The 2017 Education Act (revised in 2023) defines “Distance Education” as “an individualized process of obtaining education, which occurs mainly through the indirect interaction of remote educational process participants in a specialised environment that functions on the basis of modern psychological, pedagogical, information and communication technologies” and refers to “e-textbooks”.
The 2022 Complete General Secondary Education Act refers to “digital/online education”.
The Education and Science Reform Strategy utilises terms such as “educational technology”, “distance learning”, “mixed-type learning”, and “e-platform" though none of them is expressly defined.
The state standard of basic secondary education and the state standard of primary education, both define information communication competence as that which involves confident, critical and responsible use of digital technologies for personal development and communication; the ability to safely use information and communication tools in education and other life situations, adhering to the principles of academic integrity.
According to the concept of the development of the digital economy and society of Ukraine for 2018-2020, Digital education is a combination of various components and the most modern technologies thanks to the use of digital platforms, the introduction of new information and educational technologies, the use of progressive forms of organizing the educational process and active learning methods, as well as modern educational and methodological materials.
Constitution and laws: Article 53 of the 1996 Constitution (revised in 2020) states that “Everyone shall have the right to education. Complete general secondary education shall be compulsory”. No information on Education Technology was found.
Article 12 of the 2017 Education Act (revised in 2023) states that one of the goals of general secondary education is to develop “key competencies necessary for every modern person” such as “information and communication” and “technology” and the (article 81) “elaboration and development of modern technologies of education”.
Article 32 of the 2022 Complete General Secondary Education Act aims to create “a safe, inclusive and digital educational environment in accordance with the requirements of the law”.
The 2021 Electronic Communications law establishes the legal framework for the provision and use of electronic communications services, electronic networks, and the protection of users' rights in the electronic communications sector.
Policies, plans and strategies: The Education and Science Reform Strategy of the Human Capital Development Reform plays a vital role in the advancement of human capital and economic benefits with an aim "to transform Ukrainian education into an innovative environment where students will learn key skills essential for each modern person to succeed in life”. The complete integration of information and communication technologies (ICT) in the educational process, management of educational institutions, and the education system are to be achieved through the New Ukrainian School (NUSH) reform, a project that was created in 2017 by the NGO "Smart Education" in partnership with the Ministry of Education and Science. The strategy states that the implementation of ICT in the education sector should shift from isolated projects to a comprehensive process that encompasses all aspects. It states that “ICT will significantly expand the teacher's capabilities, and optimize management processes, thus forming in the student the technological competencies for our century” and it emphasizes “developing distance and mixed-type learning, continued digitalisation of education, in particular, by launching the national educational e-platform for distance learning, and building an examination centre network”.
The state standard of basic secondary education, approved by the resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine No. 898, and the state standard of primary education, state that students must gain competencies in the field of natural sciences, engineering and technologies. They also must have information and communication competence. https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/898-2020-п
The concept of the development of the digital economy and society of Ukraine for 2018-2020, approved by the order of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine dated January 17, 2018 No. 67 (Official Gazette of Ukraine, 2018, No. 16, Article 560), sets primary tasks such as the formation of a thorough national policy of digitization of education as a priority component of the education reform. It also calls for the determination of specific initiatives to connect classes to the broadband Internet, the creation and implementation of modern models of providing students and educational institutions with computer resources, preparation, adaptation and organization of access to multimedia technologies and the creation of appropriate digital educational platforms for use in the educational process and education management.
Digital competency frameworks: As one of the main partners of the Ministry of Education and Science, the dComFra project developed the 2018-2022 Digital Competence Framework for Ukrainian Teachers and Citizens based on the European Digital Competence Framework for Citizens (DigComp). The dComFra project was launched to align European efforts on digital competency frameworks for teachers and citizens with the Ukrainian context and create a Ukrainian framework for digital competencies. The project aims to achieve this through innovative initiatives that meet the needs of a digital society and adhere to European standards.
Ukraine also has its National Qualifications Framework which sets the standards for the entire education system from Primary to Secondary education.
Changes occurred as a result of COVID-19: According to UNESCO’s tool “Global Monitoring of Covid-19", Ukraine adopted distance learning modalities during school closures. Ukraine has also focused more heavily on its digital learning programs, providing online courses for all of its citizens to gain digital literacy.
