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1. Terminology

2. Technology laws, policies, plans and regulations

2.1. Education technology legislative and policy framework

2.2. Technology infrastructures, technological capacity of schools and learning environments

2.3. Technology competencies of learners and teachers

2.4. Cybersecurity and safety

3. Governance

3.1. Institutions in charge of technology in education and coordination mechanisms

3.2. Roles of schools


1. Terminology

Article 2 of the 1992 General Education Law No. 45 refers to “information technology” but does not define it. 

The 2014 National Assessment Report on Education for All refers to “Information and Technology in Education” on several occasions but does not define it. 

The 2020 COVID-19 Ministry of Education national response plan mentions the terms ‘’distance and e-learning’’ but does not define them. 

The 2020 Transitional Education Sector Plan (TEP) references the following terms without defining them: digital learning, digital platforms, digital library, e-learning, distance learning/education, distance and home-based learning. 


2. Technology laws, policies, plans and regulations

2.1. Education technology legislative and policy framework

Constitution and laws: Article 54 of the 1991 Constitution (amended in 2001) states that “Education is a right for all citizens. The state shall guarantee education in accordance with the law by building various schools and cultural and educational institutions. Basic education is obligatory (...)”. 

Article 2 of the 1992 General Education Law No. 45 states that “Education and self-education are a tool for continuous learning, and information technology is an essential input for achieving educational and scientific objectives.” 

Article 35 of the 2015 Draft Constitution stipulates that “The State shall place a special emphasis on the knowledge economy and information technology in all sectors, shall protect cyberspace security, and shall take necessary measures to that end as regulated by law”.  

Policies, plans and strategies: The 2000-2025 Yemen’s Strategic Vision sets out “the long–term ambitions and goals, which the society aspires for and keeps pace with developments and with the rapid economic, scientific and technological changes”. The Vision aspires to reform the educational institutions' structures and curricula so they can keep up with scientific and technological developments. The objectives of the vision in the field of Science and Technology include the formulation of a National Strategy restructuring and improving legislative and legal framework that encompasses the education and training system to develop an innovative national system. 

The release of the 2014 National Assessment Report on Education for All by the Ministry of Education is based on the commitment of the Republic of Yemen to the Universal Declaration of Education for All in all its provisions. The report shows the extent to which education has evolved in Yemen and the goals to be achieved by 2015. The objectives include harnessing new technology in information and communication to help achieve the goals of Education for All, the diversification of technical expertise with basic competencies and general skills, and courses adequate with the needs of the labour market including information technology systems. The report also states that technology must be employed in educational and administrative settings so that a school may be characterized as a developed one. 

The 2020 Transitional Education Sector Plan (TEP) is the national framework combining humanitarian work and development for 3 years; it states that the “Education sector and humanitarian partners have joined efforts to respond to the MoE’s call to support alternatives to educational opportunities, i.e. the provision of a holistic response package, including but not limited to distance learning”. 

The 2001-2025 Strategic Vision for Communications and Information Technology in Support of Yemen's Integrated Development Plans main objectives include the creation of e-government, e-commerce and the provision of the structures and services to disseminate distance learning and continuous learning. There is no ICT Policy. 

The 2030 National Vision for the Modern Yemeni State aims to introduce technology at all education levels and encourage society initiatives for digital transformation for a knowledge-based economy. The objective in the education sector is to “Provide high-quality education for all members of the society by stimulating the acquisition of knowledge and skills, instilling values and ethics, meeting the needs of development and keeping pace with scientific and technological progress”. 

According to the Vision of E-Learning Technology Management, the General Directorate of Information Technology in the Ministry of Education aims to upgrade E-Learning and its services by taking advantage of electronic communication technologies to build an electronic environment that includes electronic equipment keeping pace with the developments of modern technology and specialized, distinguished and professional educational staff to produce high-quality electronic content that complies with international quality standards and a learner with the skills of using modern technology. Goals include “developing plans for programs to integrate technology into education that are implemented through the ministry or supporting agencies, and supervising these programs in coordination with the relevant authorities.” 

Digital competency frameworks: According to the MOE website, Yemen adheres to the ISTE standards for students, teachers, and school leaders. 

