- Early childhood care and education (Entry/Establishment ○ Financial operation ○ Quality of teaching and learning ○ Equitable access ○ Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability)
- Primary and secondary education (Entry/Establishment ○ Financial operation ○ Quality of teaching and learning ○ Equitable access ○ Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability)
- Tertiary education (Entry/Establishment ○ Financial operation ○ Quality of teaching and learning ○ Equitable access ○ Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability)
The establishment of the first non-state schools was first allowed at the beginning of the 1990s, by the Decree No. 536/1990 Coll. on the establishment and activities of church schools and the Decree No 280/1994 on private schools, which were later replaced by the Act no. 596/2003 Coll. on State Administration in Education and School Self-Government. According to this Act, the founder of a private school or private school facility may be a natural person or legal entity who is duly registered in the Slovak Republic according to the applicable national legislation. The founder of a church school or church school facility may be a state-recognized church or religious society. The founder may establish a non-state school only once obtained a decision issued by the Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport. The Ministry approves the establishment of such an entity based on the conditions specified in the above-mentioned law.
The Education Act (Act No. 245/2008 on education and training) defines levels, institutions and actors of education provision from pre-school to secondary levels. Article 3 of the Education Act articulates the principle that education obtained in private and church schools registered in the network of schools and school facilities in the Slovak Republic is equal to education obtained in state schools.
The Act on Higher Education (2002), defines the legal status of public, state and private higher education (HE) institutions that provide two types of higher education: university-type and non-university type/professional institutions that generally provide only first level degrees. For all types of higher education institutions, approval from the state is needed. According to the Act on Higher Education, there are four types of HE institutions: public, state (set up by the ministries of the Slovak Government and include police, military and health care higher education institutions), private and foreign higher institutions. Private higher education institutions are defined as those set up by legal entities with a registered office in the Slovak Republic or non-government institutions. Foreign higher education institutions that provide higher education in the territory of the Slovak Republic are not regulated by the Act on Higher Education, but by the legal regulations of the state of their seat. The recognition of the obtained diploma at these institutions is decided in the same way as in the case of diplomas obtained by studying abroad.
The organisation and management of Roman Catholic schools and school facilities established by the Catholic church are specified in Treaty No. 394/2004 between the Slovak Republic and the Holy See on Catholic education and training. The status, organisation and activity of the other church schools established by other registered churches and religious associations are equally fixed by Agreement No. 395/2004 between the Slovak Republic and registered churches and religious societies on religious education.
In the Slovak Republic, most students attend state education institutions at all levels. In 2019/2020, 92% of children attended state kindergartens (from age 5) and primary schools (which include primary and lower secondary education in two stages from grades 1-4 and grades 5-9). Of the total cohort of students in individual types of secondary schools, 76% attended state gymnasiums, 76,3% attended state secondary vocational schools, 58,9% attended state conservatories.
Currently, there are 20 public, 3 state, 11 private and 6 foreign higher education institutions in the Slovak Republic, according to the PortalVS.
Non-state managed, state schools
No information was found.
Non-state funded, state schools
No information was found.
Independent, non-state schools
There are no independent, non-state schools in Slovakia.
State-funded (government-aided), non-state schools
The education system in the Slovak Republic also includes non-state schools (private and church ones), as stipulated in the Education Act. The founders of private schools are physical persons or legal entities. Founders of church schools can be state-acknowledged churches or religious societies (Act 296/2003, Article 19)
Non-state schools in the Slovak Republic cannot be considered as completely independent, as they are obliged to comply with valid school legislation and national curriculum, and they are subsidized by the state/government-aided schools. They receive the same funding from the state budget as state schools (based on normative funding per student).
Church primary schools began operating in 1990; the first private primary school was established in 1993. In 2019/2020, there were 36 251 pupils in 177 non-state primary schools (62 private and 115 church), which is 8% of all primary school pupils.