2.2.1. Technology infrastructure and digital capacity of schools
Electricity: Ukraine’s 2016 Electricity Market Law (amended in 2020) liberalised the electricity sector and put the country more in line with EU regulations. The law also aims for universal service to be provided throughout the country by setting prices and entrusting electricity service providers with the role to provide universal services. The law states, “Household consumers and small non-household consumers shall be entitled to receive universal services under this Law.” Vulnerable consumers are entitled to support under the law for reimbursement of expenses for paying for the consumed electricity. Electricity service providers are obligated to carry out electricity supply to vulnerable consumers.
Computers and devices: Twenty-three thousand computers were provided to Ukraine from the People's Republic of China. Included with the computers was the installation of licensed software, an operating system, a Microsoft Office Professional Office software package, and anti-virus software. The PCs were distributed across Ukraine in proportion to the number of students in each of the regions, and in the regions - according to the needs of general educational institutions (decisions of the regional and Kyiv city state administrations).
The Ministry of Education and Science and the Ministry of Digital Transformation have implemented a national project called "A laptop for every teacher" through the 2021 Cabinet of Ministers Resolution No. 403. From this program, over 60,000 computers were purchased and delivered to regional state administrations and schools in 11 regions. The Ministry of Education and Science has also been aiming to provide one computer for every ten students. The funds for the purchasing of these computers will be determined equitably, with more funding going towards schools that have no computers.
Internet connectivity: Article 32 of the 2022 Complete General Secondary Education Act aims to “provide the participants of the educational process with free and free wireless access to the Internet with characteristics that meet the requirements of the law, in the premises of the educational institution.”
Access to the Internet and other telecommunications services is governed by the 2021 Electronic Communications law. The law states that the central executive body in the fields of electronic communications and radio frequency spectrum is responsible for fulfilling the obligation to deploy electronic communication networks to provide access to universal electronic communication services in specified territories. Universal electronic communication services are defined in the law as broadband Internet access services at a fixed location that allows consumers to access services such as e-mail; search systems that allow you to search for all types of information; basic electronic means of training and education; media on the Internet; electronic commerce; internet banking; access to electronic government services (electronic administrative services); social networks and messaging services on the Internet; voice and video connections. All consumers throughout the territory of Ukraine have the right to receive universal electronic communication services with the indicators listed above.
The Ministry of Education and Science also seeks to ensure a connection speed for institutions of at least 30 Mbit/s, and for supporting institutions and large schools - up to 100 Mbit/s, “because it is this speed that can allow working with normal Internet resources" said the Minister of Education and Science Liliya Hrynevych. Funds for the purchase of Internet access services are directed to local budgets in proportion to the number of institutions that do not have access to the Internet and current internet speeds as well as the needs of the students.
The concept of the development of the digital economy and society of Ukraine for 2018-2020 calls for the organization of broadband access to the Internet for pupils and students in classrooms and classrooms in educational institutions of all levels.
2.2.2. Technology and learning environments
The concept of the development of the digital economy and society of Ukraine for 2018-2020 aimed to develop a distance form of education using cognitive and multimedia technologies. The plan called for the creation of educational resources and digital platforms with support for interactive and multimedia content for general access of educational institutions and students, in particular tools for automating the main processes of educational institutions. It also sought to fund the development and implementation of innovative computer, multimedia, and computer-oriented learning tools and equipment for creating a digital learning environment (multimedia classrooms, research STEM centers, laboratories, inclusive classrooms, mixed learning classrooms).
Ukraine funds a National online platform for the development of digital literacy, which contains online classes, podcasts, instructional videos and more- with the main focus on digital skills. Online classes for students include learning about blockchain, media literacy, and programming for beginners.
Students can watch lessons on Ukraine TV and access them later on the All-Ukrainian School Online website. Also, the E-school platform offers educational resources such as video tutorials, quizzes, and materials for self-study in 18 subjects for students in grades 5-11, as well as providing teachers with methodological support. The Youtube Channel of the Ministry of Education of Ukraine offered a range of online classes.
According to the state standard of basic secondary education, the goal of the technological education field is the realization of the creative potential of the student, the formation of critical and technical thinking, the readiness to change the natural environment without harming it by means of modern technologies and design, the ability for entrepreneurship and innovative activities, partnership interaction, the use of equipment and technologies for satisfaction own needs, cultural and national self-expression. The purpose of the IT education field is to develop the personality of a student who is able to use digital tools and technologies for problem solving, development, creative self-expression, ensuring personal and public well-being, critical thinking, and safe and responsible action in the information society. Students must be able to consciously use information and communication technologies and digital tools for access to information, communication and cooperation as a creator and (or) consumer, as well as independently masters new technologies; is aware of the consequences of the use of information technologies for himself, society, and the natural environment, and adheres to ethical, cultural and legal norms of information interaction.
