The Ministry of Education (MoE) attempts to provide a definition referring to inclusive education, in its broad concept, as meaning the accommodation of all children irrespective of their physical, mental, social, and linguistic condition, in addition to talented children and children in remote areas (p. 95-96). Officially endorses the UNESCO definition of inclusive education. According to answers of the Omani delegation to the Committee on the Rights of Persons with disabilities in 2018, “the Education Council had issued a document for the drawing up of educational policies. Inclusive education was understood as full or partial integration of students in regular schools and school activities. The integration began in 2005-2006.”
Special Education Needs
The Ministry of Education provides several services for students with special educational needs (specialized schools for deaf learners, low IQ, intellectual disability, blinds, learning disabilities/difficulties, those with speaking and language disorders and talented students etc.).
Special education programmes are mainly provided in specialized schools based on the type of disability. However, Sultanate of Oman is seeking to integrate persons with disabilities into mainstream schools. A policy encourages integration by establishing special classes in regular schools and providing support teaching in regular classes.
The Ministry of education provides several services for special education students, i.e. School of Hope (Specialized schools for deaf); Special Education Needs Schools (Specialized for low IQ); Intellectual Education School (Specialized for Intellectual disability); Omar bin Khatab Institute (specialized school for blinds); Learning disabilities/difficulties processing programme (at schools). Different programmes aim for the integration of students with special needs in schools. Students with hearing and intellectual disability are integrated in government schools and follow the pronunciation and communication programme. There is also a talented student programme in the Governorate of Muscat.
Special schools and classes
Out of 1,163 public schools, three specialized schools provide educational services to students with disabilities (with 475 students). The three special education schools are located in the governorate of Muscat: the School of Intellectual Education (students with mental disabilities), Al-Amal School for the Deaf (students with hearing disabilities), and Omar bin Al-Khattab School for the Blind (students with visual impairment) (Educational Statistics Yearbook 2019/2020). According to the Ministry of Education’s 2017/2018 statistics, 56% of public schools in Oman implement an education programme for people with disabilities in an integrated manner within ordinary classrooms.
The number of enrolled students in such schools declined due to the increasing awareness of parents as they seek to integrate their children in basic education schools with their healthy counterparts.
Mainstream schools and classes
The Ministry of Education started implementing an integration programme in three schools for students with learning disabilities in 2000/2001.
To support the learning and integration of students with disabilities and special needs with their peers, the Ministry has implemented a number of specialized programmes, which vary in terms of educational services and the target groups, which include, the Programme for integrating students with disabilities into regular schools; the Learning difficulties programme; The Programme for treatment of Spelling and Speech; and the Inclusion programme (partial and total) for students with autism. 221 schools provide inclusive education for students with special needs, while 619 schools include programmes for students with learning difficulties. Since 2005/2006, the programme to integrate students with disability in ordinary schools has included other types of disabilities.
Literacy and adult education centers and classes:
Centers and classes were designated for literacy and adult education for students with disabilities, with the total number of students enrolled in these programmes reaching 114 male and female students for the academic year 2019/2020 in the various literacy and adult education classes. Students in the continuous education system (literacy and adult education) benefit from the educational services provided by the Ministry of Education and ‘Al Wafa’ Social Centers which are affiliated with the Ministry of Social Development to educate people with various types of disabilities, including intellectual and physical disabilities.
A number of centers have been established to rehabilitate students with disabilities, including: Al-Wafa centers for the rehabilitation of disabled children (27 centers in 2018) distributed over the various governorates of the Sultanate; the centers accept people with all kinds of disabilities; the Vocational Assessment and Rehabilitation Center, which provides vocational training for people with intellectual disabilities; Al Aman Rehabilitation Center, which includes 3 units (Al Wafa Unit, Al Aman Unit, and the Diagnostic Unit); Private rehabilitation institutions; there are 32 private centers; and eleven nongovernmental rehabilitation centers, affiliated with the Handicapped Children Care Association.