The first two church upper secondary grammar schools/gymnasiums (gymnázium) were established in 1990. The following year, the first three private gymnasiums were opened. In 2019/2020, there were 17 080 pupils in 90 non-state schools (39 private, 51 church). Almost every fourth student (24%) in gymnasiums studies in a non-state school. Non-state secondary vocational schools and conservatories have been established since 1991. In 115 schools (95 private and 20 church schools) there are currently over 18,3 thousand pupils, making up 14% of the total number of secondary vocational school students and 41,1% of students in conservatories.
Contracted, non-state schools
A small number of international schools in the Slovak Republic offer children's education, usually in a mixed international team, in the form of internationally recognized study programs such as International Baccalaureate, Edexcel or Cambridge Assessment International Education. The Education Act, Article 23 regulates that education in schools where education and training is carried out according to international programs if these received the authorization of the Ministry of Education. According to the Education Act, the secondary school-leaving examination of this type is equivalent to the secondary school-leaving examination in the national programme.
According to the Education Act Art. 24, introduced for the first time a homeschooling as an alternative education. Homeschooling is characterized as individual schooling, and it must be provided by a person who has a pedagogical qualification. In practice, this means that every parent who wants to educate their child at home and does not have the necessary qualification must find a welcoming school and a teacher who will work with the family. Until recently, homeschooling was allowed only for the 1st stage of primary school (grades 1-4), From September 2021, homeschooling is also allowed for children at the 2nd stage of primary school (grades 5-9) and for children in the age of compulsory pre-primary education (from 5 years). Homeschooling is still not common in the Slovak Republic, but it is expanding. According to available statistics, there were 613 home-schooled primary school students in September 2020 (Moravčíková, 2021). Anecdotal evidence suggests an increased interest in homeschooling during the COVID-19 pandemic(Moravčíková, 2021).
Textbooks are usually given to the student by the school, and every six months the child goes to the school for an assessment, in the form of commission testing (komisionálna skúška). A child with a disability (on the recommendation of a doctor) does not take a commission examination (Education Act Art. 24). Parents of home-schooled children established a civic association (Domáce vzdelávanie na Slovensku), which advocates for changes in regulations on children’s assessments, e.g. to include the student's portfolio evaluation.
Market contracted (Voucher schools): No information was found.
Unregistered/Unrecognised schools: No information was found.
The government and the Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sports are responsible for national education policy and the overall strategy for the education system, including non-state education institutions. The responsibilities of the Ministry of Education include the supervision and development of the education system, establishing the framework for student learning objectives (through national education programmes – national curricula), defining the levels and terms of funding, setting the requirements for the professional and pedagogical competence of educational staff, and managing the register of state and non-state schools and school facilities, which are part of the school network.
School governance is fairly decentralised in the Slovak Republic and involves three levels of administration: the central government, regions and municipalities. While the central government retains the key regulatory role, the provision of non-state education services is mostly the responsibility of private founders and churches (Act No. 596/2003 on state administration in the education and school self-government).
Vision: Since the 1990s, the emergence of church and private schools and school facilities created the space necessary for a competitive environment within the framework of the entire system of schools and school facilities. Non-state education brought an alternative to a state school and created a precondition for fulfilling the right of parents to choose a school for their children according to their convictions and conscience. As stipulated in the Education Act, education obtained at private and church schools registered in the network of schools and school facilities in the Slovak Republic is equal to education obtained at public schools.
The funding system introduced by the Act No. 597/2003 has encouraged school choice, not only between state schools but also between them and church and private schools as their students are funded the same amount as state schools. As a result, private involvement in the education system, as well as the diversity of educational institutions, have significantly increased since 2003 (see Table 1 in Comments).
In Slovakia, the early care provision for children under 3 years of age has not been regulated by any legislation or supervised by any Ministry since 1993. The only recent state activity was the so-called ‘crib law’ (Social Services Act No 40/2017) adopted in 2017, which attempted to regain some state control of the so-called crèches. The Social Services Act defined creches as an outpatient social service and imposed on facilities providing these services with the obligation to ensure compliance with strict criteria concerning the safety, health and hygiene of children. The quality of pedagogical activities in these facilities is still not guided or monitored.
