- Early childhood care and education (Entry/Establishment ○ Financial operation ○ Quality of teaching and learning ○ Equitable access ○ Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability)
- Primary and secondary education (Entry/Establishment ○ Financial operation ○ Quality of teaching and learning ○ Equitable access ○ Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability)
- Tertiary education (Entry/Establishment ○ Financial operation ○ Quality of teaching and learning ○ Equitable access ○ Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability)
The 1957 Education Act (last amended in 2017), which governs primary and secondary education in Mauritius, distinguishes between “government” and “non-government” schools, of which the latter include “private schools” and “grant-aided schools” which can be owned by a “group of private persons” or “religious denomination”. The 2007 Early Childhood Care and Education Authority Act refers to “private” educational institutions, while the 2017 Higher Education Act similarly refers to “private” universities (neither of which define non-state actors specifically). Finally, the 1968 Constitution of Mauritius (as amended in 2016) (Art.14) grants religious, ethnic, and cultural association(s) or group(s) the “freedom to establish schools” in Mauritius.
Most education at primary level (6 years, ages 6 – 11) in Mauritius is provided by the state (69% of schools, 64% of enrolments). At secondary level (7 years, ages 12 – 18), education is mainly dominated by non-state actors (accounting for 61% of schools and 56% of enrolments). According to the 1957 Education Act (last amended in 2017), education is free and compulsory from the ages of 5 – 16, with upper secondary level (Grade 10 – 13) remaining free to all citizens of Mauritius in state schools. State schools in Mauritius are exclusively managed, operated, and funded by the Ministry of Education, Tertiary Education, Science and Technology (MoETEST), under the direct purview of the Directorate of the geographical zone within which they are located.
In addition to regular state schools, there are another 6 state-owned secondary schools in Mauritius that are managed by the Mahatma Gandhi Institute (MGI) / Rabindranath Tagore Institute (RTI), known as Mahatma Gandhi Secondary Schools (5) and Rabindranath Tagore Secondary School (1). The MGI and RTI are parastatal bodies operating under the MoETEST, which were established by the government of Mauritius in collaboration with the Indian government as a tribute to Mahatma Gandhi and Rabindranath Tagore. These schools act as centers of studies of Indian culture and traditions and otherwise operate as regular secondary state schools in Mauritius.
Non-state managed, state schools
No information was found.
Non-state funded, state schools
No information was found.
Independent, non-state schools
Private/unaided schools are a few independent non-state schools which are owned, managed, and funded by private individuals or organizations, representing what is often referred to as “elite schools” in Mauritius (by serving more of the “upper” class or expatriate community). In line with the government’s policy to “diversify the educational offer in Mauritius”, these schools offer alternative programs and curricula compared to state schools (primarily international, such as the French or International Baccalaureate) and rely exclusively on student fees (receiving no government funding). In its Annual Report 2019-20, the Ministry of Education, Tertiary Education, Science and Technology also distinguishes low-fee private schools (which charge relatively lower fees compared with “elite” schools and cater to families of comparatively lower socioeconomic status). The existence of low-fee private schools in Mauritius has also been identified in external academic research. In 2020, private/unaided schools covered 13% of total enrolments at primary level, and only 6% at secondary level.
State-funded (government-aided), non-state schools
Most non-state schools in Mauritius are private grant-aided schools, which are owned and operated by NGOs and faith-based organizations such as the Roman Catholic Education Authority (51 schools) and Hindu Education Authority (2 schools). By fulfilling certain criteria, these schools are funded by the government through a historically-established grant-in-aid system that covers teacher salaries and operational costs. State funding is additionally supplemented by funds collected from Parent-Teacher Associations and other community resources. Private grant-aided schools can mainly be categorized into (1) confessional (or religious) schools (primarily managed by Christian, Hindu, or Muslim religious groups) and (2) schools under the jurisdiction of the Private Secondary Education Authority (privately owned and managed). Education in private grant-aided schools is free for all students, while these schools follow a similar curriculum to state schools. Grant-aided schools in Mauritius mostly operate at secondary education level, where they covered 48% of all schools and 50% of total enrolments in 2020.
Contracted, non-state schools
No information was found.
The 1957 Education Act (last amended in 2017) states that any parent or guardian who “refuses or neglects to cause the child to attend school regularly” will be guilty of an offence and be liable upon conviction to a fine not exceeding 10,000 MUR (250.31 USD) and imprisonment for up to two years, with no exceptions mentioned (suggesting the illegality of homeschooling).