Changes occurred as a result of COVID-19: The 2020 COVID-19 Ministry of Education national response plan states that from March 16, 2020, all schools were closed nationwide. This prevented 5.8 million students including 2.5 million girls, from finishing the 2019-2020 school year and taking their final exams “School closure and absence of teachers due to the COVID-19 outbreak in Yemen have not only impacted learning for 5.8 million children already enrolled in school, but also hinder and limit opportunities for an estimated 2 million Out of School Children (OOSC) to enter into the schooling system”. In addition to that, teacher strikes that occurred at the start of the school year in some regions of the nation resulted in many female and male students attending only 33% of the second semester of their 2019-2020 academic year; thus the academic years 2016–2017 and 2017–2018 concluded early. “Girls who are out of school face higher risks of child marriage and domestic violence. On the other hand, boys are at high risk of being recruited into armed groups or forces. While COVID-19 led to a nationwide interruption of schooling for all children, learning of vulnerable children (mostly children belonging to minorities, including girls in rural areas and children with disability) are expected to be impacted to a higher degree”. The Ministry of Education (MoE) has appealed for assistance from the international community in response to this crisis in learning to provide home-based learning alternatives as distance and e-learning platforms were not commonly used in Yemen. 

2.2. Technology infrastructures, technological capacity of schools and learning environments

2.2.1. Technology infrastructure and digital capacity of schools

Electricity: The 2020 Transitional Education Sector Plan (TEP) states that there is a lack of infrastructure and electricity which is a challenge for home-based learning, especially in remote areas. 

However, the 2030 National Vision for the Modern Yemeni State strategic objective in education includes “Completing and developing infrastructure and technology for education of all kinds” by providing technical infrastructure: networking and information and communication technology equipment, within educational institutions and developing a programme for the rehabilitation of partially damaged schools and the reconstruction of destroyed schools.  

Computers and devices: The 2014 National Assessment Report on Education for All states that in the framework of school buildings, the minimum requirements are set at activity halls, computer laboratories and science laboratories. The Vision of E-Learning endeavours to provide the schools of the Republic with computer labs and their accessories as well as supervise computer laboratories, follow up their activities and events, and provide direct and indirect support for the process of employing technology in education. 

Internet connectivity: The 2014 National Assessment Report on Education for All states that the provision of computer laboratories and their linkage to an Internet network is gradually expanded for all schools, depending on the availability of electricity and the network coverage in various regions. 

The 2020 Transitional education sector plan states that rural areas do not have internet access. 

The Vision of E-Learning also calls for building an electronic educational environment for the teacher and the learner to enable them to use modern technology, including the use of computers, the Internet, e-mail and its applications. 

2.2.2. Technology and learning environments

The 2014 National Assessment Report on Education for All demonstrates that a television channel for education, the Sabaa Education Channel, provided distance education and broadcasted lessons for all the content of the prescribed subjects, in particular mathematics, science, Arabic and English, thereby contributing to the provision of opportunities for students in rural areas to benefit from these lessons. The channel also broadcasts teacher training programmes and offers educational and awareness-raising programmes and activities related to education. 

The 2020 COVID-19 Ministry of Education national response plan document integrates the needs, resources, and initiatives that the Ministry of Education and its partners (humanitarian and development actors) identified to ensure that all children can continue their education during (COVID-19) “This COVID-19 Education Response Plan, therefore, seeks to provide continued learning to every child in the country, with a special focus on the most vulnerable and hard-to-reach children. As such the Plan is an opportunity to reach also those who otherwise may not have been able to go to school or would be at risk of dropping out” 

The 2020 Transitional Education Sector Plan (TEP) mentioned that one of the activities that were planned to be implemented in response to COVID-19 included flexible, remote, and home-based learning as well as the activation of offline learning applications to facilitate access to rural areas where connectivity is a challenge. The dissemination of educational content through existing TV channels and the creation of Whatsapp groups facilitated by teachers. 

The Yemeni Ministry of Education’s e-Learning website contains a plethora of resources for administration, teachers, and students. The website contains curriculum resources, information about the e-Learning vision of Yemen, as well as a Digital Library. The library contains teacher guides, curriculum textbooks, educational videos, audio, applications, and more. 

