- Early childhood care and education (Entry/Establishment ○ Financial operation ○ Quality of teaching and learning ○ Equitable access ○ Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability)
- Primary and secondary education (Entry/Establishment ○ Financial operation ○ Quality of teaching and learning ○ Equitable access ○ Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability)
- Tertiary education (Entry/Establishment ○ Financial operation ○ Quality of teaching and learning ○ Equitable access ○ Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability)
According to the 2006 Constitution of the Republic of Serbia, the establishment of schools and universities are regulated by the law (art. 71). Institutions for all levels of education may be state (public) and private, depending on the founder: the Republic of Serbia, autonomous province, local self-government unit (LSG), national councils of national minorities and another individual or legal entity. The founder of a private institution can be another domestic and foreign legal or natural person.
A foreign institution is an institution that implements a program adopted and accredited abroad, it must meet the conditions for the establishment, commencement of work and performance of activities, i.e. to obtain a decision on approval for work from the Ministry of Education Science and Technological Development (MoESTD) and make an entry in the register of the competent authority same as domestic founders.
At the end of ECEC is the preparatory preschool program (PPP) which is mandatory (2006) for all children aged 5-6,5 (coverage for this group is 97,36% (2020) and can be also implemented in verified private preschool institution. (PPP can be also organized in primary school). The realization of the preparatory preschool program is regulated in more detail by the Rulebook on closer conditions for the realization of the preparatory preschool program ("Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia" No. 5/12).
The majority of students in primary and secondary education attend state institutions. Primary education consists of eight grades and is compulsory. The majority of students attend public primary schools which are free of charge. Secondary education is not compulsory (transition rate 98,2%, 2019), but is free in public schools, either through general schools (four years), art schools or vocational schools (2-4 years). Public primary and secondary education is free for almost all categories of students. The only exceptions in elementary primary schools are students over 17 years (part-time students) + who are required to cover the costs of their educational programme organisation and exams. In secondary schools, full-time and part-time students are released from financial expenses during their education. However, a secondary education graduate who wishes to proceed with a retraining or further training programme, or acquire a specialist/craftsman qualification degree, is required to pay a tuition fee.
Students with disabilities can be enrolled in regular schools or schools for students with disabilities that can provide primary and/or secondary education.
Non-state managed, state schools
No information was found.
Non-state funded, state schools
The 2017 Law on Foundations of Education System opens the possibility of public-private partnerships (PPP) in education. The institution can be established according to the model of PPP in the field of education, in accordance with the law governing public-private partnership and public property (2016 Law on Public-Private Partnership and Concessions). PPP is a long-term cooperation between public and private partners to provide financing, construction, reconstruction, management or maintenance of infrastructure and other facilities of public importance and provision of services of public importance, which can be contractual or institutional. There is no official data on schools established as PPP.
Independent, non-state schools
Private institutions can be founded by natural or legal entities at any level of education (preschool, primary, secondary, HEI). The founder of a private institution also must not be a person convicted of prescribed criminal offences or a person found to be prone to discriminatory conduct. Educational institutions have equal status, regardless of ownership or founder’s identity. Private institutions are not subject to the Act on the network of institutions on the local level i.e. founder can choose to open institutions in any area.
There are also international schools that work in line with the program approved by official institutions in the country of origin. E.g., a French school in Belgrade as a school institution covered by the agreement and a member of the AEFE network has a license from the State Ministry of Education, Higher Education and Research of France to perform its activities. The mentioned license is a confirmation of compliance with the curricula and goals of the French education system, as well as the recognition of decisions on orientation and exams that students take. It provides preschool, primary and general secondary
Private institutions are fully financed by the institutions themselves and their users - there is no public funding of these institutions no matter do they provide preschool, primary, secondary or higher education.
State-funded (government-aided), non-state schools
No information was found.
Contracted, non-state schools
No information was found.
According to the Law on Education System Foundations and the 2018 Law on Primary Education - compulsory education can be provided at home, at parents’ request. Parents are required to notify the school about that decision until the end of the school year prior to the school year in which they want to provide home education for their child. The school is required to organize final exams in all subjects according to the official curricula. Home education has to be provided in accordance with all official education goals, learning outcomes and achievement standards. For students with developmental difficulties or disabilities that need to follow Individual Learning Plan, home education is provided with adopted learning outcomes and objectives. The school is obliged to keep evidence on home education of the students. The By-Law on Home Education is yet to be adopted and it is expected to provide more guidance regarding the provision of home education. Conditions of the realization, quality assurance and evaluation of home education are regulated by the MoESTD.