During the nation-wide school closures caused by the COVID-19 outbreak in 2020, the MoETEST announced arrangements for learning continuity at home (applicable to both state and non-state schools), which included a Student Support Program online portal, television broadcasting, and online video-conferencing platforms. The MoETEST also published a Guideline to Online Learning Platforms.
Market contracted (Voucher schools)
No information was found.
While no official data was found on unregistered schools at primary and secondary level, the Ministry of Gender Equality, Child Development and Family Welfare keeps a detailed list of all unregistered child day care centres, which accounted for 59% of all child care services in 2021.
Both state and non-state education from early childhood to tertiary level in Mauritius is centrally governed by the Ministry of Education, Tertiary Education, Science and Technology (MoETEST) through specific authorities responsible for provision in each education level. The Early Childhood Care and Education Authority (ECCEA) supervises and regulates early childhood education at the ages of 3-5 (preschools) for both state and non-state actors and the Directorate of Primary Education is responsible for state and non-state primary education. The Private Secondary Education Authority (PSEA) is the only corporate body in Mauritius exclusively established by the 1976 Private Secondary Schools Authority Act (last amended in 2016) to regulate non-state education provision in secondary schools (including private and grant-aided schools), while “promoting and encouraging” the sector. Early childhood care below the age of 3 (child day care centers/crèches) is the responsibility of the Child Development Unit of the Ministry of Gender Equality, Child Development and Family Welfare. Finally, the Higher Education Commission (HEC) and the Quality Assurance Authority (QAA) (which replaced the Tertiary Education Commission in 2020) act as regulatory bodies for both state and non-state tertiary education in the country.
Vision: Non-state sector participation in education is encouraged in various official documents, with the 1968 Constitution of Mauritius (as amended in 2016) granting religious, social, ethnic and cultural associations or groups the “freedom to establish schools”, and the Education and Human Resources Strategy Plan 2008-20 encouraging “greater participation of private institutions” and “proposals for public-private partnership projects”. Moreover, the mission of the Private Secondary Education Authority is to “act as a regulator and a facilitator for private secondary schools and uphold partnership and good governance among stakeholders”.
Early childhood care and education (ECCE) in Mauritius broadly covers ages 0 – 5 and is provided in child day care centres /crèches (ages 0 – 3) and preschools (ages 3 – 5). All child day care centres are owned by non-state actors and include private (89%), home-based (7%), NGO (3%), and NCC (1%) centres. The Ministry of Gender Equality, Child Development and Family Welfare distinguishes between registered and unregistered child day care centres in its official statistics. In 2021, there were 150 registered and 218 unregistered child day care centres (the latter accounting for 59% of all services). Preschools are mainly provided by non-state actors, which cover 77% of all preschools and over 70% of total enrolments. In 2020, 70% of preschools were privately run, 23% were owned and operated by the state, and the remaining 7% were administered by the Roman Catholic or Hindu Education Authorities or Municipal/Village Councils. The state runs some tuition-free preschools (usually attached to state primary schools), while providing capitation grants to non-state preschools.
Registration and approval: The main regulations governing ECCE in Mauritius (under the ECCEA) are the 2007 Early Childhood Care and Education Authority Act and the 2011 Early Childhood Care and Education Authority (Registration of Pre-Primary Schools) Regulations. Child day care centers/ crèches (under the Ministry of Gender Equality, Child Development and Family Welfare) are regulated by the 2019 Child Protection (Place of Safety for the Welfare and Protection of Children) Regulations under the 1994 Child Protection Act.
Any person who plans to a non-state preschool in Mauritius must apply for registration with the ECCEA (and pay the prescribed fee). According to the 2011 Early Childhood Care and Education Authority (Registration of Pre-Primary Schools) Regulations, all preschool managers, educators, and childcare givers are required to be registered with the ECCEA, while the proposed services must comply with the minimum requirements in infrastructure, staff, equipment, teacher-child ratio, operational hours, and health and safety.
Child day care centers are required to designated as places of safety by the Minister of Gender Equality, Child Development and Family Welfare through an application to the Permanent Secretary. Applicants can be natural persons, while all institutions must meet the necessary conditions to be designated as a place of safety, including sanitary conditions, physical state of buildings, and staff qualifications. Managers are required to registered under the Ministry (and be considered fit and proper to operate a place of safety).
License: If all minimum standards are met, the ECCEA issues preschool applicants a certificate of registration, which remains valid for 24 months. Child day care centers are designated as institutions of safety by the Minister, while the Permanent Secretary issues providers a license (subject to specific terms and conditions).