Oman accessed the Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1997 but has not notified the Convention against Discrimination in Education. Article 13 of the Constitution (2011) states that “Education is a cornerstone for the progress of the Society which the State fosters and endeavors to disseminate and make accessible to all”. It also asserts that the State shall provide public education, work to combat illiteracy, and encourage the establishment of private schools and institutes under its supervision in accordance with the provisions of the Law. Similarly, Article 2(b) of the Law of the Child number 22(2014) stipulates the right of children not to be discriminated against based on color, sex, origin, language, religion, social status or any other reasons (Sultanate of Oman, 2014, p. 5). Further, Article 36 of the same law stipulates that children have the right for free education at the basic education and beyond the basic level. Education is compulsory up until the end of basic education level.
According to the Ministry of Education’s website “Other Developmental Projects”, the Ministry is currently working on a number of developmental initiatives aimed at improving education policies. Among these initiatives are the following: 1. School Education Law; 2. The National Framework for Education including the document of teachers’ professional standard; 3. Data management and performance indicators development; 4. Project of developing and improving the ministry’s online services through the development of the Educational Portal website platform and introduction of many online services to serve the Ministry’s Directorates”.
In addition to the Law on the Care and Rehabilitation of the Disabled promulgated by Royal Decree No. 63/2008, many laws and regulations have been issued to regulate the work of the Ministry of Social Development in relation to providing special care services to the people with disabilities, through various programmes and activities to empower students and instill self-reliance in them (Education Council, 2019). This is carried by providing the appropriate environment for integration and the necessary programmes and services to help them adapt and achieve their aspirations like other members of society. Care and rehabilitation of people with disabilities in the Sultanate are carried out through a number of institutions in accordance to a number of regulations and legislation, and among the most important of these regulations are the following (Education Council, 2019): The International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities ratified by Royal Decree No. 121/2008 ; the bylaw for establishing the handicapped rehabilitation centers issued by Ministerial Resolution No. 124/2008 ; Bylaw for organizing the issuance of a disabled person’s card issued by Ministerial Resolution No. 94/2008 ; the National Committee for the Care of the Disabled, issued by Ministerial Resolution No. 1/2009, headed by the Minister of Social Development, with membership of a number of Undersecretaries from relevant ministries, a representative of the private sector, a representative of the handicapped rehabilitation centers , and a representative of the handicapped. The committee carries out its functions stipulated in Article (14) of The Disabled Welfare and Rehabilitation Act. The 8 specialized sub-committees emanating from the National Committee for the Care of the Disabled, formed by ministerial decisions, and headed by their Excellencies the Undersecretaries of relevant ministries, except for the Health Services and Financial Affairs Committees. The 8 committees are: The Education Committee – The Qualification, Training and Employment Committee – The Transport and Communications Committee – The Health Services Committee – the Adequate Environment Committee - The Sports Committee – The Media Committee. Finally, two recommendations regarding the education of persons with disabilities were issued in the National Education Strategy 2040 (Education Council, 2019, p. 14), one related to school education (Recommendation No. 9) and the second on higher education (Recommendation No. 13).
Oman ratified the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) and its Optional Protocol in 2009. In addition, Article 5 of Law 63(2008) for the Disabled highlights that “the disabled are to enjoy the pre-emptive/preventative measures and the medical care offered by the state to allow them mobility, transportation, education and training” (p. 3). The Disabled Persons Welfare and Rehabilitation Act enacted by Royal Decree No. 63/2008 introduced many changes to the education of children with special needs. In particular, its Article 24 set that “educational opportunities should be offered equally to pupils with disabilities within an inclusive education system’. Among the principles embedded in the law are: the right of persons with disabilities to be integrated into the general life of the society; the right of education and higher education commensurate with their abilities; the right of persons with disabilities to employment commensurate with their capabilities and qualifications, and their right to sports and recreation; the right of persons with disabilities to obtain such aids, equipment and materials that assists them in education, training, movement and transportation; the right of those who have multiple and severe disabilities to education, training and rehabilitation; and the right of needy parents with disabled dependents to relief, welfare and support services.
Furthermore, Articles 51, 52 and 53 of the Law of the Child number 22 (2014) outlines several aspects related to children with disabilities. Article 51 stipulates that a child with disabilities has all the rights that this Law outlines for all children with no discrimination based on the child’s disability.
Articles 11 and 12 of the Ministerial decree number 234/2017 to regulate student affairs in public schools highlights that students with disabilities – especially visual impairment and other physical disabilities - can only be accepted for registration on schools that are fully equipped for them. In this regard, the Ministry of Education has developed the Inclusion Mandate in 2002.