The Law on Education System Foundations stipulates that instruction can be realized as home teaching and distance learning (Art. 14), and the Law on Secondary Education defines distance learning somewhat more extensively (Art. 27) as well as the 2018 Law on Primary Education (Art. 38a). However, there are no bylaws that regulate this area more specifically. Schools were closed from March 16th 2020 after the Government of the Republic of Serbia declared a state of emergency on the territory of the entire country and suspended the regular work of schools due to the COVID-19 pandemic, until the end of the school year 2019/20 (although the state of emergency was lifted on May 5th 2020). MoESTD issued an Instruction on education in during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Market contracted (Voucher schools)
No information was found.
There are no unregistered formal primary and secondary education schools
There are also some less frequent types such as art schools, acting schools, music schools but these are commercial non-formal education providers, and do not provide formal certification or degree. They do, however, offer preparatory programs for enrolment to specialized secondary schools or faculties.
MoESTD is responsible for determining the national educational strategy and legal and policy frameworks for all education levels. There are no specific legal acts in Serbia that specifically and separately regulate the establishment, operation, monitoring and supervision of private educational institutions. The establishment of pre-university institutions is regulated by Article 91 of the 2017 Law on Foundations of Education System, whether it is a state institution, established by the Republic of Serbia, autonomous province and local self-government or a private institution, founded by the natural person or institution, but some conditions vary. Both state and private institutions which meet the establishment requirements (with prescribed facilities, equipment, teaching aids, teachers, educators, expert associates, provided sanitary and technical conditions, etc.) may perform educational activities. In addition to these conditions, the founder of a private institution, with the guarantee of a commercial bank, proves that he has funding available for a year's work of kindergarten or one cycle of primary or secondary education programme.
The processes of monitoring and supervision of verified private educational institutions are the responsibility of the MoESTD and are realized through the process of professional-pedagogical and inspection supervision through 16 local school administrations and local inspection services as organizational units of the MoESTD. The MoESTD is also in charge of verifying state and private institutions and issuing work permits based on the verification process based on a review done by the National Entity for Accreditation and Quality Assurance in Higher Education (NEAQA) and its Commission approval.
Vision: Most relevant legislation regulating the work of both private and public education institutions, include the 2006 Constitution, the Law on Education System Foundations, the Law on Preschool Education, the 2018 Law on Primary Education, the Law on Secondary Education and the Law on Higher Education.
Specific issues/processes and quality standards are regulated by by-laws and are presented in the part relevant to levels of education described.
Private educational institutions, as well as state ones, are obliged to apply and realize their work in accordance with the following key legal acts: the umbrella law (Law on Education System Foundations) and individual laws (2018 Law on Primary Education, Law on Secondary Education, Law on Higher Education).
There are no strategic goals to involve more non-state education providers. As mentioned above, the 2017 Law on Foundations of Education System opens up a possibility for PPP. Some local self-government units (LSG) (Belgrade) support the enrolment of children in private kindergartens through subsidies but that is not regulated on the national level, and the main reason is not to fund private institutions but to provide preschool service in the situation that state did not provide enough capacities for preschool education. The state mainly focuses on maintaining quality control of private education and training providers but do not include them in development strategies.
The Strategy for the Development of Education in Serbia until 2020 and the new Strategy for the Development of Education in the Republic of Serbia until 2030 (June 2021) do not define the vision of partnership with private institutions, as well as specific or general guidelines for the development of private education in the Republic of Serbia.
ECCE in Serbia is intended for children from 6 months until the primary school starting age. It comprises three levels determined by the age of children: nursery – children from 6 months to 3 years of age; kindergarten - children from 3 to 5½ years of age; preschool preparatory programme – children from 5½ to 6½ years of age. The nine-month long preschool preparatory programme is the first part of compulsory education. Although the share of state kindergartens in Serbia is predominantly higher than private ones, an increase in the total capacity of ECCE is mostly enabled thanks to the growing number of private preschool institutions over the past several years. Based on the analysis of official data from the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia, it is concluded that the share of private kindergartens at the national level was 17.12% in 2020/2021.