Profit-making: The government does not regulate profit orientation in ECCE, allowing providers to operate on a for-profit basis.
Taxes and subsidies: All registered non-state preschools in Mauritius receive capitation grants of 200 MUR (5 USD), in addition to the provision of learning materials and equipment for preschools located in disadvantaged regions. In 2018, 125 non-state preschools were equipped with tools and material to upgrade their quality of teaching and learning environment. Child day care centers on the other hand are provided with one-off cash grants as an incentive to register. Specifically, unregistered services that have been operating for at least 1 year may apply for a cash grant of a maximum of 500,000 MUR (11,713 USD) to upgrade their standards and enable them to apply for registration with the Ministry of Gender Equality, Child Development and Family Welfare. To benefit from the one-off cash grant scheme, providers must not charge over a certain amount of fees, provide evidence that the center will be operating for at least the next 3 years, and submit certain documents to the National Children’s Council (which conduct on-siet visits).
Curriculum and education standards: Both state and non-state preschools in Mauritius are guided by the National Curriculum Framework for Pre-Primary (3 – 5 years), which proposes guidelines for a universal set of learning standards that all children reaching the age of five should achieve, irrespective of the type of preschool they attend. The 2007 Early Childhood Care and Education Authority Act additionally sets standards for play equipment, materials, books, and children’s literature that must be met by all preschools. There is no specified program or curriculum in child day care centers.
Teaching profession: All teachers, educators, and caregivers in preschools (no matter whether state or non-state) are required to be registered with the ECCEA and meet the minimum qualifications listed in the 2011 Early Childhood Care and Education Authority (Registration of Pre-Primary Schools) Regulations. In child day care centers, child-care givers must be registered to work in places of safety and have basic qualifications or experience as child-care givers. Staff must additionally meet the required child-caregiver ratio (depending on the age and special needs of children).
Fee-setting: The fees charged in preschools and child day care centers are not regulated by law. However, only child day care centers that charge a maximum monthly fee of 3,500 MUR (82 USD) per child are eligible for 100% government funding, while centers charging up to 5,000 MUR (117 USD) per child are eligible for 75% of the requested amount. Child day care centers that charge over 5,000 (117 USD) do not qualify for government grants.
Admission selection and processes: While all preschools are required to provide information to the ECCEA on children admitted and keep an admissions register at all times, no regulation on admission processes was found. The admission process of child day care centers is similarly not regulated (except for keeping records on admissions).
Policies for vulnerable groups: While non-state preschools located in disadvantaged areas are provided with additional government support (through learning material and tools), there was no policy found which specifically targets families of disadvantaged backgrounds or from particular groups in ECCE. Under the 2019 Child Protection (Place of Safety for the Welfare and Protection of Children) Regulations, centers catering to children with disabilities must provide adapted accommodation to suit the child’s particular needs (which may be different according to the nature of the disability and individual circumstances).
Reporting requirements: All preschools in Mauritius (irrespective of ownership) are required to keep a list of documents (that may be inspected at any time by the ECCEA), including an inspection register, cash book, activities program, attendance book, and daily occurence book. Moreover, all staff employed in preschools must submit medical certificates to the ECCEA every three years and chest- X-Ray reports every five years. In child day care centers, managers are required to submit reports to the Ministry every 2 months, which give details on the health conditions, behavior, education, and any other matter related to the development aspect of each child. Moreover, at the end of every 2 months, managers must additionally submit a list of children and employees in the center, informing the Permanent Secretary of any changes that may occur during that year. Financial accounts of child day care centers are also subject to audit by the National Audit Office.
Inspection: The ECCEA is responsible for ensuring the maintenance of minimum quality standards of both state and non-state preschools in Mauritius. All preschools are subject to regular visits and inspections by the Director or any employee of the ECCEA (with or without notice) to evaluate whether the center complies with minimum standards and regulations (Early Childhood Care and Education Authority Act, 2007). Moreover, preschools are subject to regular inspections by medical or sanitary officers to assess whether health and safety standards are being met. Child day care centers are regularly inspected by officers that have been authorized by the Permanent Secretary. Inspections also include ad hoc visits following any complaints made to the Ministry (Child Protection (Place of Safety for the Welfare and Protection of Children) Regulations, 2019).
Child assessment: The National Curriculum Framework for Pre-Primary states that assessment in ECCE should be conducted through observation, to determine whether minimum learning and development standards have been met.