Pre-primary education is provided at the kindergartens for children between 3 and 6 years. From September 1, 2021, pre-primary education is compulsory for children who reach the age of five by 31 August 2021 (Act No. 209/2019). Children will be admitted to compulsory pre-primary education from the school year 2021/2022.
The founders of kindergartens are mainly municipalities, but also private entities (private kindergartens) and state recognised churches or religious societies (church kindergartens). All kindergartens are professionally and methodologically managed by the Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport and they must follow the State educational program for pre-primary education.
The proportion of children participating in non-state kindergartens has been steadily growing in the past three decades. While the first private kindergarten was established in 1993, church kindergartens appeared since 1995 (Zacharova et al., 2017). According to the statistical data from the Slovak Centre of Scientific and Technical Information, 13 033 children attended non-state kindergartens (176 private and 96 church kindergartens) in the 2019/2020 school year. Their share in the total number of children in kindergarten was 7.9%.
Registration and approval: See Multi-level regulations.
Licence: See Multi-level regulations.
Profit-making: No information was found.
Taxes and subsidies: See Multi-level regulations.
Curriculum and education standards: See section on Multi-level regulations.
Teaching profession: See Multi-level regulations.
Fee-setting: See Multi-level regulations.
Admission selection and processes: The admission of children to pre-primary education in kindergartens and special kindergartens (both state and non-state) is regulated by the Education Act No 245/2008, further amended by Act No. 209/2019. Details on the admission of children to kindergarten are further regulated by the Decree No 306/2008 on Kindergarten, § 6 and further amendments. Children from 3 to 6 years of age can be officially enrolled in a kindergarten, upon a written request from the parent. Exceptionally, a child may be admitted from the age of two, if there is a free place. However, priority is given to children for whom pre-primary education is compulsory.
Other admission conditions are determined by the principal of the kindergarten according to Act No. 596/2003 (Article 5, §14) and further Amendments. The admission criteria need to be published in a publicly accessible place or on the website of the kindergarten. These conditions must be in line with generally binding legal regulations and must not be discriminatory and restrictive of the rights of children or their parents. Non-state (private and church) kindergartens can set their own admission requirements.
Policies for vulnerable groups: Children with special education needs in private and church kindergartens are entitled to the same benefits and concessions as children in state kindergartens. For example, Decree No 306/2008 on Kindergarten, § 6 stipulates that a maximum of two children with special educational needs can be admitted to the class. The overall number of children in a class will be reduced by two children for each child with a disability. According to the Education Act (2008), Article 26 Children with special educational needs are placed in classes together with other children or in separate classes for children with special educational needs. A child cannot be placed in a separate class for children with special educational needs solely because he or she comes from a socially disadvantaged background; if a separate class consists only of children from socially disadvantaged backgrounds, there can be a maximum of 16 children in a class.
Accountability requirements: No information was found.
Inspection: External control of creches for children under 3 years concerns compliance with legal standards (Social Services Act No 40/2017), but the quality of the environment in terms of incentives for children's development is not monitored.
Child assessment: There are no regulations on child assessments in state or non-state kindergartens. Child assessments are performed by a kindergarten teacher, kindergarten headteacher, and school inspector for kindergartens. Observation and analysis of the play, analysis and evaluation of activities, art products and products of child’s work activities are the most common assessment methods. Each child has a portfolio, which documents the educational results and the child’s development. The assessment focuses on the development of the foundations of key competencies of pre-school age children, including social skills and behaviour of the child, independence and healthy self-confidence of the child. Findings from the assessments are recorded in assessment sheets. In addition to diagnostic sheets, records on children’s learning outcomes, progress or individual educational needs are being kept.
Sanctions: See Multi-level regulations.
Registration and approval: See Multi-level regulations.
Licence: See Multi-level regulations.
Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH): Requirements on infrastructure and safety are included as part of the application for a licence/registration in the network of schools and school facilities (Act No. 596/2003, Article 22).
Profit-making: No information was found.