Registration and approval: Preschool facilities can be established by local self-governments or private actors organized as an entrepreneurial (commercial) legal entity under private law. For more information, see Multi-level regulations.
Licence: See Multi-level regulations.
Profit-making: See Multi-level regulations.
Taxes and subsidies: Some local governments offer financial support for parents who enrol their children in private kindergartens, with the system of subsidies like in Belgrade, due to lack of places in public preschool institutions. For more information, see Multi-level regulations.
Curriculum and education standards: Private institutions carry out their work in accordance with the Fundamentals of the Preschool Education Programme adopted at the national level and the Law on Preschool Education. To improve the quality of educational work, both state and private kindergartens may expand the diversity of program offerings, forms of work and services and increase the coverage of children, can implement various forms and programs in the function of care, upbringing and education of children, rest and recreation, providing support to the family, nurturing the language and culture of the national minority, mediating certain areas of culture, science and art, and according to the identified needs and interests of children and families and the specifics of the local community. These programs must be approved in the verification process. All preschool institutions must organize their work according to national standards of quality in 6 main domains: Educational work, Support for children and families, Professional learning community as well as Management and organization. See more about this mechanism for ensuring the quality of work of preschool institutions in Multi-level regulations.
Teaching profession: See Multi-level regulations.
Fee-setting: See Multi-level regulations.
Admission selection and processes: The manner and procedure of enrolling children in private and state preschool institutions are regulated by the institution’s internal statute, with the consent of the founder. The Law on Preschool Education (Article 30) states up to two children with developmental disabilities and disabilities in one educational group. The number of children in the educational group, determined by this law, is reduced by three per child for each child who exercises the right to additional support in the educational group, along with an individualization plan or an individual educational plan.
Some local governments offer financial support for parents who enrol their children in private kindergartens, with the system of subsidies like in Belgrade, due to the lack of places in public preschool institutions.
There are no official data at the national level on the number of children from vulnerable groups attending private kindergartens, nor specifically on the subgroup of children with disabilities attending private kindergartens.
Policies for vulnerable groups: No information was found.
Reporting requirements: See Multi-level regulations.
Inspection: See Multi-level regulations.
Child assessment: No information was found.
Sanctions: See Multi-level regulations.
Registration and approval: See Multi-level regulations.
Licence: See Multi-level regulations.
Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH): The Rulebook on detailed conditions for establishing, starting work and performing the activities of a primary school prescribes in detail the sanitary conditions for both students and teachers. Regulation of this aspect are similar for the secondary schools and are prescribed by the same type of Rulebook for this level of education.
Profit-making: See Multi-level regulations.
Taxes and subsidies: See Multi-level regulations.
Curriculum and education standards: Private schools providers have to follow the national curriculum, but they also can have additional programs for students which must be approved in the verification process.
Textbooks and learning materials: All schools have autonomy in the selection of textbooks and learning materials.
Teaching profession: See Multi-level regulations.
Corporal punishment: The 2017 Law on Foundations of Education System (Article 111) stipulates that physical, psychological, social, sexual, digital and any other violence, abuse and neglect of an employee, child, student, adult, parent or other legal representative or third party are prohibited in the institution. Private institutions are obliged to act in accordance with the said law and Protocol for Acting in the Institution in Response to Violence, Abuse and Neglect, which describe in detail the obligations of the institution's rights and responsibilities in response to violence, abuse and neglect. Every private institution is obliged to respect the mentioned provision of this law as well as the mentioned rulebook. In addition to that, Article 112 of the mentioned law prescribes the prohibition of any behaviour of an employee towards a child, student and adult; child, student and adult to employee; parent, or other legal representative or third party to the employee; an employee to a parent or other legal representative; a child, student and adult towards another child, student or adult, whose reputation, honor or dignity is insulted.
Other safety measures and COVID-19: After the state of emergency, state and non-state preschool institutions carry out their work in accordance with the Instructions for the application of preventive measures in preschool institutions related to COVID-19 prepared by the Health secretariat. This instruction contains recommendations and measures for the treatment of employees and users before re-establishment of work.
