- Early childhood care and education (Entry/Establishment ○ Financial operation ○ Quality of teaching and learning ○ Equitable access ○ Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability)
- Primary and secondary education (Entry/Establishment ○ Financial operation ○ Quality of teaching and learning ○ Equitable access ○ Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability)
- Tertiary education (Entry/Establishment ○ Financial operation ○ Quality of teaching and learning ○ Equitable access ○ Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability)
The Compulsory School Act 91/2008 (as amended in 2016), which governs education at primary and lower secondary level in Iceland, defines a “private operator” running an “independent compulsory school” on the “basis of a service agreement entered into with the relevant local authority” as a “legal entity operating in the form of a non-profit organization, a company limited by shares, or in another legal form”. The Upper Secondary School Act 92/2008 (as amended in 2015) and Preschool Act 90/2008 (as amended in 2015) similarly refer to “non-profit organisations, companies limited by shares, or any other recognised legal form” that may run schools other than state schools. Finally, according to the Higher Education Act 63/2006 (as amended in 2015), “higher education institutions may be operated either as government-funded or as non-profit organisations or may adopt any other recognised corporate form”.
Most education (82% of schools, 97% of enrolments) at compulsory level (10 years, ages 6 – 15) is provided by the state. According to the Compulsory School Act 91/2008, education is compulsory for 10 years and free at compulsory and upper secondary level (3 years, ages 16 – 18). At upper secondary level, 79.6% of students are enrolled in state schools.
Non-state managed, state schools
No information was found.
Non-state funded, state schools
No information was found.
Independent, non-state schools
In Iceland, all education levels (including early childhood and higher education) are subsidized by the state. There are no independent non-state schools.
State-funded (government-aided), non-state schools
There are very few non-state schools (referred to as independent schools) at compulsory and upper secondary level, all of which are significantly funded by the government (covering over 70% of their operational costs). These schools are owned and operated by non-profit organizations, voluntary organizations, or private companies and include religious schools (2), Steiner schools (2), a special school (1) and an international school (1). The government allows for independent schools to follow a foreign or international curriculum, or adopt experimental approaches to teaching, provided these are approved by the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture. Independent schools are allowed to charge limited tuition fees, with 2 schools fully funded by the municipality and not charging any fees (one of which caters to children with special educational needs).
Contracted, non-state schools
Independent schools that receive funding from the state are established on the basis of a service contract with the Ministry of Education, Science and Research.
According to the Compulsory School Act 91/2008, while school attendance at the compulsory level is mandatory, parents can apply to teach their children at home (partially or totally), by making an application for exemption from compulsory schooling to their municipality. In 2009, a regulation on homeschooling was introduced (Regulation 531/2009). Children receiving instruction at home are subject to regular evaluation and monitoring, follow the state-sanctioned curriculum, and take part in nationally coordinated examinations. Moreover, at least one parent is required to hold a teaching licence.
During the COVID-19 pandemic, there was limited running of preschools and compulsory schools, while upper secondary schools switched to full distance learning. Many schools responded to the pandemic by teaching shorter days with reduced attendance rates, while simultaneously offering distance learning for all students or specific groups of students.
Market contracted (Voucher schools)
No information was found.
No information was found.
In Iceland, all education (from pre-primary to higher education) is governed and regulated by the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture (MoESC), which is responsible for both state and non-state provision. Municipalities are responsible for the administration of state and non-state schools at pre-primary and compulsory level. At upper secondary and higher education level, the administration of education is centrally governed by the MoESC.
Vision: In Iceland, education has traditionally been organized and administered by the state. There are relatively few non-state institutions, almost all of which receive government funding. These institutions are subject to similar standards and conditions with state institutions and covered under the same laws and regulations. There was no specific vision found for non-state educational institutions in the future.
In Iceland, early childhood care and education (ECCE) covers ages 1 – 6 and is provided in preschools under the purview of the MoESC. Most preschool services (83% of centers and enrolments) are provided by municipalities. There are also a few private preschools (owned and operated by non-profit organizations or limited companies) which are established on the basis of a contractual agreement with the municipality. All private preschools are funded and monitored by the municipality, many of which are organized around a specific educational philosophy, such as Steiner preschools or Hjallastefnan chain schools. Besides centre-based preschool provision, there is also a system of government-funded home-based ECCE provision aimed at children aged 0 – 2 under the responsibility of the Ministry of Welfare. Home-based ECCE provision is not considered part of the education system in Iceland.
