders are identified, they take part in interactive capacity-building sessions on the challenges of urban planning in the context of climate change. At the time of writing, however, no more specific information was available.

Senegal’s National Strategy for the Promotion of Green Jobs Strategy 2015-2020 (2015) notes the importance of developing capacity building and training of stakeholders for sustainable green jobs, as well as conducting studies that contribute to a better understanding of the different economic sectors that generate green jobs.

In November 2022, in partnership with Oxfam and Action for Environmental Justice, Teranga Lab organized a national workshop on African climate narratives in Toubab Dialaw. The meeting enabled representatives from the country's six eco-geographic zones and different CSOs to produce narratives that reflect their experiences and share their methods for developing resilience in the face of climate change. This activity is part of the African Activists for Climate Justice project.

The École Normale Supérieure of Technical and Vocational Education (ENSETP) is a higher TVET education institution in Dakar, working under the Cheikh Anta Diop University. However, at the time of writing, nothing related to climate change education had been mentioned.

A project carried out jointly by Teranga Lab and Oxfam Senegal, ‘Climate Media Collaborative for Community Rights and Economic justice’, aims to highlight the narratives of impacted communities as part of its environmental advocacy efforts. The project intends to intervene in several coastal settlements over a three-year period. In September 2022, Teranga Lab brought together a number of associations from Mbao, Rufisque, and Bargny for a training day on climate advocacy techniques, with the aim of raising awareness about climate change.

The Climate Funds Decentralization Project (DFC) is funded by the BRACED programme (Building Resilience and Adaptation to Climate Extremes and Disasters). This is a three-year initiative of the UK’s Department for International Development (DFID) operating in the Mopti region of Mali and the Kaffrine region of Senegal. It aims to strengthen the resilience capacities of communities (especially women and youth) in the four departments of the Senegalese Kaffrine region and the three circles of the Mopti region in Mali. Each community receives £500,000, intended for investments in impactful socio-economic public goods that have been identified and prioritized by the communities themselves. Local actors are thus central to the management and financing process for adaptation and will contribute to improving the climate change component of national decentralization policies.

In collaboration with the Open Society for West Africa (OSIWA) (the Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI) funding partner for the Non-State Actors and Vulnerable Communities for Climate Action project) the GGGI co-organized a capacity-building workshop called ‘Reinforcing the Capacity of Civil Society Organization of Senegal on Climate Change. In July 2021, a number of CSOs in Senegal attended the three-day training sessions before COP26, which took place in November 2021. Discussions focused on the current action plan and emphasized the need to create a national platform that included all actors that had been identified.

The World Water Forum takes place every three years and brings together people from a wide range of sectors, including politics, higher education, the general public and the private sector. The theme of the forum’s ninth edition, held in in Dakar March 2022, was ‘Water security for peace and development’. French non-profit organization Climate Fresk, (founded in December 2018 with the aim of raising public awareness about climate change) also took part in the event. More than 30 ‘Freskers’ ran an in-person workshop with 61 participants, with the aim of imparting the necessary scientific knowledge for participants to make good decisions in the future, and to build a new community of ‘Freskers’ to publicize the organisation and its messages across Africa.

The Ecological Monitoring Centre (CES) organized training sessions for the Project Support Unit (PSU) staff. Called ‘Removing the barriers hindering the access of local authorities to climate finance’, modalities covered the procedures for accessing funding from the Adaptation Fund (AF) and the Global Environment Facility Fund (GEF). The training related to the Adaptation Fund took place in February 2022 with five participants (including one woman), and training related to the Global Environment Facility Fund took place in April with ten participants, including four women. Participants discussed the process of formulating climate project ideas, concept notes, and complete proposals. These sessions fall within the framework of the capacity building of the project staff required to participate in the design, implementation, updating, and evaluation of the Help Desk that will be an integral part of the Ministry of Territorial Communities, Development, and Territorial Planning.