Taxes and subsidies: Since 2003, when formula funding was introduced (Act No. 597/2003 on financing primary schools, secondary schools and school facilities as amended by subsequent provision), state, church and private schools all receive per-student funding (normative funding) from the state budget, creating a market environment for schools. However, education in private and church schools can be provided against payment/fee. For more information, Multi-level regulations.
Curriculum and education standards: See Multi-level regulations.
Textbooks and learning materials: Provision of textbooks and other learning materials is regulated by the Education Act No 245/2008, Article 13. Act No. 597/2003, Article 3 further regulates the financing of textbooks and other learning materials that are funded by the Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport.
According to the Education Act (2008), Article 13, state and non-state schools can choose from textbooks approved by the Ministry of Education. The School Act also allows using other teaching texts and workbooks, which are in accordance with the goals and principles of the Schools Act. Textbooks and workbooks approved by a state-recognized church or religious society may be used to teach the subject of religion or religious education.
Teaching profession: See Multi-level regulations.
Corporal punishment: The key principles and values of education are stated in the Education Act No. 245/2008, Article 3, including a ban on the use of all forms of corporal punishment and sanctions in education. The implementation of this ban is further elaborated by schools in their internal procedures (school regulations), issued by the principal of a school or school facility after consultation with the school self-government and the pedagogical council.
Other safety measures and COVID-19: Information on COVID19-related regulations, guidance and methodological materials produced by the Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport are all listed in the website of the Ministry. The website www.ucimenadialku.sk has been accessible since March 2020, as a tool of official communication during interrupted teaching at schools in times of emergency. The site provides an overview of the various forms of organising remote education, as well as recommendations and guidelines for schools, teachers, professionals, counselling, parents. The website was created in cooperation with several non-governmental organizations and the Ministry. The Ministry also established a call centre available to the general public. Experts provide advice and answers to questions related to the situation in education during working hours.
Act No. 272/1994 on the protection of human health, amended in 2002, states that “Educational activities in facilities for children and young people must be organized in such a way as to create conditions for the healthy development of children and young people, taking into account their age, health and degree of psychosomatic development, as well as the prevention of damage to health, in particular, excessive mental and static load and to prevent the emergence and spread of communicable diseases.” (Article 13(i))
Educational activities must respect the physiological characteristics of the various age groups of children and young people, and they must be organized in such a way as to prevent health risks. Education in all forms and types of education institutions should lead to and develop physical and mental health, lead to the development of individual abilities of children and youth, increase work efficiency while respecting the mental, physical and social development and health of the individual and compensate for adverse effects of learning and regime burdens.
According to the Education Act (2008), Article 153, the school regulations (školský poriadok) must ensure conditions for ensuring the safety and health protection of children and pupils and their protection against socio-pathological phenomena, discrimination or violence.
Fee-setting: See Multi-level regulations.
Admission selection and processes: See Multi-level regulations.
Policies for vulnerable groups: See Multi-level regulations.
School board: The school and school facilities are managed by the school principal. The school management also includes the deputy director, the main master (in vocational schools) and the leading educator.
The profssional requirements for the selection of the school principal, are regulated by the Act no. 596/2003 Article 3, including the requirement of at least five years of teaching experience at the date of the selection procedure. Following the successful selection procedure, the school principal is appointed to the position by the founder, who at the time of the appointment agrees with the selected candidate the terms of the employment contract and determines the salary requirements. The founder can both appoint and remove the principal from office.
The founder of a church school or the founder of a private school appoints the principal for a five-year term based on the proposal of the school board. The school board submits a proposal for a candidate for school principal on the basis of a selection procedure (Article 4). If the founder does not accept the proposed candidate, he/she will ask the school board to submit a proposal for a new candidate. If the board of a church school or the board of a private school submits a proposal for a candidate for the appointment of the principal after the second selection procedure, which does not meet the criteria of the founder according to the focus of the school, the principal is appointed by the founder.
Duties for principals of all types of schools, regardless of their founder (state, private or church), related to matters of pedagogical staff are laid down in Act No. 138/2019. In the case of church and private schools, the procedure must be in accordance with a collective agreement or internal regulation, in which the remuneration is adjusted in accordance with the valid Labor Code (2001).