The Crisis Staff for the Suppression of the Infectious Disease Covid-19 passed the Conclusion on the adoption of the Professional Instruction for the organization and realization of educational work in primary school in the school year 2020/2021, Professional instructions for organizing and realizing teaching directly and through distance learning for high schools in the school year 2020/2021 and the Instruction on measures to protect the health of students and employees for primary and secondary schools, which further regulates the organization and implementation of educational work in conditions that require the application of a number of preventive and protective measures in the fight against COVID-19.
The adopted acts are the basis for organizing, planning and programming the overall educational work in schools in difficult conditions, starting from September 1, 2020. All guidelines and instructions apply to both private and public schools.
Based on the appropriate professional instructions, the Pedagogical Collegium should propose a way of organizing teaching in the school that will be based on the described models. The starting points in the preparation of the proposal should be, above all, the analysis of the spatial conditions in the school and the results of the parents' statements. Parents have the right and obligation to state whether in the existing epidemiological conditions they will allow their children to attend classes or will opt for distance learning (TV classes via the RTS Public Service). Finally, the decision on the model or models of teaching at the level of the institution should be made with the participation of all members of the Teachers' Council.
Fee-setting: See Multi-level regulations.
Admission selection and processes: The 2017 Law on Foundations of Education System (Article 119, paragraph 1, item 1 and Article 99) and the Statute of private institution states each basic and secondary private school adopts their own rulebook on enrollment of students in the school.
Policies for vulnerable groups: No information was found.
School board: The 2017 Law on Foundations of Education System (Article 115) defines the school board as a governing body. The governing body consists of three representatives from among the employees of the institution, parents, ie other legal representatives and three representatives at the proposal of the local self-government unit.
Reporting requirements: No information was found.
School inspection: See Multi-level regulations.
Student assessments: No information was found.
Diplomas and degrees: Students in private primary schools take the final exam at the end of schooling, and students in secondary schools take the Matura exam. The final exam is of an external character and has an evaluative, selection and certification function, and students of private schools are required to take it and receive the same diploma as students of state primary schools. The Matura exam is still of an internal character, but it is a necessary condition for completing schooling in both private and public schools. The Matura exam at the end of high school is conducted in accordance with the Rulebook on the content and manner of taking the Matura exam in high school. The Matura exam (for four-year profiles in secondary vocational schools) and the final exam (for three-year profiles in secondary vocational schools) are conducted in the manner prescribed by the Bylaw on the Programme of Vocational National Exam and Final Exam. Private schools of international character may issue additional diplomas.
Sanctions on school closures: See Multi-level regulations.
Higher education studies in Serbia are organized into three levels. The first level includes basic academic studies, basic vocational studies and basic specialist studies, the second includes master academic and master vocational studies, while the third level are doctoral academic studies. According to the way of their foundation, higher education institutions (HEIs) are either public or private institutions. The share of students attending public institutions is around 75%. Public HEIs can be free of charge and the students’ status depends on their excellence -students with higher scores may enter free quotas (around 52% of students do not pay tuition fees).
HE institutions in Serbia are as follows: universities, faculties and art academies, academy of vocational studies, higher school, and higher school for vocational studies. Usually, universities and faculties provide academic studies (79 % students, 2020), while vocational academies provide vocational studies (21% of students, 2020).
In the Republic of Serbia, 8 state universities and 11 private universities exist. In the 2019/2020 academic year, a total of 204,627 students were enrolled in state and private universities - of which 86% or 175,995 students are enrolled at the state and 14% or 28,632 students at private faculties. Private universities are founded by different founders, some by natural persons some are branches of international universities/colleges. There is no statistical info available.
In general, an HEI cannot become a university unless it offers doctoral studies in at least three fields (natural sciences and mathematics, social sciences and humanities, medical science, technical and technological sciences and arts).