  1. Climate change communication in the country

i. Climate change and public awareness 

The National Adaptation Plan of Climate Change (2006) stresses the importance of raising awareness of climate change-related issues, especially for the agricultural sector and in relation to coastal erosion. Similarly, the National Forest Policy 2005-2025 reports the necessity for raising awareness to protect the environment, stating: ‘Sensitize groups and associations of women and young people on the issues related to better management of forest resources through rural radio animation sessions’(p.84). The National Strategy for the Promotion of the Green Jobs Strategy 2015-2020 (2015) notes the need to raise awareness of environmental issues for different stakeholders during the promotion of green jobs. The National Strategy for Sustainable Development (2015) states: ‘this plan intends to play a catalytic role to broaden climate change adaptation by using tools to raise awareness of national actors, decision-makers, politicians and local actors on its consequences on production agricultural, pastoral and forestry’(p.55).

Call Senegal (Climate Action Légui Légui cii Sénégal) is an initiative of the Heinrich Böll Foundation Senegal that aims to raise awareness about climate change and promote climate action in Senegal. The initiative produces podcasts, reports and briefs on climate change-related issues for different local Senegalese communities. As part of the initiative, the Green Team Senegal is a consortium of several organizations actively involved in the fight against environmental degradation. The consortium was established in September 2019, on Global Climate Strike Day. Green Team Senegal aims to mobilize a critical mass of citizens around environmental challenges through an exchange and learning platform and the implementation of pilot projects on credible alternatives in the Dakar region initially, and later in the rest of the country. The project has trained over 250 journalists, produced over 15 podcasts, produced 12 video capsules, strengthened the capacity of over 100 CBOs, reforested over 5,000 plants, and organized over 15 webinars.

SAMA VELO (‘My Vélo’) is a Senegalese initiative to encourage bicycles as a mode of transport in Senegal. The Initiative launched a ‘Bike guide in Dakar: Effective - Economical – Ecological’ to change public perceptions about riding bicycles. The guide does not mention climate change, apart from one sentence that refers to the ecological advantages of bicycles.

Based in Lille, France and with branches in Morocco, Senegal and Guinea, the International Solidarity Organization was created in 1981. The organization runs Citizenship and International Solidarity Education activities in Senegal with groups of teachers from Saint-Louis and Matam, and in collaboration with the ADOS Association and the GAIA Centre. This involves supporting the SDG clubs in high schools in the cities of Saint-Louis and Matam. Awareness campaigns on waste management, gender equality, and first aid are among the topics addressed through the club's activities. Activities are supervised by the local teaching team.

In 2021, UNESCO's Regional Office in Dakar launched a field initiative aimed at raising environmental awareness around ocean protection and promoting marine cultural heritage among Senegalese coastal populations. Activities have targeted public schools and fishing communities in the Dakar region. Activities included: posters with the slogan ‘The sea is not a trash can’ distributed to coastal populations; discussion groups organized with wharf managers, fishing people, fishmongers and women who are active in selling fish products; exhibitions organized on the composition of Senegalese maritime heritage; artistic productions organized in schools to facilitate an understanding of the concepts of underwater cultural heritage and marine pollution. The whole awareness campaign was publicized on social media.

Ahead of the reforestation project, which aims to plant 1.3 million trees over three years in the Fatick region, an environmental education programme is being set up to raise awareness among schoolchildren about the restoration of their country's forest ecosystems. Led by Nebeday, a major player in reforestation in Senegal, the programme was initiated in 100 schools in late 2021 and early 2022. The environmental education programme involves Nebeday teams visiting 100 schools associated with the project. After an initial visit to mobilize teachers and inform parents, activities with school children included compost-making, and an awareness-raising workshop on environmental degradation in Senegal and its consequences and different ways of better preserving g the forests. Nearly 10,000 children and over 300 teachers took part.