The Ministry has undertaken many initiatives and programmes to support and integrate this group. First, the learning disabilities programme initiated in 2002 in “key stage schools. Second, placing children with intellectual disabilities in separate class within ordinary schools. Third, the ‘National Scheme for Children with Autism (NSCA)’, initiated in 2015 by the government in partnership with UNICEF “to respond to societal calls regarding the development of a national strategy for the education and care of children with autism in Oman given the increase of prevalence rates of children with ASD in Oman”. Fourth, the Pronunciation and Speech Programme, which was implemented in 2004/2005. The number of students with language and speech disorders enrolled in the programme reached (647) students in the academic year 2019/2020. Fifth, the Literacy Project for People with Disabilities (2019/2020) for learners in literacy classes, in cooperation with ‘Al Wafa’ Social Centers of the Ministry of Social Development.
Oman acceded the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women in 2006. In the area of eliminating the gap between both genders in basic education and post-basic education, the Omani Government, in general, enacted all legislations which guarantee full rights for both genders to obtain equal and free education in any place within Oman. For such purpose, the Government provided all capabilities including encouraging families to enroll their children and providing all services related to education, such as transportation and sometimes residence for students who are from distant areas such as rough mountainous areas that are difficult to reach.
Assistants were appointed to accompany girls with disabilities on buses transporting them to school.
The equal opportunities in education for males and females indicator demonstrates stability over 2015/2016 and 2016/2017 at (0.99), i.e. 99 males versus 100 females, with a slight advantage for males. The same applies to schools (governmental, private and international), where the index stabilized during the same period at (0.96), as it indicated more presence for males in comparison to females in schools (private and international).
Ethnic minorities and Indigenous students
Oman voted in favor of adopting the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples in 2007. Article 13 of the Constitution (2011) also states that the right to education is not limited to Omanis only, but it extends to include all residents of Oman as the educational services are provided free of charge to the children of expatriates alongside Omani students. The Ministry of Education also granted the foreign communities in Oman the right to establish their own schools. The primary language of instruction in public schools is Arabic, and English is taught as a second language, starting from grade 1. There are also private monolingual schools and private bilingual schools (the language of instruction is Arabic and English according to the subjects).
Rural and remote areas
The Educated Village Programme is carried out by determining geographically restricted villages, with no districts outside its boundaries, and with a high level of illiteracy. This programme is conducted by the Directorate General of Education in the educational governorate, in cooperation with the office of H.E. the Wali, where the village is located, and comprehensive surveys on the village’s various aspects are conducted. This programme is expanded to include all educational governorates with a rate of three educated villages inaugurated every year. This programme aims to achieve the following objectives: 1) Speed up the illiteracy eradication in Oman; 2) Promote the spirit of cooperation and collective participation through voluntary work; 3) Focus on women and increase their efficiency and participation within the community; 4) Eradicate the alphabetical and cultural illiteracy in the targeted villages; 5) Raise the level of social, economic and environmental awareness of residents in the targeted villages… After the success of this experience, the number of educated villages increased from 16 villages in 2009/2010 to 27 villages in 2012/2013 across all the governorates of Oman. The Ministry of Education is establishing schools in rural areas, and publicly announces enrollment periods in schools, with the aim of accelerating the eradication of illiteracy. The Ministry of Education has also implemented the preparation classes project in public first cycle (1-4) schools in remote areas where there are no private schools for kindergartens, and appointed teachers with accredited academic qualifications.
Poverty and other vulnerabilities
Education in the Sultanate of Oman is available to all different age groups, educational levels and people with disabilities of all kinds without discrimination, and is provided by the government free of charge.
Preschool child's education
There is a significant expansion in the provision of pre-school education and special education programmes under the supervision of the Ministry of Education, yet it is provided by the private sector, in addition to some government agencies such as the Royal Oman Police, the Ministry of Defense, the Ministry of Endowments and Religious Affairs, and the Ministry of Social Development which provide such programmes. However, since 2008, all schools supervised by other government institutions have come under the administrative and technical supervision of the Ministry of Education. Kindergartens have spread in all governorates of the Sultanate. Kindergarten classes have not been limited to designated schools, but also included in other schools covering higher classes (1-12), with care to provide the security and safety elements for children at this stage, such as defining separate playing yards, halls, and designated places away from the rest of students. The gross enrollment rate in pre-school education increased in the academic year 2018/2019, reaching 51.8, from 50.2 in the previous year (Ministry of Education, 2019).