Registration and approval: An independent higher education institution may be established by the Republic, a legal entity or a natural person, in accordance with the law. The founder of the state or private institution submits to the MoESTD evidence of compliance with standards for initial accreditation. The founder of a private institution, in addition, has to provide the bank guarantee for the continuation of study in the event of termination of the institution or termination of performance of a particular study programme. After obtaining a working license issued by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development Higher education institutions (HEI) can perform activities and after positive assessment by National Entity for Accreditation and Quality Assurance in Higher Education (NEAQA). NEAQA is the body responsible for the accreditation process, HEI (HEI) quality assurance process, evaluation of study programmes and higher education quality assurance. The Commission for Accreditation is a professional body of the NEAQA. It consists of 17 members proposed by the National Council for Higher Education and appointed by the steering committee of the NEAQA. The Commission "implements the accreditation of HEIs and study programs and the procedure of external quality assurance of HEIs, in accordance with the Law and prescribed procedure and standards for accreditation and external quality control".
Licence: Within nine months from the day of receipt of the request for work permit license, the NEAQA prepares a Report on the initial accreditation of the higher education institution and study programs and submits it to the Ministry with a recommendation that: 1) issues a work permit to a higher education institution; and 2) rejects the request of the higher education institution for the issuance of a work permit. If the Ministry rejects the request for the issuance of a work permit (which is final), after submitting the report of the NEAQA, with a recommendation to reject the request of the higher education institution, the higher education institution may initiate an administrative dispute.
Profit-making: In order to commercialize scientific results, artistic creation and inventions, a higher education institution may be the founder of a company, whereby the realized profit belonging to it may be used exclusively by the higher education institution to improve the activities of the higher education institution. Higher education institutions can have sources of income other than student fees that are defined by the Law on Higher Education as: donations, gifts and endowments; funds for financing scientific, artistic and professional work; projects and contracts related to the execution of teaching, research and consulting services; compensation for commercial and other services; founders' rights and contracts with third persons and other sources in accordance with the Law on Higher Education. The spending of the institution’s own income is regulated by the institution’s internal acts in accordance with its strategic goals. Most often, the institution’s own income is spent on infrastructure and salaries. Private higher education institutions are financially independent of the state and therefore have full financial autonomy.
Taxes and subsidies: No information was found.
Curriculum and education standards: All institutions, private or state have to satisfy the same set of standards regulating program content, human resources, etc. Each new program HEI has to go through an accreditation process. The higher education institution organizes and conducts studies in the Serbian language.
The HEI may organize examinations and perform certain parts of studies, as well as organize the preparation and defence of final, master's and specialist work and doctoral dissertation in the language of a national minority and in a foreign language, in accordance with the statute. An HEI may carry out a study program in the language of a national minority and a foreign language if such a program is approved or accredited. An HEI may organize and conduct studies for students with disabilities, i.e. certain parts of studies, in sign language.
Teaching profession: The titles of teachers at the university are: assistant professor, associate professor and full professor. The general act of an independent HEI may determine other titles of teachers (foreign language teacher, skills, etc.) in accordance with the type of study for which the institution is accredited. The conditions for election to these titles are prescribed by the HEI. Private HEIs can set their own rules regarding the employment of teachers or elections. Salaries are set by the institution as well as bonuses and benefits.
Fee-setting: Private higher education institutions are self-funded and fully independent from the State. The main source of income for private higher education institutions is tuition fees which range from 1,000 to 4,500 $ per academic year. For private HEIs there are no limits for increasing fees. Private HEIs have complete autonomy in fee setting and rules of payment (instalments, discounts etc.).
Admission selection and processes: Students take admission exams at the HEI of their choice. Each HEI decides on the content of the exams (number of subjects, skills tested etc.). Some HEIs do not have exams in classical form but ask for a motivational letter and organize interviews in front of a commission. Students with disabilities have the right to take admission exams in an adapted setting. Private HEIs can decide on favourable conditions for specific groups, and it is regulated by internal documents.
Board: The HEI has a governing body, a management body, professional bodies and a student parliament. In order to achieve cooperation in the development of study programs in accordance with the needs of the labour market, the HEI has an employer council. The governing body of the university is the rector, the faculty - the dean, the academies of vocational studies - the president, high schools and colleges of vocational studies - the director. The management body is elected by secret ballot from among the teachers of the HEI who are employed full-time, and are elected for an indefinite period of time. The management body is elected for three years with the possibility of one consecutive election. The Rector of the University coordinates the work of the Dean in order to implement the views, decisions and conclusions of the bodies of the University, regarding the role, tasks, activities and competencies of the University determined by this law, statute and other general acts of the university.