Village Aid is a small international development organization based in the UK, which aims to transform the lives of hundreds of thousands of people in some of the world’s poorest countries across rural West Africa. By providing essential skills and resources, it helps them to deliver education, livelihoods and conflict resolution projects. In particular, the Climate Resilience Programme supports subsistence farmers in the drought-prone Sahel region of Senegal to adapt their farming practices to the effects of climate change. The programme promotes improved soil management practices among women smallholder farmers to make them more resilient to the adverse effects of climate change; and increases awareness about climate change among the wider population to empower communities to make practical changes to their lives and livelihoods. The project introduced low-carbon soil management practices including low-cost drip irrigation and soil conditioners (to reduce nutrient leaching and the soil’s capacity to hold water and make more effective use of rainfall). The project also introduced Sunn Hemp as a cover crop, which recycles plant nutrients, conserves water in the soil and reduces soil erosion. To spread the word and encourage more uptake among farmers, the project used innovative communication methods, including voice-based mobile phone messages and interactive radio broadcasts in local languages, as well as farmer field visits and mentoring sessions.

Senegal’s Nationally Determined Contribution (2020) notes that: ‘it is essential that political actors are made aware of the effects of climate change, in the same way as the communities affected. The adoption of a communication strategy focused on both citizens and decision-makers becomes necessary to better involve all stakeholders in the process initiated by Senegal.’ (p.40). In the same vein, the Second National Communication (2010) calls for sensitizing different actors and organizing campaigns on climate change.

ii. Climate change and public access to information 

The National Adaptation Programme of Climate Change (2006) notes that: ‘during the meetings with the communities, there is a clear need for more information on climate change, its causes, and impacts on their immediate environment and the natural surroundings’ (p.60).

Accelerating Impacts of CGIAR Climate Research for Africa (AICCRA) works to make climate information services and climate-smart agriculture more accessible to millions of smallholder farmers across Africa. With better access to technology and advisory services – linked to information about effective response measures – farmers can better anticipate climate-related events to take preventative action that helps their communities safeguard livelihoods and the environment. AICCRA has teams in six countries: Senegal, Ghana, Mali, Ethiopia, Kenya and Zambia. With AICCRA Senegal, five key implementing institutions have worked together for the first time to develop integrated climate information services and climate-smart agriculture technologies and processes. These are ANACIM (meteorological service), ISRA-CERAAS (research), Jokalante (agritech), ANCAR (extension system) and URAC (media).

Africa Talks Climate (ATC) is a research and communications initiative undertaken by the BBC World Service Trust’s Research and Learning Group in partnership with the British Council. The African-led research explores the public understanding of climate change in Africa. It is founded on the belief that those particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change – such as ordinary African citizens – must be better informed in order to understand and effectively respond to their changing climate. It also aims to ensure that their voices are heard within the national and international climate debate. It was launched ahead of the UN climate change summit in December 2009, which sought to broker a new global climate treaty. The initiative launched the report ‘Senegal Talks Climate: The public understanding of climate change’, highlighting the characteristics of the Senegalese context, the changes Senegalese citizens have experienced in their climate and environment, and how Senegalese people explain and respond to changes they are experiencing. The report does not, however, mention climate change education.

The Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) research programme collaborated with the National Meteorological Agency to develop scaled-down climate information services and strengthen the capacity of partners responsible for communicating climate information to farmers. According to a report entitled ‘The impact of climate information services in Senegal’ this covered a pilot project that was implemented in Kaffrine in 2011 and that was later expanded to the regions of Diourbel, Fatick, Louga and Thiès. In 2015, the project was scaled up nationally through a partnership with the Union of Associative and Community Radios of Senegal (URACS), an association of 92 community radio stations. In 2015, a total of 7.4 million people in rural areas (not all farmers), including approximately 740,000 farming households, are thought to have had access to climate information in all 14 administrative regions of Senegal through 92 rural community radios and SMS.