The Ministry has sought to provide free programmes for children in areas not covered by private pre-school education programs through the preparation classes project from the academic year 2004/2005 (Education Council, 2014). To support the continuous implementation of this programme, the Ministry has provided classrooms and allocated a financial reward to each person volunteering to teach a preparation class in all schools implementing the project (Ministry of Education and UNESCO, 2019 - Inclusive Education in the Sultanate of Oman: Achievements and Challenges). According to the statistics of the Ministry of Education for the academic year 2018/2019, the number of schools that include preparation classes reached 89 schools, including 2,356 children and 102 classes (Ministry of Education, 2019).
Adult education (literacy and adult education)
The literacy programme : The Ministry has implemented a series of formal and informal literacy programmes aimed at eradicating illiteracy, especially in rural and remote areas, which included all governorates and provided the opportunity for Omanis and non-Omanis to join. In early stages, the Ministry implemented a two-year program to teach reading, writing and basic skills at the fourth grade level, where adult learners are provided with a special curriculum that includes Arabic language, Islamic education, mathematics, English language and general culture (which includes Social Sciences, Science and some subjects dealing with child care and nutrition) (Education Council, 2014). Since the academic year 2005/06, the program has been extended to three years, after which the learner will be awarded a "Freedom from illiteracy" certificate, equivalent to passing the sixth grade of basic education. Graduates can then join the seventh grade in adult education centers or through home learning (the off-site study program). Most of the illiterate people largely come from hard-to-reach rural and remote areas. The Ministry has adopted various formal and informal programs away from the traditional pattern by making use of international experiences in this field (Ministry of Education and World Bank, 2012), including:
The learning villages programme: The adoption of this societal approach to eradicate illiteracy came through the establishment of literate villages. The project began in 2004 with the aim of eliminating illiteracy and meeting the needs of the population in remote areas. The project initially included one village, and within a short period of time, the number of enrolled students in the village reached 250. Students receive lessons in reading, writing, basic mathematics and life skills. In addition to addressing illiteracy, the project aims to raise awareness among the enrolled about social issues, such as the environment, nutrition and childcare, through courses and lectures provided by government institutions such as the Ministry of Endowments and Religious Affairs, the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Social Development and the Royal Oman Police. By the academic year 2012/2013, the project was expanded to include 27 villages in 11 governorates, and the number of educated villages during the 2017/2018 academic year reached (30) literate villages (Ministry of Education, 2018a).
Cooperating Schools Programme: The project aims to create mutual partnership between the school and the local community, whereby the school's facilities are used to provide educational, learning and social services and activities, including teaching adult education classes in the evening and during vacations. The project was applied as an experiment in the academic year 2003/2004 and was generalized to all governorates in the academic year 2006/2007 (Ministry of Education and the World Bank, 2012). The number of cooperating schools during 2017/2018 reached (87) cooperating schools (Ministry of Education, 2018a).
Literacy project for illiterate people in the marine islands and villages (Masirah - Helaniyat - Lima - Kumzar): This project aims to eradicate the illiteracy of Omani individuals in the Helaniyat Islands in the Dhofar Governorate, Masirah Island in the South Sharqiyah Governorate, and the marine villages of Lima and Kumzar in Musandam Governorate. The programme has run for three academic years starting from the academic year 2017/2018 until the academic year 2019/2020.
To enable large numbers of Omani youth to be academically qualified so they contribute to the renaissance, the government, represented by the Ministry of Education, began implementing the adult education system in the Sultanate, starting with the academic year 1974/1975. The system aims to provide education opportunities for all based on the principle of equal opportunities (Ministry of Education, 2015b). Adult education is considered parallel to regular education and includes grades 7 to 12. Students overcoming illiteracy, those who have passed the entrance examination in grade 7, or those who have completed grade 6 in formal education and then drop out of regular education for various reasons are enrolled. To enroll in adult education, learners must be over the legal age for formal education (Education Council, 2014). The study in adult education centers is divided into two parts: regular study, whereby attendance and study are required in adult education centers, and home study (off-site) where attendance is not required in school, but learners are provided with textbooks for a small fee in order to learn at home (The Ministry of Education and UNESCO, 2019 - Inclusive Education in the Sultanate of Oman: Reality and Challenges).