Reporting requirements: Self-evaluation and internal quality assurance of study programmes, teaching process and work conditions are defined by each HEI in line with the Law on Higher Education. An HEI defines its internal documentation and procedures for the internal quality assurance process. Self-evaluation takes place at least every three years. Students’ rating of academic programmes quality is a part of the quality assurance procedure. A report on self-evaluation procedures and results are submitted to the NEAQA.
Inspection: Accreditation determines whether HEI and study programme are in line with standards that are defined by the Regulations on Standards and Procedure for Accreditation of Study Programmes and the Regulations on Standards and Procedures for Accreditation of Higher Education Institution. External quality control is done every 4 years or earlier upon request.
If the HEI does not fulfil the obligations regarding quality, the Commission for Accreditation determines measures for correction of the identified deficiencies and subsequent monitoring within six months from the day of submitting the report. The Commission for Accreditation, within 30 days from the expiration of the set deadline prepare a final report on the external control and quality control of the HEI. If the final report is negative, the NEAQA within 30 days from the day of publishing the final report, issues a decision on revoking the accreditation of the study program, i.e the accreditation of the HEI.
There are two types of education inspection, republic and local. While external quality controls refer to compliance with quality standards, inspection focuses more on compliance with relevant laws. An inspection is performed based on a complaint made by a person or other institution. The Law on Higher Education defines responsible bodies in the process of quality assurance. The Commission for Accreditation implements external quality assurance procedures either every fourth year or upon the request of the MoESTD. The Commission for Accreditation sends an external quality assurance report to the HEI and to the body that requested the external check.
Student assessments: Student assessment is done in line with the Law on Higher Education and procedures of the HEI (in line with the study programme). The exam can be taken orally, in writing, or practically. Students take exams immediately after the end of classes in that subject, and no later than the beginning of classes in that subject in the next school year, in one of the languages in which the classes were conducted. The general act of the HEI regulates the manner in which transparency and fairness of the examination process is ensured. The number of examination terms and the dates of the exams is determined by the statute of the HEI. After three failed exams, the student can ask to take the exam before the commission.
Diplomas and degrees: The authority responsible for certification is the HEI. Every accredited higher education institution in Serbia can organise study programmes and issue first and second-cycle degree certificates (academic and professional), but only universities can implement third-cycle educational programmes. Upon completion of a specific level of higher education, the student receives a diploma with his/her relevant professional title, average degree and the number of ECTS earned. The student also receives a diploma supplement, which contains information regarding the level, type and content of the studies successfully finished. Accredited non-state institutions deliver diplomas, degrees or certificates that are recognized the same as the ones offered by public institutions
Sanctions on institutional closures: HEI that does not receive accreditation, has a work permit valid for another year from the day of the final decision on the rejection of the request for accreditation, but no right to enrol students (Law on Higher Education). An HEI may have its work permit amended or revoked when it is determined in the procedure of external quality control, or inspection supervision because it hasn’t met the conditions for performing the activities provided in the Law. HEI has to submit a request for new accreditation no later than one year before the expiration of the deadline. If it does not submit a request for new accreditation the validity of the accreditation terminates on the day following the expiration of the deadline. The Ministry within 15 working days from the day of expiration of the deadline issues a decision on revocation of the work permit and announce the termination of the validity of the accreditation. The costs of completing studies for students whose study program or institution is terminated is borne by the HEI whose work permit has been revoked. HEI whose work permit has been revoked can submit a request for the issuance of a new work permit after the expiration of one year from the day of delivery of the decision on revocation of the work permit.
This section includes regulations for preschool, primary and secondary education based primarily on the 2017 Law on Foundations of Education System.