Registration and approval: The establishment and operation of municipal and private preschools is regulated by the Preschool Act 90/2008. According to this Act, municipal councils may authorize non-municipal entities to establish and operate preschools if they are registered as a non-profit organization, a company limited by shares, or any other recognized legal form. Authorization is provided in the form of contractual agreement to provide these services, which may be limited to a specific number of children. All private operators are subject to the same regulatory provisions as municipal services (with the exception of fee-setting). Applicants are additionally required to ensure that their school buildings comply with minimum infrastructure and safety standards.
Licence: If the applicants meet the minimum requirements, the municipal council issues the provider an operating licence, which clearly stipulates their rights and obligations. The MoESC (or Directorate of Education) must always be notified when a new operating licence is issued or expires.
Profit-making: Profit-making is not directly regulated by law. Preschools can be set up as non-profit organizations, companies limited by shares, or “any other recognized legal form”. However, it has been noted that even preschools that may be established as non-profit organizations (with profits reinvested in “social development projects” and not the owner’s personal finances), find ways to create other forms of profiting (such as creating new buildings which expand their reach).
Taxes and subsidies: All private preschools that operate based on a contractual agreement receive the same financial support from their local municipality. Funding is also provided to approved experimental preschools to the extent permitted by the annual budget.
Curriculum and education standards: All preschools (irrespective of ownership) must be guided by the National Curriculum Guide for Preschools 2011 developed by the MoESC, which lays out the main objective of preschool education and learning outcomes based on the six fundamental pillars of literacy, sustainability, health and welfare, democracy and human rights, equality, and creativity. Based on this guide, each preschool is required to develop a school curriculum guide which takes into account the school’s specific situation and implements the provisions in more detail. The guide should also include a plan for the school’s pedagogical and educational work, including the objectives and steps to be followed to achieve those objectives, and be regularly revised. The MoESC may also authorize local authorities and private operators to run experimental preschools or to experiment with different aspects of preschool education. Such experiments allow for the derogation of the National Curriculum Guide and are subject to reasonable time limits and post-experiment evaluations.
Teaching profession: The minimum qualifications for the headteacher, assistant headteacher, and preschool teaching staff are regulated in the Act on the Education and Recruitment of Teachers and Administrators of Pre-Schools, Compulsory Schools and Upper Secondary Schools 87/2008 (as amended in 2014), with the same qualifications required for municipal and private services. All preschool staff must additionally have a licence to teach by the MoESC. Moreover, according to the Preschool Act 90/2008, persons convicted of specific provisions in the General Penal Code are prohibited from being hired in preschools, with all employees required to present their criminal records.
Fee-setting: The fees charged in private preschools may only be regulated by the respective municipality if this is specified in the service contract with the provider. During the licensing procedure, the municipal authority and private provider come to an agreement regarding the fees to be collected.
Admission selection and processes: According to the Preschool Act 90/2008, municipalities may regulate the enrolment in all government-funded preschools within their jurisdiction (irrespective of ownership). Enrolment regulations must take into account both family and municipal situations.
Policies for vulnerable groups: All children who are in need of special training and assistance are entitled receive such services within preschools (irrespective of the provider). These services must be provided under specialist supervision and in consultation with parents.
Reporting requirements: All preschools (irrespective of ownership) are required to systematically evaluate the quality and outcomes of their education and care through an internal evaluation process, as stipulated in the Preschool Act 90/2008 and Regulations 893/2009. All information from internal evaluations must be made public and include information on any planned improvements. Moreover, the headteacher of each preschool is required to develop an annual operational plan which contains information on the preschool’s activities during the past year.
Inspection: While the MoESC formulates national policy and guidelines, local municipal authorities are directly responsible for the supervision, evaluation, and quality assurance of all preschools within their jurisdiction (municipal and private). External evaluation includes school visits and interviews, teaching observation, and assessment of the preschool’s internal evaluation and documents. Municipalities then provide information and reports on the operation of preschools and implementation of policies to the MoESC. Private preschools are evaluated based on the same standards and conditions are municipal preschools, with the objective being to ensure all schools comply with the provisions in the Preschool Act 90/2008 and National Curriculum Guide for Preschools 2011.
Child assessment: According to the Preschool Act 90/2008, one of the main objectives of preschool instruction is to “monitor and promote children’s overall development in close cooperation with parents”. The development of children in all preschools is monitored by the staff, which aid children’s’ intellectual, physical, and mental development according to their individual needs. Assessment methods can vary, (including the assessment of oral, practical, written, and pictorial assignments), while teachers keep portfolios or workbooks with the collected information. Parents have the right to information on their child’s care and education.