USAID/CINSERE (the Climate Information Services to Enhance Resilience and Productivity in Senegal) is a resilience project aimed at strengthening national capacities for the production, access and efficient dissemination of meteorological and climate information. It is also responsible for developing strategies for the sustainable scaling up of the use of meteorological and climate information services (MCIS) across the country. The project is funded by USAID and implemented by the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security (CCAFS), hosted by the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) and CCAFS, in collaboration with the National Agency for Civil Aviation and Meteorology of Senegal (ANACIM).

In September 2017, the National Agency for Civil Aviation and Meteorology (ANACIM) and the USAID/CINSERE project organized a launch workshop for the ENACTS tool. The objective of the ENACTS tool is to improve ANACIM’s meteorological database and enhance the capacity of the Meteorology Department to develop high-quality climate services. The ENACTS tool generates complete spatiotemporal grid-based climate data series spanning over 30 years, by combining observations from ANACIM stations with satellite-based rainfall estimates (for precipitation) and climate model reanalysis products (for temperature). According to the project report (2020), over the course of nearly four years of implementation, significant results have been achieved in the production, communication and utilization of meteorological and climate information services (MCIS), as well as in strengthening the capacity of beneficiaries to efficiently use the MCIS.

Senegal’s Nationally Determined Contribution (2020) calls for strengthening the production, dissemination, and use of climate information, as well as strengthening the knowledge base on biodiversity in relation to the impacts of climate change. Similarly, the Second National Communication (2010) stresses the importance of reinforcing access to information on climate risks and improving information systems and communication.

iii. Climate change and public participation 

The National Adaptation Programme of Climate Change (2006) states: ‘The identified and prioritized adaptation options, with the participation of the populations, constitute programs that promote the increase of real capacities to better cope, over time, with climate variability’ (p.3).

The Territorial Climate Energy Plan of Dakar 2021-2025 states: ‘Knowing the importance of the participation of governments and various actors in the fight against climate change, synergies and mechanisms have been developed to facilitate the commitment of non-state organizations to contribute in climate action to the achievement of the goals of the Paris Agreement’ (p.15).

The Global Environment Facility organized a workshop in Senegal for French-speaking countries on the climate change frontline in 2023. The workshop’s location included delegates from 16 countries in West Africa, as well as Haiti as the representative for French-speaking Caribbean countries. The delegates were given the opportunity to share their experiences and also reflect on how a low-income country facing sizable climate risks is working to build a safer future. The workshop focused on opportunities for French-speaking countries to use financing from the Least Developed Countries Fund LDCF, which is the only international fund dedicated to supporting climate adaptation in the LDC category. Over the period 2022 to 2026, each LDC is able to access up to US$20 million in grant financing from the LDCF. This is double the amount available in the previous four-year funding period.

A highlight of the Senegal workshop was a field visit to a women-led farmer field school in the village of Pandiénou in the western Thiès region. Female farmers shared their knowledge on how they use nature-based adaptation solutions, including eco-friendly pesticides derived from neem trees and organic fertilizers, such as manure with peanut husks.

The Commission for Sustainable Development and Ecological Transition, Natural Justice, the Network of Parliamentarians for the Environment in Senegal (REPES), and the Laboratory for Studies and Research in Environmental and Health Policies and Law (LERPDES) organized a workshop on the environmental code project with parliamentarians and the Ministry of Environment, Sustainable Development and Ecological Transition. The workshop, which was held in May 2023 in Dakar, provided parliamentarians and the ministry with the opportunity to share information on the issues and content of the environmental code project before its examination and vote in the National Assembly. Representatives from the private sector, universities, civil society and several senior officials from the ministry also participated in these discussions. Some proposed improvements to the content of the environmental code project include: integrating climate change and sustainable public procurement; enhancing and improving the reference framework for international environmental agreements ratified by Senegal; strengthening and improving provisions on environmental impact assessments; and strengthening the participation and active involvement of communities and environmental advocacy associations in the decision-making process.