Registration and approval: The conditions for the establishment of state and private institutions are generally prescribed by the 2017 Law on Foundations of Education System (Articles 90, 91 and 92). Each institution (kindergarten or school) is obliged to submit to the MoESTD a request for verification of institution with complete documentation (including the program of work) and elaborate. The elaborate contains the following elements: (1) introductory remarks and descriptive presentation of the reasons and justification for establishment; (2) name, seat of the institution (code of activity of preschool, primary or secondary education); (3) conditions provided by the founder for performing the activity, i.e. space (detailed description in relation to the prescribed norms, data on what the space is - own list, lease agreement, etc.); (4) preparations and didactic means for the realization of educational work (detailed description, before editing, from the prescribed norms and explanation for the introduction of modern regulations and means in relation to the prescribed ones); (5) List of educators, teachers, professional associates, nurses, etc. who will be employed in the institutions, with data and documents on the types of education, etc.); (6) hygienic and technical conditions.
The request for verification is accompanied by the Act on the establishment of the institution as well as the entry in the court register with the competent court.
After determining the complementarity and relevance of the documentation, the request is made by the competent inspection service to determine the prescribed conditions in terms of space, preparation, prepared funds and teaching staff for student education. After receiving the Report from the competent inspection service, a decision on the verification of the institution is made and the institution is entered in the register of verified institutions. The verification process takes an average of 3 to 6 months.
Licence: The Licence (work permit) does not have a limited period of validity, 2017 Law on Foundations of Education System (Art. 106) prescribes the possibility of closing the institution if the body responsible for inspection or professional-pedagogical supervision determines that the institution does not meet the prescribed conditions for work or activity in the prescribed manner.
Profit-making: Law does not prohibit profit-making. Private kindergartens and primary and secondary schools are financially independent from the state and therefore have full financial autonomy.
Taxes and subsidies For private institutions, unlike state ones, in the verification procedure, proof of paid administrative fee needs to be attached, in accordance with the law governing administrative fees. Inter alia, the condition for the establishment of a private institution is the guarantee of the commercial bank that the funds in the amount of the necessary funds have been provided. Funds for kindergartens should be provided for one year of work (about $ 5,000), and for primary and secondary schools for the education cycle. The amount of funds needed for primary and secondary schools is about $ 15,000. As already mentioned in the context of the space for the realization of educational work, it is necessary to provide a title deed and a lease agreement, in addition to meeting the norms of space in accordance with the Rulebook.
Curriculum or education standards: In the context of quality assurance, it is important to note that both private and state kindergartens and schools are obliged to carry out the process of self-evaluation in accordance with nationally prescribed areas and standards of work quality defined by the Rulebook on evaluation of work quality and the Rulebook on quality standards. Special standards have been developed for kindergartens, and special ones apply to primary and secondary schools at the same time. The same quality standards are subject to an external evaluation conducted by the Ministry through regional school administrations. During the first cycle of external evaluation of the quality of work of preschool institutions and schools, private institutions were not included. From this school year, a new cycle of external evaluation of the quality of work of all educational institutions in Serbia has begun, and the Ministry plans to include all private institutions.
Teaching profession: The requirements that employees must meet in order to work in a private preschool and school institution are the same as for employees in state educational institutions. A private institution may set additional conditions during the competition - the selection of employees. Private institutions prescribe the amount of income for employees as well as working conditions through their internal regulations.
Fee-setting: The amount of tuition is determined by the private institution based on the decisions of the main governing body. Information on the amount of tuition is publicly available on the website of individual institutions. It is a relatively common practice that some private kindergartens, primary and secondary schools offer more favourable annual tuition conditions for families with more than one child enrolled in a particular institution, as well as lower prices if parents choose to have more elective/additional packages of program. Limits on tuition fees or increases in tuition fees are regulated by a special article of the Agreement signed by the director of the private institution and the parents.
Preschool education fees range from 150 to 400$ per month and are determined by preschool institutions themselves. Some local governments offer financial support for parents who enrol their children in private kindergartens, with the system of subsidies. The condition of financial support through subsidies from the local government unit is the refusal of the state preschool institution due to the limited capacity of the institution to accept all registered children. This practice is applied only in certain units of local self-government - the largest city centres (for example - Belgrade, Nis and Novi Sad). In private elementary and secondary schools, tuition fees may vary from $ 4,000 to 10,000 annually. As already mentioned, these costs are fully covered by students’ parents and are used for staff salaries, equipment, maintenance and other costs.