Sanctions: If there are indications that a preschool is not complying with the law and regulations, the municipality must ensure that the appropriate improvements are made. When supervised by the MoESC, local authorities are required to send improvement plans and how they intend to be followed up. There are no further sanctions described in the Preschool Act 90/2008 or the Regulation on Assessment and Supervision in Preschools 893/2009.
Registration and approval: According to the Compulsory School Act 91/2008, a private operator of a compulsory school must be registered as a legal entity in the form of a non-profit organization, a company limited by shares, or another legal form. The legal entity must additionally be governed by a Board of Directors, adopt articles of association (made publicly available on the school’s website), and be established based on a service agreement between the local authority of the respective municipality and the private operator. Through this agreement (which must be approved by the MoESC or Directorate of Education and contain all the required information), the municipality authorizes the establishment of the school, confirms its right to government funding, and accepts the obligation to supervise its activities. The local authority may limit such agreement to a maximum number of students attending the school (determined by the premises, working environment, and funding received). The municipality may additionally specify the number of students to be enrolled in the school if there is risk that the funding of the school could adversely affect the operation and funding of the municipal schools. All applications must be accompanied by the school’s financing and operating plan, information on the school owner, content and organization of studies, and certificates from the municipal health inspectorate and fire department, as stipulated in the Regulation on Independently Run Compulsory Schools 1150/2018. Moreover, all schools are required to meet the minimum building and infrastructure standards set out in the Regulation on the Construction and Equipment of Compulsory School Housing and School Grounds 657/2009 (including classroom size), the Working Conditions Act, and the National Curriculum Guide for Compulsory Schools, which are the same for all schools (irrespective of ownership) and ensure the safety and well-being of students and staff. The recognition of international schools that operate based on a foreign or international curriculum is governed by the Regulation on the Recognition of Compulsory Schools Run by Parties Other than Municipalities and School Management According to a Foreign or International Curriculum 699/2012.
At upper secondary level, accreditation (recognition) is provided directly by the MoESC or Directorate of Education if the operator meets the minimum requirements for accreditation listed in the Upper Secondary School Act 92/2008 (applicable to all schools) and the Regulation on the Recognition of Private Schools at Upper Secondary Level 426/2010 (specific to private). Requirements include meeting the minimum standards in school curriculum, teaching and learning arrangements, staff qualifications, admissions requirements, finances and insurance, and internal quality assurance system. These schools operate based on the same legislation and standards as state schools. A school that receives accreditation from the MoESC is autonomous in its activities and operations, apart from specific conditions stipulated in the legislative framework.
Licence: At compulsory level, the Directorate of Education confirms the service agreement on behalf of the MoESC. International schools are issued a special recognition certificate by the MoESC. At upper secondary level, independent schools similarly receive official recognition by the MoESC.
Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH): All schools (irrespective of ownership) are governed by the Health Services Act 40/2007, with all students entitled to receive health care and hygiene services in each school. Approximately 100% of schools are calculated to have access to basic drinking water, single-sex basic sanitation facilities, and basic handwashing facilities.
Profit-making: According to the Compulsory School Act 91/2008, any government funding received by independent schools must “only benefit the educational activities of the school” (which must be stated clearly in the school’s articles of association). Independent schools can only make a profit from non-government funding (such as tuition fees). All 13 independent schools include a non-profit statement in their policy, which in one case only refers to government funding.
Taxes and subsidies: All independent compulsory schools with a valid service agreement are entitled to receive government funding to cover 75% of their operational costs per student (for schools with up to 200 students), as stipulated in the Compulsory School Act 91/2008. For each additional student, funding is calculated at a 70% rate. Local authorities may also decide to provide independent schools with start-up funding, which must only benefit the educational activities of the school. Financial support is also provided to experimental schools. At upper secondary level, independent schools are not automatically entitled to government funding. The only independent schools that receive operational funding from the government are those that are accredited and established on the basis of a service agreement with the MoESC to provide instruction at that level. According to the Upper Secondary School Act 92/2008, the government provides funding to cover teaching costs and costs of other activities (where appropriate).