The school board (školská rada) is an advisory self-governing body representing the public interests and the interests of pupils, parents, pedagogical staff and other staff in the field of education. The school boards perform the function of public control, assess and comment on the activities of schools, school facilities, and, as mentioned above, participate in the selection of the school principal in private and church schools. Functions and powers of the school boards are regulated by the Act No. 596/2003 Article 24. Decree of the Ministry of Education No. 291/2004, Article 9, determines further details of the manner of appointing school self-government bodies (school boards), their composition, as well as their organizational and financial support.
Reporting requirements: See Multi-level regulations.
School inspection: See Multi-level regulations.
Student assessments: The Education Act (2018) defines the key areas of student assessment (Article 55) and the necessary examination documentation (Article 18). The Act further regulates in detail the organisation and forms of school-leaving examinations from all types of secondary schools (Articles 73- 93).
Diplomas and degrees: The Education Act (2008) Articles 16 - 18, stipulates the education degrees according to education levels and specifies documents-certificates for individual levels of education. State education programs include further details on organisation and conditions of completion of education and training at primary and secondary levels and specify the process of issuing a certificate/school leaving diploma according to levels and types of education (general, vocational).
Sanctions on school closures: See Multi-level regulations.
The legal rights and obligations of private higher education institutions are regulated by the Act on Higher Education (2002) Articles 47-49. Currently, there are 11 private institutions of the total number of 35 universities and higher education institutions in Slovakia. None of the private tertiary institutions has university status.
Registration and approval: According to the Act on Higher Education No. 131/2002, Article 47, a private higher education institution can provide higher education once it obtained a state consent which is granted by the Government, on the recommendation of the Slovak Accreditation Agency for Higher Education. A private higher education institution can be established by a legal entity established for education and research in the Slovak Republic or a Member State of the European Union.
The Act No 343/2015 on quality assurance in higher education, and amendments, regulates application requirements for the state consent, including a) data of the applicant, b) name of the private university, c) long-term plan of the private university, d) application for accreditation of the study program, e) draft statute, draft internal system, draft study regulations and draft principles for the selection of university teachers, researchers and professors and associate professors, f) method of financial support for private university activities and g) personnel, spatial, material, technical and information provision of the provision of higher education (Article 33).
Licence: For the registration, the HE providers have to obtain state consent. The state consent expires if the private university/higher education institution does not start an educational activity within two years of its entry into force (Article 47). The Government may, on the proposal of the Ministry of Education, withdraw the state consent, if the private institution violated the legislation or provided incorrect data that are decisive for the granting of state consent (article 105).
Profit-making: A private university secures funding for its educational, research, development or artistic and other creative activities from its own resources (Act on Higher Education (2002), Article 91).
Taxes and subsidies: The Act on Higher Education (2002) Article 106 states that the Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport may provide subsidies to a private higher education institution for the implementation of accredited study programs, for research and development, or artistic activities. A private higher education institution can also receive earmarked funds for solving research and development projects.
The Ministry can provide a subsidy to a private university/higher education institution for the social support of students (Article 91).
Curriculum and education standards: The Act No 343/2015 on quality assurance in higher education, and amendments states that the Slovak Accreditation Agency for Higher Education (the Agency) establishes the standards for all study programs, and verifies compliance of study programs with the requirements. The standards for study programs set up by the Agency are binding for all tertiary institutions. They are published at the Agency’s website: https://saavs.sk/standardy-kvality/
Teaching profession: The Act on Higher Education (2002), regulates qualification requirements and other criteria for all positions of academic staff, including professors, ‘docents’ and teachers, together with requirements of certification of academic degrees for the HE staff (Articles 74-80). Each college or university has to develop a "Principles of Selection Procedure for the Fulfilment of University Staff” (Article 48) that govern its personnel policies, including selection procedures and conditions for filling the position, the requirements applicable to academic staff, and the length and conditions of the employment contract.