Admission selection and processes. Preschool institutions and schools have autonomy in deciding on selection and admission procedures. The Law on Preschool Education(Article 30) states up no more than two children with developmental disabilities and disabilities can be in one educational group. The number of children in the educational group, determined by this law, is reduced by three per child for each child who exercises the right to additional support in the educational group, along with an individualization plan or an individual educational plan. According to the Professional Instruction on the formation of departments and the manner of financing in primary and secondary schools, the number of students in the class that includes students who are educated according to the individual educational plan (IEP) is reduced by: 1) two per student who acquires primary or secondary education and upbringing by achieving IEP 1. This means that in the class attended by a student who acquires primary or secondary education and upbringing by completing IEP 1, the total number of students increased by 1 is recognized; 2) three per student who acquires primary or secondary education and upbringing by completing IEP 2. This means that in the class attended by a student who acquires primary or secondary education and upbringing by completing IEP2, the total number of students is increased by 2. These rules should be respected by private kindergartens and schools, however, according to the mentioned instruction, the number of children and students in educational groups and classes cannot be less than 15, nor more than 30, however, in private nurseries, kindergartens and schools the number of children can be less than 15 and a smaller number of children is one of the primary reasons why parents decide not to enrol their children primarily in the state kindergarten, but also in school.
Reporting requirements: Private kindergartens and schools are obliged, as well as state ones, to continuously conduct the process of self-evaluation and compile a school report. As mentioned, the Ministry announced that in the next five-year period, the process of external evaluation will include private kindergartens and schools, and the official national report on the results of the total sample of all institutions will be prepared by the Institute for Evaluation of Education Quality at the end of the process - in five years. In the meantime, from the end of the next school year, data will be available on a sample of institutions evaluated during that year in the annual reports of the Institute.
Inspection: In addition to inspection supervision, which is aimed at checking the implementation of legal regulations in all private and state institutions, professional pedagogical supervision is also carried out. This type of supervision is focused on the pedagogical-psychological aspect of the work. The Ministry carries out these processes in accordance with the 2017 Law on Foundations of Education System and separate regulations. In addition, with the aim of ensuring the quality of work of institutions and the processes of self-evaluation and external evaluation of the quality of work of institutions. In the context of quality assurance, it is important to note that both private and state kindergartens and schools are obliged to carry out the process of self-evaluation in accordance with nationally prescribed areas and standards of work quality defined by the Rulebook on evaluation of work quality and the Rulebook on quality standards. Special standards have been developed for preschools, and special ones apply to secondary schools (Regulation on space for secondary schools) at the same time. The same quality standards are subject to an external evaluation conducted by the Ministry through regional school administrations. During the first cycle of external evaluation of the quality of work of preschool institutions and schools, private institutions were not included. From this school year, a new cycle of external evaluation of the quality of work of all educational institutions in Serbia has begun, and the Ministry plans to include all private institutions.
Assessments: The process of monitoring the progress of children in nurseries and kindergartens in state and private institutions is carried out in accordance with the Rulebook on the basics of preschool education programs. The Rulebook on the Assessment of Students in Primary Education and the Rulebook on the Assessment of Students in Secondary Education is in line with the national program but if schools also have an international program, they can assess students in line with the requirements of that program, In addition to the previously mentioned legal framework, there are no specific requirements that refer exclusively to private institutions.
Sanctions on school closures: As already mentioned, the 2017 Law on Foundations of Education System (Article 106) prescribes the possibility of closing an institution if the body responsible for performing an inspection or professional-pedagogical supervision determines that the institution does not meet the prescribed working conditions or does not perform activities in the prescribed manner. In that case, in relation to the type and severity of the violation, the Ministry shall order measures and a deadline for their elimination, if the repeated inspection determines that they have not been met, the Ministry shall prohibit the work of the institution by a decision.
No information was found regarding the prevalence of private tutoring, however, this practice is widely used.
Private tutoring is not regulated in any way. The 2017 Law on Foundations of Education System only lists that charging for the preparation of students of the school in which the teacher is employed, and for the purpose of assessment, i.e taking exams presents a violation of work obligations for teachers. There is no official data or any kind of relevant source on private tutoring. In practice, many students take private lessons in subjects that are part of the final exam in primary education or admission tests in faculties.
No information was found.
No information was found.