Curriculum and education standards: All teaching in state and independent schools follows the National Curriculum Guide for Compulsory Schools 2014 (at compulsory level) and the National Curriculum Guide for Upper Secondary Schools (at upper secondary level). The curriculum guides each outline the main objectives of teaching and learning, organization and structure of studies, and time allocation between different subjects. If a school follows an accredited foreign or international curriculum, the MoESC may exempt the provider from fully complying with the national curriculum guides. Moreover, the MoESC may grant exemptions to state or independent schools which have been authorized to adopt experimental pedagogical approaches or to experiment with particular schooling aspects. Such experiments are always subject to reasonable time limits post-experiment evaluations. Upper secondary schools are additionally required to issue a school curriculum guide and submit their study program descriptions to the MoESC for approval. The language of instruction in all schools should be Icelandic, apart from certain exceptions under specific conditions.
Textbooks and learning materials: The educational material used in state and independent schools (including textbooks, reference books and booklets) must be in accordance with the law, the national curriculum guides, and specifically defined competence criteria. When preparing the material to be used, care must be taken that books are based on the fundamental pillars of education, appeal to both genders, and do not discriminate on the basis of gender, sexual orientation, religion, social status, or disability. Upper secondary schools are additionally required to have a school library or ensure their students have access to library services. Libraries must be equipped with books and other library resources related to the subjects taught in the school.
Teaching profession: The minimum qualifications required for a teaching position in compulsory and upper secondary schools (both state and independent) are listed in the Act on the Education and Recruitment of Teachers and Administrators of Pre-Schools, Compulsory Schools and Upper Secondary Schools 87/2008 (as amended in 2014). All teachers must additionally have obtained a licence to teach by the MoESC. The working conditions of all teachers in Iceland are covered under the Act on Working Environment, Health and Safety in Workplaces, No. 46/1980. Teachers in state schools are considered public employees covered under the Government Employees Act, which includes provisions on appointment, salaries, working hours, and dismissal (which do not apply to private employees). However, working conditions for all teachers are determined centrally (partly by law and partly by various agreements with trade unions and the government), with the Association of Local Authorities in Iceland serving as model for most all wage contracts in the non-state and state education system. Salaries of teachers within the compulsory education system (state and non-state) are paid in accordance with the wage contract that is negotiated between the Icelandic Teacher’s Union and the Association of municipalities.
Corporal punishment: Corporal punishment is illegal in all educational settings (irrespective of the type of provider) under the Child Protection Act 80/2002. There is also no provision for corporal punishment as a permitted disciplinary measure in the Compulsory School Act 91/2008 and the Upper Secondary School Act 92/2008.
Other safety measures and Covid-19: All schools are required to develop and maintain and coherent policy to prevent physical, verbal, and social aggression within each school. Moreover, schools must comply with their mandatory duty to report cases involving bullying and other types of social exclusion or aggression under the Child Protection Act 80/2002.
Fee-setting: The fees charged in independent compulsory schools are regulated in the service agreement of each school with the respective municipality. In the service agreement, local authorities may impose an upper limit on school fees based on the government funding received by the school. In cases where the municipality is responsible for the enrolment of students within its jurisdiction (with parents not free to choose which school to enrol their children in), the municipality is obliged to provide the school sufficient funding so as to cover the tuition fee expenses for all students (with school attendance being free of charge for students in the municipality). If independent schools are funded on the same level as municipal schools by the government, these schools are prohibited from charging tuition fees. Local authorities are additionally responsible for organizing free school transport at the compulsory level. Upper secondary schools that are established on the basis of a service agreement with the government and receive funding also have their fees (including tuition fees and fees for additional expenses) regulated in the service agreement with the MoESC.
Admission selection and processes: Admission in independent schools is determined by each school, unless the service agreement stipulates that the admissions process be handled by the respective municipality. Parents are generally free to enrol their children in independent schools, apart from cases where the municipality organizes student enrolments within the specific locality at compulsory level. In the latter case, this is stated in the schools’ service agreement and students in independent schools are provided with the same rights and services as students in municipal schools. At upper secondary level, each independent school is individually responsible for their admission procedures, which must be stipulated in the contract drawn up between the school and the MoESC. Upper secondary schools may also impose special conditions and academic standards regarding student admissions in certain programs.
Policies for vulnerable groups: At both compulsory and upper secondary level (irrespective of the type of school attended), all students with learning difficulties or disabilities have the right to special support, targeted instruction, and appropriate facilities to meet their needs. Moreover, according to the Educational Grants Act 79/2003, certain students (who may suffer from lack of means or unequal financial burdens that make it challenging to pursue their studies) may be awarded government grants to cover food costs, travel costs, and accommodation costs at upper secondary level with the purpose of reducing financial inequalities between students enrolled in upper secondary schools.