Sanctions: According to the 2011 Early Childhood Care and Education Authority (Registration of Pre-Primary Schools) Regulations, the ECCEA may cancel the registration of any preschool that is found to be in breach of minimum standards, regulations, or terms and conditions of its registration. Unregistered institutions are prohibited from operating preschools in Mauritius, and therefore subject to closure. If any person is found to be operating an unregistered preschool, they shall be liable to a fine not exceeding 25,000 MUR (626.17 USD) in addition to 6 months imprisonment. As for child day care centers, the Minister may suspend or cancel the center’s license if the conditions of registration have not been complied with, the license holder has been convicted of an offence in fraud or dishonesty, there is serious risk to the health and wellbeing of children, or it is in the public interest.
Registration and approval: All non-state schools in Mauritius are required to be registered under the 1957 Education Act (last amended in 2017), with applicants being private individuals/groups, or religious groups. All applications must be made based on a prescribed form and directed to the Directorate of Primary Education (in the case of a primary school) or the PSEA (in the case of a secondary school). To be considered for registration, applicants are required to fulfil the minimum standards in infrastructure, class size, student-teacher ratio, facilities, equipment, staff, management, and health and safety standards and pay the required registration fee. Private secondary schools are classified by the PSEA upon registration based on a set of criteria set by the MoETEST.
License: If an application meets the minimum requirements, the Directorate of Primary Education or PSEA (as the case may be) issues the applicant a certificate of registration, which must be renewed annually along with a set registration fee.
Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH): For a non-state school to be registered under the MoETEST or PSEA, the manager is required to submit a clearance certificate from the Ministry of Health that proves that the school complies with all minimum health and safety standards, which include the provision of toilets separated by sex and an adequate supply of clean and drinkable water.
Profit-making: While non-state schools may operate on a for-profit or non-profit basis in Mauritius, only non-profit schools are eligible for government funding.
Taxes and subsidies: Most non-state schools in Mauritius receive monthly or provisional grants from the government (Directorate of Primary Education or PSEA) that cover teacher salaries, instructional material, and operational costs. To receive government aid (and be categorized as a “grant-aided” school), non-state schools are required to fulfil certain conditions, which include not charging any tuition fees and following the national curriculum. If any grant-aided school fails to meet the minimum standards for receiving aid, the government may decline or cease to provide the school with any grants.
Curriculum and education standards: While grant-aided schools are required to follow the national curriculum prescribed by the MoETEST, private unaided schools may follow different programs and curricula, with schools encouraged to foster innovation and generate new knowledge. Moreover, 1968 the Constitution of Mauritius (as amended in 2016) formally grants religious communities the freedom to provide religious instruction.
Textbooks and learning materials: The PSEA is responsible for purchasing, issuing and controlling the use of school textbooks at secondary level for both grant-aided and private schools, while the Directorate of Primary Education controls the use of textbooks at primary level.
Teaching profession: According to the 1957 Education Act (last amended in 2017), all teachers in Mauritius (no matter whether employed in state or non-state schools) must be qualified or authorized to teach (with the Minister permitted to refuse registration to a school if the proposed teachers do not possess the minimum qualifications). All teachers must be registered with the MoETEST. There are certain provisions made for the employment of approved uncertificated teachers (in both state and non-state schools) if the Minister believes there is no suitably qualified teacher available to be employed in a particular school. Schools are only authorized to employ uncertificated teachers with the approval of the MoETEST, which imposes limitations on the subjects and classes which they may teach. Finally, the 1976 Private Secondary Schools Authority Act (last amended in 2016) and the 1977 Private Secondary Schools Regulations (as amended in 2002) regulate teacher salaries in private and grant-aided secondary schools by requiring all salaries and conditions of employment to be approved by the PSEA on a monthly basis. Teacher salaries in grant-aided schools are paid by the government and subject to the 1856 Provisions of Courts (Civil Procedure) Act.
Corporal punishment: Corporal punishment is prohibited in all schools in Mauritius according to the 1957 Education Regulations (Art.13). The Children’s Act 2020 (Art.14) additionally states that “no person shall inflict corporal or humiliating punishment on a child as a measure to correct or discipline the child”, without however specifying whether this applies to all school settings.
Other safety measures and COVID-19: As schools planned to reopen following the nation-wide school closures caused by the COVID-19 outbreak in 2020, the MoETEST released the 2020 Guidelines for Health and Sanitary Measures in Primary and Secondary Schools which included additional strict health and sanitary requirements, which were applicable to all primary and secondary schools in Mauritius. In June 2021, the government additionally issued the 2021 COVID-19 (Restriction of Access to Specified Institutions) Regulations, which required educational staff in all schools (no matter “whether government-owned or private-owned") to present COVID-19 vaccination certificate or a negative RT-PCR test.