In appendix 13 of the state standard of basic secondary education, the competencies of students are described. Skills include being able to: solve problems with the use of digital devices, information and communication technologies for personal and social development and well-being; find, submit, transform, analyze, summarize and systematize data using digital devices and programs to solve life problems; apply an algorithmic approach and computational thinking to plan, develop and debug software projects for effective problem solving and creative expression; create information products individually or in a group using various digital devices and information technologies; use logical, systemic and structural thinking to build information models and understand the information picture of the world. Students also must show a willingness to critically evaluate information, its meaning and its impact on a person and society. They must have a desire to responsibly and safely use information and communication technologies and digital devices for access to information, communication and cooperation and maintain a balanced approach to the use of information technologies, and compliance with ethical, intercultural and legal norms of information interactions.
The goals and objectives of the Education and Science Reform Strategy include “approving the Specialised Education Roadmap and the development concept for science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) learning”.
Article 49 of the 2022 Complete General Secondary Education Act states that certification of teaching staff includes competence training methods and new educational technologies and contributes to their dissemination “implement and spread competence training methods and new educational technologies” and the “introduction of innovations, pedagogical innovations and technologies in the education system”.
A digital competence framework is available for pedagogical and scientific-pedagogical workers. The framework was developed by Ukrainian experts for the implementation of the 2021 Decree of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine No. 67-r "On the approval of the Concept for the development of digital competencies of citizens of Ukraine and the approval of the plan of measures for its implementation" 1, in accordance with the provisions of the Concept for the Development of Pedagogical Education, the Law of Ukraine "On Education", in during the implementation of the Action. Digital Education program of the Ministry of Digital Transformation of Ukraine. It is based on the European conceptual reference model of the Framework of digital competencies for EU citizens "The Digital Competence Framework for Citizens with eight proficiency levels and examples of use" (DigComp 2.1) 2, the Framework for EU educators "The Digital Competence Framework for Educators" (DigCompEdu)3, as well as the adapted Digital Competence Framework for citizens of Ukraine (DigComp UA)4.
Digitogram, a national test for digital literacy, has a test that is geared towards teachers. They also offer courses for teachers to help them level up their digital skills in using technology in their educational practices.
2.4.1. Data privacy
Data privacy is primarily governed by the 2010 Personal Data Protection Act Constitution of Ukraine, and additional regulations issued by the Commissioner, such as the Sample Order of Personal Data Processing. The Personal Data Protection Law outlines the rights of data subjects, the obligations of data controllers, and general requirements for handling personal information, while the Commissioner's regulations address specific issues such as high-risk data and oversight processes. The 2022 Revision of the Personal Data Protection Act includes provisions for the processing of personal data, data subject rights and the implementation of Privacy by Design and security requirements for data processing.
Though no information on data privacy in the context of schools and education has been found.
2.4.2. Online abuse and cyberbullying
The 2017 Cybersecurity Law (amended in 2021) addresses cybercrime though no information on online abuse and cyberbullying in the context of schools and education has been found.
Article 38 of the 2022 Complete General Secondary Education Act states that it is necessary to ensure “compliance with the requirements for childhood protection, labour protection, and safety technology requirements” in secondary schools.
The Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine, as the central government body, is responsible for creating and executing national education programs. It focuses on utilizing best practices and technology to align with the needs of society and individuals and meet the requirements of the educational system.
The Ministry of Digital Transformation's role is the “Digitization of education (e-Literacy)” through which it develops the National Digital Literacy Platform and aims to create/normalize the legislative and regulatory framework on the topic of digital literacy.
In 2007, the Ministry of Education banned the use of mobile phones in schools and vocational schools by students and teachers during classes. However, the order was cancelled in 2014. Since then, schools and city councils can determine on their own whether or not to implement a mobile phone ban or not. For example, the city council of Kherson continued the mobile phone ban after the order was cancelled in 2014, stating that all mobile phones must be turned off or put in silent mode during lessons, educational hours or extracurricular activities, as well as when in the school library.