School board: All compulsory schools (irrespective of ownership) must have a School Council comprised of 9 members, as stipulated in the Compulsory School Act 91/2008. Members should include teacher, staff, and student representatives, the headteacher, and a local community or parent representative. Compulsory schools are additionally required to have a parents’ association and students’ association representing parents and students in the school. At upper secondary level, there is no legal requirement for the establishment of a School Council, but only for a students’ association and parents’ association.
Reporting requirements: All schools (irrespective of ownership) are required to carry out systematic evaluations of their quality of schooling and results in active cooperation with the school staff, parents, and students. Internal evaluations provide information on the school’s strengths and areas of improvement, with results published (in addition to school improvement plans). As part of their internal evaluation, schools must additionally prepare an annual operational plan on the school’s activities and calendar which is to be submitted annually to the MoESC.
School inspection: At the compulsory level, municipalities are responsible for carrying out assessments and supervision of independent schools in accordance with the Compulsory School Act 91/2008, the Regulation on Independently Run Compulsory Schools 1150/2018, and the National Curriculum Guide for Compulsory Schools 2014. Independent schools are subject to the same supervision as municipal schools by the MoESC and the Directorate of Education. While no provisions were found on the frequency of external evaluations at compulsory level, these are carried out by municipalities and evaluators of the Directorate of Education with the aim to obtain an overall picture of the school’s activities and ensure it complies with the relevant laws and regulations. External evaluations are based on a school visit, classroom observations, interviews with staff, administrators, parents, and student representatives, and an internal evaluation report of the school. External evaluators then send an evaluation report to the MoESC. At upper secondary level, external evaluation only applies to schools which are funded by government. Evaluations are conducted every five years by evaluators of the Directorate of Education, as stipulated in the Upper Secondary School Act 92/2008, the Regulation on the Evaluation and Supervision of Upper Secondary Schools 700/2010, and the National Curriculum Guide for Upper Secondary Schools. The evaluation reports are published on the MoESC website and schools are required to inform the MoESC on how they will respond to the results.
Student assessment: Students in compulsory independent schools take the same coordinated examinations in Icelandic and mathematics as students in municipal schools in Grades 4, 7 and 10 (with Grade 10 additionally examining English). The Directorate of Education is responsible for developing coordinated assessment and examinations. Student assessments aim to evaluate how effectively students have met the objectives of the National Curriculum Guide for Compulsory Schools 2014. At upper secondary level, according to the Upper Secondary School Act 92/2008, students can choose whether to take part in the matriculation examination, upper secondary school leaving certificate, or any other formal conclusion of studies. Independent schools are not required by law to take part in any specific examination at this level but can offer studies leading to another formal certificate.
Diplomas and degrees: Upon the completion of compulsory education, students in all schools (state and independent) must be awarded a certificate containing their assessment report during the final year of compulsory school. At upper secondary level, schools are similarly required to issue students certificates with their final learning outcomes, which may either be an upper secondary school leaving certificate, matriculation examination certificate, or other formal certification.
Sanctions: According to the Regulation on Independently Run Compulsory Schools 1150/2018, if serious deficiencies are found during the supervision of a compulsory school, the provider is given the opportunity to remedy the deficiencies within a specific time period. If these are not remedied, the municipality may inform the Directorate of Education, which may revoke the school’s service agreement (with a one-year notice period). The municipality may take over the management of schools which have been closed down by the operator. At upper secondary level, if a school fails to conform with the rules and requirements of the Upper Secondary School Act 92/2008, the MoESC may revoke its accreditation.
In Iceland, there are 7 higher education institutions (HEIs), 3 of which are owned and operated by private providers that receive government funding. The distinction between state and private HEIs is mainly based on legal differentiation, with private institutions subject to the same provisions with state institutions regarding quality assurance and funding. The role of state HEIs is additionally defined in separate laws that apply specifically to them. All HEIs (state and private) are governed by the Higher Education Act 63/2006 (as amended in 2015).
Registration and approval: According to the Higher Education Act 63/2006, private HEIs must be established as non-profit organizations or any other recognized corporate form. All institutions (irrespective of ownership) must fulfil the necessary conditions to be accredited by the MoESC according to the Rules on Accreditation 1067/2006, which confirms that their activities comply with the relevant laws and regulations. Conditions include the institution’s organization and structure, purpose, staff qualifications and working conditions, organization of teaching and research, and internal quality assurance system. No HEI may refer to itself as a HEI (Icelandic “háskóli”) unless it has been accredited by the MoESC or the Directorate of Education.