“Yaman” is a “free Yemeni educational platform for distance education, affiliated with the Ministry of Education, which provides general education students with all educational lessons and courses, prepared by a distinguished group of male and female teachers.” Courses are separated by grade level and subject level. The website also includes training guides for teachers. 

2.3. Technology competencies of learners and teachers

2.3.1. Learners

According to the MOE website, the ISTE standards is the point of reference for students’ skills and competencies. These include promoting creativity and innovation through critical thinking and knowledge construction. Students are encouraged to utilize modern communication tools and digital environments to effectively collaborate with others. They are also expected to develop research and information fluency by effectively gathering, evaluating, and utilizing data and information. The standards aim to enhance critical thinking, problem-solving, and decision-making abilities, utilizing appropriate digital tools. Additionally, students are encouraged to practice responsible digital citizenship, and understanding the ethical and social aspects of technology. Lastly, students should have a solid understanding of technological operations and concepts to navigate and utilize technology effectively. 

2.3.2. Teachers

Article 25 of the 1992 General Education Law No. 45 mentions requirements for the qualification and preparation of teachers in all stages of general education so they can be "progressively unified" and aims to increase training for the "qualitative deficit" of teachers.  

The Vision of E-Learning calls for improving the teacher's ability to integrate technology into education and building the capacity of teachers and school management to use resources and systems to improve the educational process and learning within the classroom to assist learners in learning the curricula using educational technologies. 

The professional development program follows four phases: Phase 1 is the Introduction to the use of the Internet for teaching and learning Basic concepts and skills to enter the world of information technology and the Internet for teaching and learning purposes; And building a community of learners, students and teachers; Phase II is the Introduction to Participatory Distance Learning Projects and Participatory Distance Learning, Design, Implementation and Dissemination of Projects; Phase Three is Curriculum and Technology Integration Building, implementing and facilitating innovative classroom practices that integrate ICT into the curricula; Phase IV - Innovations: Fundamentals Teaching, Technology and Professional Development Create, evaluate and disseminate innovative classroom practices that integrate networking technology into the curriculum while addressing social and ethical concerns Seek participation in sustainable professional development opportunities across the World Wide Web. 

The ISTE standards for teachers focus on facilitating student learning and creativity, designing student-centred learning experiences, modelling digital citizenship and responsibility, and engaging in professional growth and leadership. Teachers are expected to utilize their knowledge and skills in integrating technology effectively to enhance student learning and to serve as models for digital professionalism. 

2.4. Cybersecurity and safety

2.4.1. Data privacy

Article 26 of the 2012 Yemen law of the right of access to information stipulates that no one has the right to access “information which, if disclosed, may endanger the life of an individual or put his physical safety at risk” and “Personal data which, if disclosed, may be considered as an illogical violation to the privacy of the individual, as long as the personal data are connected to the duty or function or public office held by that individual and a general social damage is caused if not published”. Articles 45, 48, 49 and 50 are linked to the “Protection of information” and its mechanisms. Even though this law does not refer to schools, it applies to all parties. The Law included Part IV Privacy Policy with the following articles: 

“It is not permissible for any party to collect, process, save and use of personal data of the citizen, contrary to the Constitution and the laws in force; The collection, processing, storage and use by any party of the personal data shall be limited to the powers and functions of this official party who is authorized to do so as necessary for the performance of her functions (art.51-52)”. 

2.4.2. Online abuse and cyberbullying

No information has been found. 


3. Governance

3.1. Institutions in charge of technology in education and coordination mechanisms

The 2014 National Assessment Report on Education for All states that the General Directorate of Information Technology was established in the Ministry of Education to provide computer laboratories, educational programmes and electronic means of education and learning to all schools in the Republic of Yemen. No other information regarding the coordination mechanisms was found. 

The 2017-2019 UN Strategic Framework for Yemen affirms that the UN will continue to support the Ministry of Education in ensuring that schools are operational and primary education is available across the country though nothing in link to technology in education is mentioned. 

3.2. Roles of schools

No legislation has been found concerning the role of schools, particularly concerning their authority to ban mobile phones. 

Last modified:

Thu, 15/02/2024 - 12:01