Fee-setting: Tuition and fees associated with studying at a private higher education institution are determined by the private entity in its internal regulations. No later than two months before the last day set for the submission of applications for study, the institution must publish the amounts for a tuition fee and fees associated with the study for the following academic year (Article 93).
Admission selection and processes: Everyone has the right to study at a selected study program of a higher education institution if they meet the basic conditions for admission to study and other conditions determined by the faculty or university (Act on Higher Education (2002). The basic condition for admission to bachelor's studies is the acquisition of a full secondary education or a full secondary vocational education. This is fulfilled by high school graduates with a school-leaving certificate issued after its successful completion (Article 56). The tertiary institution may determine additional conditions for admission to the study programs. The specified conditions and the method of verifying their fulfilment must allow the selection of candidates who show the highest level of ability to study (Article 57).
Board: The highest governing and decision-making body of a private tertiary institution is the board of directors of a private university. The powers of the board of directors of a private university are determined by the statute of the private university. The university is managed and represented by the rector of the university together with the senior employees of the university. Their activities and competencies are regulated by the Act on Higher Education Institutions (2002). The bodies of academic self-government of a private tertiary institution are the academic senate, rector, the scientific or artistic council, and the disciplinary commission for students (Article 47a).
Reporting requirements: The Act on Higher Education (2002) stipulates that a private university/higher education institution is obliged to prepare, publish and submit to the Ministry an annual report on its activities and, if it has received a subsidy from the state budget, an annual report on its management in a period and form determined by the Ministry (Article 48).
Inspection: Independent external evaluation of the quality of educational, research, development and artistic activities of state and private higher education institutions is the responsibility of the Slovak Accreditation Agency for Higher Education (the Agency), which evaluates the conditions in which higher education institutions perform their activities according to the Act No 343/2015 on quality assurance in higher education, and amendments. The higher education institution is obliged to ask the Agency to assess its internal system at least once every six years (Article 24). The Agency grants accreditation to the study program if the private tertiary institution meets the standards for the study program (Article 30).
Student assessments: No information was found.
Diplomas and degrees: The Act on Higher Education (2002) regulates higher education degrees, diplomas and certificates. Diplomas to students certifying the completion of the study program in private higher education institutions are equal to those obtained in state institutions.
Sanctions on institutional closures: The Ministry can propose to the Government to withdraw the state consent for the operation of a private higher education institution if the institution violates the obligations stipulated by the Act and/or its own internal regulations (Article 105). By revoking the state consent, the legal entity loses the right to operate as a tertiary institution. At the same time, all study programs, the accreditation of the degree and the inauguration procedures are cancelled (Article 105).
The regulations referred to in this section are based on the Act no. 596/2003 Coll. on State Administration in Education and School Self-Government, which regulates state and non-state education from pre-school to secondary education, in addition to the Education Act (Act No. 245/2008 on education and training), amended in 2019 (Act No. 209/2019), included in the previous sections.
Registration and approval: According to the Act No. 596/2003, Article 19, it is possible to establish a state and non-state kindergarten, school and a school facility only after its inclusion in the network of schools and schools (hereinafter referred to as the "network"). The network is managed by the Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sports of the Slovak Republic. An application for registration of a state and non-state education institution (kindergarten, primary and secondary school and school facility) in the network must be submitted to the Ministry of Education by 31 March of the calendar year preceding the year in which the kindergarten will be established. The Ministry must decide on the application within 60 days of its delivery.
The application must be accompanied by the necessary details and accompanied by all documents as prescribed in the Act No 596/2003, Article 16. The requirements include the name, address and identification number of the founder, the statutory body and the legal form (Article 16 (a)); the name and address of the school or school facility, including its components (Article 16 (b)); the expected number of children and classes (Article 16 (c-d), language of instruction or language of instruction (Article 16 (e)), a school educational program or an educational program according to which education and training will be carried out in a school or school facility (Article 16 (f)), the estimated date on which the school or school facility, including its components, is to be established (Article 16 (g)), proof of secured premises (Article 16 (h)), proof from the competent state administration bodies that the premises of the school or school facility comply with hygienic requirements and regulations on safety and health protection at work and regulations on fire protection (Article 16 (i)), and the estimated budget of the school or school facility (Article 16(j)). A written opinion of the relevant local authority or self-governing regions is also required.