A 2015 study highlights that “Responsibility for special education is shared between the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Social Development, with some other responsibility (for assessment) vested in the Ministry of Health. Administrative decisions related to Special Education are issued by the Directorate-General of Special Education and Continuous Learning in the Ministry of Education, which is responsible for both special schools and special education programmes in the Sultanate. Within the Ministry of Social Development there is a department overseeing associations and community clubs which have a wide range of responsibilities for the provision of education, staff development and programme development, as well as supervision over all centers and societies”.
The Ministry of Social Development (MoSD) was established in 1972 with responsibilities in the provision of educational, vocational, rehabilitation, care, and accommodations services for persons with disabilities via institutions, centers, and associations under the immediate supervision of the Ministry.
As part of the endorsed governance structure, a national coordination team was established and its capacity built on child-friendly education principles, communication approaches to raise awareness on child-friendly education, as well as the governance structure for implementation. This ensures strengthened institutional capacity, as the team will play a pivotal role in guiding schools and governorates in managing and executing the mainstreaming child-friendly education across Oman. A comprehensive user manual for mainstreaming child-friendly education in school improvement plans was finalized and validated under the leadership of the national team. This will be followed by capacity building of school teachers, principals, supervisors and administrators, as well as relevant committees, at governorate and central ministry levels.
In addition, Article 13 of Law 63(2008) for the Disabled stipulates the creation of a “National Committee to Care for the Disabled” headed by Minister of Social Development and including other relevant government agencies, the private sector and rehabilitation centers. Further, Article 14 of this same law highlights that among the roles of the National Committee is studying and assessing the status quo to create a national plan for the care and rehabilitation of the disabled, as well as helping employ them and create public awareness.
In parallel, in 2018, UNICEF Oman worked on the development of a unified national disability classification which was endorsed by the Ministry of Education, Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Social Development. An assessment of their disability classification and identification system was completed and validation of a proposed harmonized assessment approach across the three sectors was received. The approach is appropriate for purposes of assessment, incorporating a multi-step process as follows: 1) a medical assessment to be undertaken by the Ministry of Health in line with the International Classification of Diseases, 2) a functional assessment to be undertaken by the Ministry of Social Development social workers, in line with the International Classification of Functioning, and 3) a disability assessment to be undertaken by rehabilitation specialists within relevant sectors, to determine the services to ensure inclusion. The development of a holistic and unified approach to classification will ensure children with disabilities are accurately captured and included within specialized care and education services. The work on a unified disability classification and the establishment of an interlinked national registry will support the Government in strengthening evidence and analysis about the situation of children with disabilities. This will ensure routine data collection on the numbers of children with disabilities, as well as the coverage and quality of specialized care and education services. In addition, in the Country Programme (2012–2016), UNICEF Oman worked with the Ministries of Education, of Health and of Social Development on various activities. These included a multi-phase capacity-building effort with social workers on the ‘Portage Programme’ to support families of children with disabilities, a review of the national disability law to ensure alignment with the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and technical assistance to MOH in developing data tools”.
Quality management systems and standards have also been implemented to govern all departments within the Ministry.
The model of public-school buildings with all its technical specifications is constructed on an equal footing all over the Sultanate. That said, there is a need to develop the facilities provided to students with special needs and determine facilities related to means of transportation for students with disabilities from and to schools. There is also a need to develop the measures related to providing healthy nutrition, security and safety procedures in schools, and students’ means of transportation.
The facilities in some schools implementing the inclusive education programme have also been improved, in addition to coordinating with specialists from the Ministry of Health to conduct periodic comprehensive checks for students and provide appropriate healthy meals for students. The Ministry of Health has also developed a nutrition programme with a system to track children's nutrition, health and treatment history, and for each school a full-time nurse is available to connect the school with the health center, especially in schools that have preparation classes.
A number of educational activity programmes and competitions are provided to allow students to practice their hobbies and satisfy their psychological and intellectual needs, besides providing them with opportunities to communicate with each other and with the school and local community, participate in the community, and acquire many positive behavior patterns outside the classroom. Students also gain experiences and skills related to the principles of elections, shura and democracy through mini elections that form a board of directors of the class each semester or the student council. This is implemented as part of the class management (Reyada) and educational activities programmes.