Through its ‘Power Of Voice’ programme, the African Activists for Climate Justice (AACJ) project was launched in Dakar in February 2022. The project is a consortium of five CSOs: the Pan-African Climate Justice Alliance (PACJA); Oxfam Novib; Natural Justice; the African Youth Commission; and the African Women’s Development and Communication Network (FEMNET). Funded by the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the project is being implemented in eight African countries: Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Nigeria, Senegal, Somalia and South Africa. With a proposed duration of four years and eight months (May 2021 to December 2025), the project aims to enhance the democratization of the climate debate and the development of climate justice in Senegal. It seeks to amplify the voices of women, youth and local and indigenous communities advocating for climate justice, as well as to strengthen the capacities of groups most affected by climate change to advance equity, dignity, and justice for the most vulnerable and marginalized communities in Africa. The launch ceremony of the AACJ project brought together various stakeholders working on the issue of climate change to engage in discussions about climate justice and the need for a strong and inclusive movement around the issue. It also provided the platform for the stakeholders to urge authorities to ensure the fulfilment of international commitments, particularly those related to the climate.

The Community-Based Mangrove Reforestation project was implemented in 2008-2012 by the Senegalese NGO Oceanium. The NGO has been working on environmental preservation and the restoration of mangroves since 1984, and is financed through the Livelihoods Fund. The reforestation of mangroves has resulted in the renewed availability of fish and other food resources that had been largely destroyed over the years. Reforestation efforts, which involved the use of autochthonous species such as the red mangrove, were carried out by local communities and covered a total area of 10,000 ha along the Senegalese coastline of the Deltas of the Sine Saloum and Casamance. In three years, 80 million mangroves have been planted. Ten years after its launch, the Livelihoods Carbon Fund measured the social and environmental impacts of the largest mangrove restoration project in Senegal. The study measuring the social impacts of the Livelihoods-Senegal project was carried out over four months in about 50 villages that participated in this initiative. More than 850 community and individual interviews were conducted. During the discussions, many residents indicated that they had participated in the project to provide a better environment for their children and grandchildren.

In November 2018, the Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI) and the Government of Senegal organized the National Green Growth Week in Senegal (GGGWeek) under the theme ‘Unleashing the Potential of Green Growth in Senegal’. Participants included senior government officials, government directorates and government agencies, the private sector, opinion leaders, as well as heads of NGOs and international organizations. The event served to validate Senegal’s national green growth strategy. However, climate change education was not mentioned or discussed.

In October 2022, Climate Chance held its fourth Africa Summit in Dakar, as part of the Week for Sustainable Mobility and Climate #SMDC2022, which was co-organized with Codatu, an advocacy organization for sustainable transport, and Cetud, the urban transport authority of Dakar. The event brought together 1,500 actors from nearly 40 different nationalities. Many workshops and plenary sessions were held to foster dialogue between different actors on the challenges of sustainable transport and mobility and to strengthen climate action at the local level in Africa. Together, the actors of the SMDC adopted the ‘Dakar Declaration’, a high-level contribution to the COP27, which took place in Egypt later that year.

It is important to notes that there is no reference to public participation in climate change issues in Senegal’s Nationally Determined Contribution (2020) nor the Second National Communication (2010).

  1. Monitoring and evaluation

i. Country monitoring 

The Education Management Information System (SIMEN) is a powerful system for merging all existing educational data collection systems in the country. However, only 20 percent of schools that have an internet connection are able to utilize SIMEN, and only information from grade-level standardized learning assessments is included in the database.

The National Institute for Study and Action for Development in Education (INEADE) is a semi-autonomous agency, dependent on the cabinet of the Minister of Education. The INEADE was created in the 1980s to conduct evaluations to measure learning outcomes and to develop and evaluate textbooks. However, at the time of writing, no information on climate change education and communication is available.