Licence: Once the education institution is included in the network of schools and school facilities, the founder of the private and church school (physical person or legal entity or a church) issues a Charter of school and school facilities (Act No. 596/2003, Article 22). The Charter of a school or school facility must contain a) the name of the founder, b) the name of the school or school facility excluding the possibility of confusion with the name of other legal entities, type and type, its registered office (address) and identification number, c) the name and address of the entity that is part of the school or school facility, d) educational language or a language of instruction, e) form of management, f) the date of establishment of the school or school facility, g) the definition of the basic public benefit activities or public functions for which the school or school facility is established, and the corresponding subject of activity, h) designation of the statutory body, i) material and financial definition of the property managed by the school or school facility, j) the time for which the school or school facility is established, k) the date and number of the decision of the Ministry on inclusion in the network.
Profit-making: The financial management of private and church schools is regulated by the Act No 597 (2003). The schools can use funds from all sources only for the operational and salary costs of the school. Unlike state schools, repairs and reconstructions of the school facilities are financed exclusively from their own funds. The profit is not retained by the founder. The founders of private schools usually operate as non-profit organisations, and the entire profit must be returned to education.
Taxes and subsidies: In addition to normative funding, according to the Act No. 596/2003 (Article 6), church and private founders receive funds for school facilities from the budgets of municipalities and self-governing regions at least in the amount of 88% of the amount spent by municipalities and self-governing regions on state school facilities.
Curriculum or education standards: Non-state schools in Slovakia are obliged to comply with the educational programmes for each education level (štátne vzdelávacie programy) defined by the National Institute for Education (Štátny pedagogický ústav).
Teaching profession: The school principal, teaching staff and non-pedagogical professionals in private and church schools must comply with the same qualification requirements as the staff in state schools. The qualifications of pedagogical staff are set up in the Act no. 138/2019 on pedagogical employees and professional employees, and on amendments.
Salaries of the teachers in state, private and church schools are funded from the normative state funding, calculated each year by the Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport, in accordance with the Government Regulation No. 630/2008 and amendments. Salaries of teachers in private and church kindergartens are financed from the self-government's own funds.
According to the data of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Slovak Republic, the salary of a teacher in a private school is on average 10% higher than a teacher in a state or church school. As there are fewer pupils per teacher in private schools, and school leaders strive for a high level of motivation and support from the teaching team, as well as a reduction in the bureaucratic burden on non-teaching staff, teachers in private schools have more favourable working conditions.
Fee-setting: Funding for church and private schools come from the state normative funding, resources obtained from renting school premises, contributions from founders (private or legal entities and churches), donations, profits from business activities and contributions from parents (Act No. 597/2003, Article 2). As stipulated in the Act No. 597/2003, Article 1, in private and church schools, education and other services may be provided for a fee. The founders of private and church kindergartens, primary and secondary schools set up the amount of a school fee based on a discussion with the school board and the school principal. The principal of a non-state educational institution is obliged to provide information on the use of these funds at the request of the pupil's parent or legal representative.
Admission selection and processes: The Education Act (2008) regulates admissions to pre-primary education (Article 59), primary and secondary education (Articles 60 and 61). In addition, kindergartens, primary and secondary schools can set up their own admission requirements. According to the Education Act (2008) Article 65, school principals publish criteria for the admission procedure for education at secondary schools, such as the number of pupils that can be admitted, the criteria and other conditions for admission to study (e.g., student's achievement in specific subjects). Schools can allocate admission points according to the established formulas. Students are admitted according to their achieved points. No information was found on regulations related to the specific equity initiative.