Teaching and learning practices
Following an evaluation of the child-friendly schools’ pilot and a request from the Ministry of Education, UNICEF Oman supported the shift away from the project approach towards mainstreaming child-friendly education principles into the national education system, and translation of lessons learned into policy guidelines. In 2018, the governance structure for child-friendly education in Oman was finalized and endorsed, ensuring that the system is robustly institutionalized within the ministry. This achievement builds on the completion of guidelines and protocols for implementation of the child-friendly education model at the national, governorate and school levels. The child-friendly education strategy proposes six principles as thematic organizers for schools: inclusion; democratic participation; child-centeredness; and protection; and two cross-cutting principles on equity and resilience and sustainability. Once these principles are taken to scale, child-friendly education will result in rights-based education that is of quality with better teaching-learning outcomes for children and youth, building the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values required by the modern labor market. Child-friendly education will also ensure that all learners can realize their full potential in a safe and protected environment and that all children and youth participate and benefit equitably.
The Ministry of Education continuously aims to improve illiteracy programme curricula. The content of such curricula must be reviewed so as to cope with the new developments in the educational field, and to make the new content of subjects more suitable for the actual needs of learners”. This entailed the revision of several illiteracy curricula. Also, ministerial Resolution No. (40/2016) for mental disability and No. (01/2016) for hearing impairment were issued to adapt the curricula.
Article 14(j) of Law 63(2008) for the Disabled highlights the training of those working in the sector of care for the disabled. In this regard, the total number of trained teachers working on special needs across the various schools is a total of 323 teachers (out of which 82% are female). In this regard, in support to the inclusion agenda, UNICEF Oman developed an Inclusive Education Teacher Training Guide for teachers in cycle 1 (grades 1 – 4), to strengthen the capacity of teachers to incorporate inclusive approaches for children with disabilities into their teaching methodology and classroom management. This will enhance learning outcomes in general, as teaching methods become more responsive to diverse learning needs. The training is being institutionalized into the professional training programme of in-service teachers and new teachers within the Ministry of Education specialized teacher training center. The training guide builds on the wealth of resources on inclusive education developed by UNICEF and UNESCO, as well as the MENA Life Skills and Citizenship Education Initiative, the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, and is in line with work conducted on child-friendly education. This aligns with Strategic Plan Goal Area 5, as equity concerns are addressed in education and beyond. Finally, UNICEF Oman also advocated for including children with other disabilities and began work with the Specialized Centre for the Professional Training of Teachers on institutionalizing an Inclusive Education training programme to be rolled out to all regular classroom teachers. As a first step in this process, a teacher’s guide was developed and field-tested based on the Omani curricula for cycle 1 (Grades 1–4) and an accompanying training of trainers programme was designed. In 2018, work will continue to develop similar tools for cycle 2 (Grades 5–10); the programme aims to reach 50 percent of teachers within four years.
Teacher training in sign language is under way by the Department of Special Education Programmes.
There is also a social worker in most schools, responsible for providing social counseling to students, and providing support to students who suffer from behavioral and academic problems. In addition, there is a psychology specialist in some schools to provide psychological counseling services, and to help reduce psychological disorders for students with such problems. Add to that, a resident school health nurse is provided in some schools to present health and educational support to students, and to follow up on school health and environmental sanitation services.
The Ministry’s focus on developing these abilities of teachers. It aims at 1) dispatching 60 career guidance specialists from various educational regions to universities on an annual basis to obtain the Career Guidance Diploma with full financing from the Ministry of Education; beside2) dispatching 10 learning difficulties supervisors and teachers to Sultan Qaboos University on an annual basis to obtain the Learning Difficulties Masters degree with full financing from the Ministry of Education.
In terms of reporting, in 2015, Oman has submitted an Annual Report for Education. To assess child-friendly education implementation at the school level, a benchmark and monitoring framework was also developed to facilitate monitoring child-friendly education indicators as well as Sustainable Development Goal 4 indicators. This would support monitoring and measuring the performance of learners, teachers, schools, and governorates following the child-friendly education mainstreaming process. The framework is to be embedded within the national Education Management Information System (EduPortal), a system for assessing the performance of schools and teachers that collects must of the data for monitoring progress and measuring results.