Fee-setting: While private schools are free to set their own fees, grant-aided schools are prohibited from charging students any fees.
Admission selection and processes: All state schools and grant-aided schools in Mauritius are required to be “open to pupils of any race or religion”, while private unaided schools are given the freedom to select their students on the basis of religion or race (Education Act, 1957).
Policies for vulnerable groups: The MoETEST and PSEA provide free textbooks for so-called “needy students” at the secondary level based on the Book Scheme for “Needy Students” (without clarifying which students this targets exactly).
School board: All grant-aided and private schools in Mauritius are required to establish a Parent-Teacher Association, comprised of parents and teaching staff of the school, while the PSSA encourages the establishment of a Student Council at secondary level.
Reporting requirements: All non-state secondary schools in Mauritius are required to submit monthly financial statements of the salaries paid to teaching and non-teaching staff to the PSEA, which (if not complied with) may result in the withdrawal of any salary subsidies by the PSEA. Moreover, statements of any income and expenditure must be submitted to the PSEA on an annual basis.
School inspection: The MoETEST supervises the quality assurance of all schools in Mauritius (both state and non-state), while the PSEA is specifically responsible for ensuring the quality of grant-aided and private schools at secondary level. Both state and non-state schools in Mauritius may be visited and inspected at any time by an authorized officer of the MoETEST (with or without notice) to evaluate whether existing regulations are being complied with. Grant-aided and private schools at secondary level are additionally subject to school inspections by an authorized officer of the PSEA which may “at all reasonable times” visit a secondary school and report back to the PSEA on the school’s functioning and compliance.
Student assessment: Students at all schools in Mauritius must sit for the joint Cambridge School Certificate/ General Certificate of Education examination, while students in grant-aided and private schools may additionally sit for the London General Certificate of Education examination, or any other examination approved by the MoETEST or the PSEA (Private Secondary Schools Regulations, 1977).
Diplomas, and degrees: Students in grant-aided or private schools are issued with certificates based on the examinations they have sat, which may include the joint Cambridge School Certificate/ General Certificate of Education examination, London General Certificate of Education examination, or any other certificate approved by the MoETEST or PSEA.
Sanctions: The MoETEST or PSEA may cancel the registration of any school that fails to comply with the minimum standards and regulations attached to their certificate of registration. Where a school’s registration has been cancelled, the MoETEST additionally cancels the registration of the school manager or principal, and the school is required to close. If any school is found to be operating after its registration has been cancelled, the manager will be liable to a fine not exceeding 500 MUR (12.52 USD) and up to 6 months imprisonment.
Tertiary education in Mauritius is provided by 10 state institutions and 35 private institutions (the latter of which are privately owned, managed, and funded). In 2019, the majority of students pursuing tertiary education were enrolled in local state institutions (48%) and private institutions (35%), while the remaining 16% were enrolled in overseas institutions. Most private tertiary education institutions (TEIs) in Mauritius are local counterparts of overseas institutions which offer programs through mixed-mode systems, encompassing both face-to-face tutorials and distance learning.
Registration and approval: A Tertiary education for both state and private institutions is regulated by the 2017 Higher Education Act (which established the HEC and QAA to take over the functions of the Tertiary Education Commission). While the Tertiary Education Commission Act was repealed, the regulations and guidelines published under the repealed Act remain valid, which now fall under the authority of the HEC and QAA. According to the Guidelines for the Registration of Post-Secondary Educational Institutions, all TEIs in Mauritius (state and private) are required to be established by a legal entity such as a registered company, registered association, trust, or société. Applications for registration must be made to the HEC, accompanied by the registration fee and documentary evidence that the institution complies with all applicable laws and standards regarding infrastructure, health and safety, and classroom size. In the case of the establishment of centers or branch campuses of overseas institutions, applicants must comply with additional requirements and provide the HEC with evidence of strong academic linkages with an approved and accredited overseas institution.
License: If the minimum requirements are met, the HEC issues the applicant a certificate of registration. In cases where institutions meet most (but not all) requirements, the HEC grants the applicant a provisional registration, stating the terms and conditions for full registration and the date to submit the conversion application.
Profit-making: No information was found.
Taxes and subsidies: While the HEC provides various grants and assistance to state institutions, no information was found on the provision of government aid to non-state TEIs.