Licence: At the higher education level, licensing comes in the form of accreditation by the MoESC.
Profit-making: According to the Higher Education Act 63/2006, “higher education institutions may not be operated for the purpose of financial gain”. Profit-making is therefore prohibited at this level.
Taxes and subsidies: While accreditation does not automatically entitle private HEIs to government funding, all private institutions receive significant financial assistance from the MoESC under service contracts made with each HEI. Specifically, private HEIs under service contracts with the government receive over 50% of their operational funding by the government at the same level as state institutions. Funding is provided on the basis of a block grant per student and based on a performance-based contract with the MoESC.
Curriculum and education standards: Each individual HEI (state and private) decides and arranges for its teaching, research, studies, and assessment, in addition to which study programs to offer in their academic disciplines. HEIs are only required to apply to the MoESC for authorization to offer programs leading to doctoral degrees.
Teaching profession: All HEIs (irrespective of ownership) are required to establish an evaluation committee to assess the qualifications of their teaching staff (including professors, association professors, and assistant professors), with all members of the evaluation committee required to have doctoral degrees, as stipulated in the Higher Education Act 63/2006. All hired teaching staff must possess the knowledge and experience for the title in question (according to international criteria) which is confirmed by the evaluation committee or a doctoral degree received by a recognized HEI. More detailed provisions on staff qualifications are included in each institution’s charter or foundation document.
Board: Each HEI must be managed by a Governing Council and a Rector, which ensure that students and teachers are represented in administrative areas relating to teaching, research, and quality. Institutional representatives must additionally participate in consultative forums and in the development of academic policies. Private HEIs also have representatives from the commercial sector on their boards.
Fee-setting: Whereas private institutions receive over 50% of their core funding by the government, they are allowed to charge students tuition fees (in contrast to state institutions, which are prohibited from charging these fees). Private tuition fees vary between each HEI and field of study, ranging from approximately ISK 400,000 (USD 3,235) – 1,800,000 (USD 14,558) for each academic year in undergraduate studies. Moreover, students in private institutions pay additional fees to student organizations.
Admission selection and processes: According to the Higher Education Act 63/2006, the MoESC may regulate the admissions process of all HEIs for the purpose of national coordination. However, HEIs may apply special admissions criteria, such as requiring students to pass an entrance or assessment examination.
Inspection: The MoESC is responsible for the quality assurance of all HEIs (state and private). According to the Rules Pertaining to Quality Assurance of Teaching and Research in Higher Education 1368/2018, the MoESC draws up 3-year plans for external evaluations of the quality of research and teaching in HEIs, while institutions may additionally be subject to ad hoc evaluations on an individual basis. The Quality Board for Icelandic Higher Education is responsible for establishing standards for internal and external reviews, including guidelines for their implementation (such as the Quality Enhancement Framework). External reviews mainly involve the accreditation of academic programs, periodic collection of standardized sets of key data on institutional activities, and audits of HEIs, their study programs, and individual activities. The Board is responsible for the publication of results (which include recommendations and suggestions for improvement), which are publicly announced by the MoESC and published on its website in a clear and accessible way.
Student assessments: Each HEI is responsible for the student assessments conducted within the institution to evaluate learning outcomes.
Accountability requirements: All HEIs (state and private) are required to carry out systematic internal evaluations of their teaching and research which gather well-defined key data regarding the work of the institution. Internal evaluations must involve the active participation of students and staff (where appropriate). Moreover, all institutions should publicly and regularly account for the measures taken to ensure their programs comply with the National Qualification Framework.
Sanctions on institutional closures: If a HEI fails to comply with the provisions of the Higher Education Act 63/2006 or subsequent rules and regulations, the MoESC may revoke its accreditation (either entirely or for specific academic programs). Alternatively, the institution may be issued with recommendations for improvement based on a specific timeline.
Diplomas and degrees: Any degrees and diplomas offered in accredited HEIs must be based on the National Qualification Framework 80/2007, which consists of a systematic description of the structure of education and degrees awarded at this level based on learning outcomes. Degrees are recognized at the same level for state and private accredited institutions, while all HEIs are additionally required to publish an official list of the degrees offered.
No information was found.
No information was found.
No information was found.