The Centre for Ecological Monitoring publishes a report on the environmental status of the country every five years. (See, for example, the 2015 report). On the one hand the report provides information about the state, evolving trends in managing natural ecosystems and human well-being; on the other hand, it enables the assessment of progress made in implementing the national environmental policy. The 2013 Directory on the environment and natural resources in Senegal 3rd Edition comprises 10 chapters, including maps, tables, graphs and descriptive analyses. It covers different themes such as water resources, marine and coastal environment, land and land governance, biodiversity and ecosystem services, mining and energy, human settlements, and the living environment. The report states that weaknesses include a lack of environmental awareness, insufficient environmental education and training, as well as legal flaws in the management of electrical, electronic and radioactive waste.

The Sustainable Development Report for Senegal (2022) aims to monitor the country’s progress in achieving the SDGs. An overall climate change performance in Senegal shows 121/166 in the SDG Index Rank; 61.8% in the SDG Index Score; and 98.4$ in the Spillover Score. The report notes that Senegal needs to take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts.

The Education in Senegal: Results of PISA D 2017 developed by the OECD is a survey of 15-year-old students that assesses their levels of the key knowledge and skills essential for full participation in society. The assessment focuses on proficiency in reading, mathematics, science and global citizenship domain. The results of the survey showed the weak performance of Senegal. However, no reference to climate change education is made.

As part of the collaboration between the State of Senegal and the Federal Republic of Germany through the Scientific Support Project for National Adaptation Planning Processes (PAS-PNA), a study entitled, the ‘Evaluation of references to climate change and their scientific basis in policies and strategies in Senegal (2019) was conducted. Carried out by research organization Climate Analytics, the study shows that as early as the 1990s, Senegal was one of the first countries in Africa to establish an appropriate policy and institutional framework to address climate challenges voluntarily. This included the development of several strategies and policies. Under the coordination of the Ministry of Environment, Sustainable Development and Ecological Transition, a robust institutional framework consisting of national entities (DEEC, ANCACIM, and CSE), is responsible for monitoring and tracking climate change trends. However, the study further notes that the scientific basis in the policies and strategies does not provide sufficiently strong scientific references to inform the climate change planning processes, both at the national and local levels. The report does not specifically refer to climate change education.

According to Climate Action Tracker, the Senegalese Government is in the process of developing a transparency framework for climate-related interventions. The Climate Action Transparency Initiative (CATI) project has led to the proposal of a national monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) system and the preparation of a roadmap for its implementation. Senegal does not have a formal system of review or an escalation mechanism to assess and strengthen climate action.

ii. MECCE Project Monitoring

The National Education Framework Act No. 91-22 of 30 January 1991 does not mention the words ‘climate change’, ‘environment’, ‘sustainability’, or ‘biodiversity’. The Ten-Year Programme for Education and Training (2007) mentions ‘environment’ 6 times but almost all references are related to the school and physical environment. The terms ‘climate change’, ‘sustainable development’ and ‘biodiversity’ are not mentioned at all. The Education and Training Quality, Equity and Transparency Improvement Program (2018, PAQUET-EF) mentions the words ‘climate change’ 2 times, ‘sustainable development’ 18 times and the term ‘environment’ 58 times.

This section will be updated as the MECCE Project develops.


This profile was reviewed by: 

Abdoulaye Faye, Specialist in Education and Climate Change, ACE Focal Point, Senegal

Henri Mathieu Lo, Geographer, Retired Research Professor at Cheikh Anta Diop University, Dakar

Mamadou Sarr, General Inspector of Education and Training, Retired Research Professor at Cheikh Anta Diop University, Dakar

Marème Diagne, Ecological Monitoring Center, Senegal

Moussa Fall, General Inspector of Education and Training, Research Professor at Cheikh Anta Diop University, Dakar

Thérèse Faye, Expert in Adaptation and Climate Change, Climate Change Division, Senegal

Yaya Barry, Specialist Green Economy and Green Finance, Ministère de l'Environnement, du Développement Durable et de la Transition Ecologique.

Last modified:

Tue, 19/12/2023 - 14:14