Policies for vulnerable groups: Students in private and church schools are entitled to the same concessions and benefits granted to students in state schools. These include reduced class size if the students with special education needs are integrated into the regular class. In general, for each pupil with a disability included in the class together with other pupils, the number of pupils in the class is reduced by two (the Education Act, 2008, Article 29). The amended Act 2013 (Act No 464/2013) further determines the lowest number of pupils in primary school classes. The founder can also reduce the number of pupils in a class if more than 80% of the total number of pupils at the school are pupils from socially disadvantaged backgrounds. Kindergartens and schools receive more funds for children with special education needs, and there’s also an increased allocation of funds for children from socially disadvantaged backgrounds.
Inspection: All non-state schools in the network of schools and school facilities in the Slovak Republic are subject to regular evaluation and inspection by the State school inspection (Štátna školská inšpekcia), according to the same principles as state schools. The Inspectorate controls the compliance of School Educational Programs with the goals and principles of the Education Act (2003) and State Educational Programs. The role and functions of the Inspectorate, as defined in the Act No. 596/2003, Articles 12 and 13, include the assessment of the level of pedagogical management, the level of educational activities, teaching practice, learning process, and material and technical conditions in state and non-state schools. The Inspectorate can apply a range of measures – from recommendations to imposing sanctions, according to the seriousness of problems identified during the school audit (Act. No. 596/2003, Article 13).
Reporting requirements: Roles and responsibilities of schools, school principals, local governments, self-governing regions, the Ministry and subsidiary institutions (including the State School Inspection, National Institute for Education) are regulated by the Act No. 596/2003. State education programs (Article 6) further specific goals of education and training, which are in accordance with the Education Act Article 4, educational standards, framework curricula, the language of instruction (Article 12), requirements for completion of education and training, details on issuing a certificate of education, compulsory staffing, material-technical and spatial safety requirements, conditions for ensuring safety and health protection in education, specific conditions for education of children and pupils with special educational needs.
The School educational program (Article 7) is the basic document of the school, according to which education is carried out in schools according to the Education Act and the State educational programs. The school educational program is issued by the school principal after discussion with the pedagogical council and the school board. The School educational program must contain the school's own profile/focus, length of study and forms of education, elaborated subject curricula (except for kindergartens), as well as an internal system of control and evaluation of children and pupils. The school is accountable to the Ministry of Education for the educational programme.
The quality of management and education in private schools is controlled by the State School Inspectorate and the state punishes non-compliance with the State educational program or legislation by withdrawing 15% of the normative contribution. This penalty does not apply to state or church schools. Education provision in private schools is subject to various types of control, including State school inspectorate, tax authorities, the Labour inspectorate, financial control and control of local governments through the Chief Controller of a municipality, city or local authority.
Student assessments: See section on Primary and secondary education.
Sanctions on school closures: Establishment and cancellation of schools or school facilities are regulated by the Act No 596/2003 Articles 19-23. In case of serious deficiencies in the field of material and technical support or education provision found during the audit of the State School Inspectorate, the Chief School Inspector may submit a proposal to the Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport to take out/exclude the school from the network of schools and school facilities (Article 17).
Secondary students in Slovakia often attend private tutoring to prepare themselves for the university admission examination. About 20% - 30% of primary and secondary students took some form of private tutoring, and roughly 56 % of university freshmen in the academic year 2004/2005 reported taking private tutoring at the end of their secondary studies. In 2004, students spent on average EUR 170 on private tutoring (Kubánová, 2006). There are no more recent studies on private tutoring.
No information was found.
There is no legislation regulating private tutoring in Slovakia and there are no legal restrictions on providing private tutoring by teachers themselves. Some schools do not even formally forbid the educational experts responsible for developing entrance examinations from giving private lessons to the applicants taking part in these examinations. Tutors provide their services mostly in the shadow economy, without acquiring trade licences or paying income tax (Kubanova 2006).
The Trade Licensing Act (1991, amended in 2008) stipulates conditions for tutoring in two academic areas only – foreign languages and arts. This Act provides regulations for entry/establishment and qualification requirements (higher education degree) for the teaching of foreign languages. However, there are no qualification requirements for tutoring in other school subjects.