Curriculum and education standards: All education programs (including content, structure, and course details) of non-state TEIs must be approved by the HEC upon registration.
Teaching profession: The academic staff, salaries, and criteria for appointment or promotion must all be approved by the HEC upon registration, while qualifications, suitability, experience, and professional skills of teaching staff is additionally evaluated during the institution’s application for accreditation.
Fee-setting: Any fees charged by TEIs for admission or tuition must be listed and approved by the HEC upon registration.
Admission selection and processes: All TEIs must provide details of their admission policy, student selection process, and entry requirements upon registration to be approved by the HEC. Accreditation requirements additionally state that selection and admission policies must be based on merit and in line with established international practices.
Board: While no particular management structure is required for non-state TEIs (besides being required to have a manager), the HEC must approve the institution’s proposed management structure upon registration.
Reporting requirements: All non-state TEIs in Mauritius are required to submit annual reports of audited financial statements, auditor reports, and any other report specified to the HEC.
Inspection: The quality assurance of state and private TEIs in Mauritius is the key responsibility of the QAA, with the HEC being responsible for mandatory program accreditation. All TEIs are subject to “regular” visits and inspections by authorizing officers of the HEC or QAA, and are required to provide any relevant information and documents requested. Moreover, according to the 2017 Higher Education Act, all TEIs in Mauritius (state and private) are required to apply for program accreditation with the HEC to ensure the quality of education provision (which must be comparable to international norms and standards). The minimum criteria for accreditation are listed in the Program Accreditation Regulations and Guidelines for Program Accreditation. The QAA additionally carries out regular quality audits and monitoring of qualification standards and programs.
Assessment: Examinations are mainly administered by the Mauritius Examinations Syndicate for local institutions, with the exception of branch campuses or centers of overseas institutions, which are organized by the overseas institutions themselves in collaboration with the branch campuses. Any assessments put in place must be “fair, equitable and consistent” and in compliance with appropriate standards, with assessment details provided in the Program Accreditation Regulations (Higher Education Act, 2017).
Diplomas and degrees: The HEC is responsible for recognizing all academic qualifications at the tertiary level, both for diplomas obtained locally or outside Mauritius. In the case of branches of overseas institutions, the qualification must be additionally fully recognized by its parent institution.
Sanctions: The HEC may suspend or revoke a TEI’s registration or accreditation at any time if the institution contravenes any of the terms and conditions imposed or existing regulations. According to the 2005 Registration of Post-Secondary Educational Institutions Regulations, if an institution’s registration has been revoked, the TEI must issue every student their academic transcript, make adequate arrangements for students to complete their programs at a comparable institution, and the institution must be closed within a period specified by the HEC.
Private or “additional” tuition (falling under the purview of the MoETEST) is prohibited during Grades 1 – 4, but remains a prevalant, well-embedded practice in higher grades, provided by teachers to their pupils within school premises after official school hours. According to SACMEQ data, 81.4% of Grade 6 students were receiving private tutoring in 2013, with over 85% of parents reported to be paying for their child’s private tutoring classes. The prevalence of the phenomenon at the primary level has often been attributed to the “race” to obtain a place in one of the elite, “five star” secondary schools, in addition to the reported lack of an effective quality assurance system.
While the MoETEST has often made statements to gradually move towards the “elimination of the necessity of private tuition” or even abolish it entirely, the practice continues to this day, with certain heightened regulations introduced in the 2011 Education (Amendment) Bill, such as an increase in fines in case of non-compliance with regulations and an extended ban of private tuition in certain grades.
Schools are the default locations for private tuition in Mauritius (especially when the tutoring is being provided by teachers within those schools). A school is permitted to conduct private tuition classes provided that the facilities are well constructed for educational use and comply with minimum health and safety standards. The reason for the permittance private tutoring on school premises is based on the belief that children are safer in these locations compared to the “appalling physical conditions” in converted garages or other premises.
Classrooms providing private tutoring lessons are restricted to a maximum class size of 40 pupils and 10 hours a week. Private tuition can be conducted on the same subjects as mainstream schooling but must only be provided after official school hours.
According to the 1957 Education Act (last amended in 2017), both state and non-state teachers are prohibited from tutoring students in Grades 1 – 4, but are permitted to tutor students in higher grades (including their own students), provided that the teacher is registered with the MoETEST. Any person who contravenes these regulations is liable to a fine not exceeding 10,000 MUR (250.47 USD) and up to 2 years imprisonment.