1. Terminology

2. Technology laws, policies, plans and regulations

2.1. Education technology legislative and policy framework

2.2. Technology infrastructures, technological capacity of schools and learning environments

2.3. Technology competencies of learners and teachers

2.4. Cybersecurity and safety

3. Governance

3.1. Institutions in charge of technology in education and coordination mechanisms

3.2. Roles of schools


1. Terminology

The Education Development Strategy in the Kyrgyz Republic for 2021-2040 (EDS-2040) defines the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in education as one of the main factors for preparing citizens with strong communication skills for digital learning and work in the digital economy. It defines digitalization of education as one of the priorities in the development of the country's education, which includes: teaching ICT skills to all participants in the educational process, creating of an e-learning environment, the use of distance technologies in educational delivery, as well as the use of education management information system (EMIS). The development of distance learning and the continuous support of e-learning environments are also considered in the Strategy as one of the important conditions for providing accessible school education for everyone.  


The Education Development Program for Kyrgyz Republic for 2021-2040 (EDP-2040) and its Action plan (Education Development Program’s action plan) refers to the term “EdTech”, for instance regarding EdTech infrastructure and the teachers’ capacity to use EdTechs in the educational process. 


2. Technology laws, policies, plans and regulations

2.1. Education technology legislative and policy framework

Constitution and laws: The 2021 Constitution of Kyrgyzstan in Chapter 3 on Spiritual and cultural foundation of the society stipulates that the development of society and the state is based on scientific research, modern technologies and innovations (Art. 22.1). In this regard, the state promotes the development of science, scientific and creative development, scientific and technological achievements, discoveries, innovations and inventions (Art. 22.3).  


The 2003 Law on Education (last amended in 2022) regulates the general education system. The Law considers the development of distance education as one of the important priorities for the development of the educational process, equating distance education with full-time education at all levels of education (Art. 26). The Law establishes that the students in distance learning mode have the same rights and obligations, including the right to receive standard graduation documents these educational organizations. 


Policies, plans and strategies: The Education Development Program for Kyrgyz Republic for 2021-2040 (EDP-2040) and its Action plan (Education Development Program’s action plan), consider the digitalization of education as one of the priority areas for improving the quality of education in the country. Main activities should be taken in the field of improving computer literacy among teachers and students, improving the EdTech infrastructure, and strengthening distance and other forms of education. 

The vision of the Education Development Strategy in the Kyrgyz Republic for 2021-2040 (EDS-2040) is to create an education system that prepares citizens with strong communication skills using ICTs for digital learning and work in the digital economy through the implementation of 5 development priorities. This first priority, about e-environment (infrastructure) aims to provide educational organizations with broadband Internet access, network infrastructure, as well as computers, multimedia and other equipment to adopt e-learning and e-governance in the education sector. The second priority on e-teachers has the objective to improve teachers’ digital competences and their capacity to use EdTechs in the educational process. Priority 3 on e-content supports the development of the educational content, which could be freely distributed online, adapted to all local languages. Furthermore, Priority 4 on e-learners aims to expand students’ access to computer equipment and electronic educational resources, while strengthening their knowledge and skills in using ICTs. Finally, Priority 5 on e-governance supports the use of distant technologies to improve the quality of data collection and analysis for making evidence-based management decisions, using EMIS at all levels of education. 


The Education Development Concept of the Kyrgyz Republic for 2021-2030 (EDC-2030) determines that a secondary school graduate, along with problem-solving skills and an understanding of socio-cultural inclusion, has to be able to work with modern ICTs. Vocational and tertiary education institutions have to create an innovative environment using EdTech, integrated into EMIS, as well as revise professional competencies for IT professionals, taking into account the growing demand for IT specialists on the job market. 


According to the adopted by the MoES and Kyrgyz Academy of Education (KAE) Concept for the development of an Educational System of the Kyrgyz Republic with elements of Media and Information Literacy (MIL), the successful use of ICT in the educational process depends on the ability of teachers: 1) to organize the learning environment in a new way, 2) to successfully integrate digital technologies into curriculum, 3) to encourage students interaction and collaboration. 


The National Development Program of the Kyrgyz Republic until 2026 (NDP-2026) identifies the main conditions for the country's transition to e-government services – the strengthening of digital skills among the population. The development of digital skills among young people is considered an important factor in improving their competitiveness in the job market. As a result of lessons from the COVID-19 pandemic, the government has set the task of radically revising the approaches and technologies of online education, as well as preparing educational and methodological materials in all subjects, adapted to the e-learning format. 


The Action Plan for Digitalization and development of digital infrastructure in the Kyrgyz Republic for 2022-2023 includes such priority tasks as the development of innovative educational programs for the “Informatics" school subject, for higher professional education in all IT areas (including programming, system administration, cybersecurity, etc.), as well as the launch of the educational platform "Electronic School", which allows people with disabilities and people who were forced to interrupt schooling to receive education remotely, as well as platforms for distance learning of preschool children age through the parent app 


The Cybersecurity Strategy of the Kyrgyz Republic for 2019-2023 aims to ensure national cybersecurity through building capacity and strengthening human resources through the introduction of special subjects such as cybersecurity, computer hygiene, and digital literacy in the secondary school, vocational, and higher professional education curriculums. 


Digital competency frameworks: In the State educational standard of general school education of the Kyrgyz Republic (approved in 2014) one of the key competencies is the information competence as a basis for understanding options, forming opinions, making informed decisions based on critically meaningful information, including through the secure and safe use of ICT and the Internet. 


Changes occurred as a result of COVID-19: Most of the policies, plans, programmes mentioned above have been adopted since 2020, namely the Education Development Program for Kyrgyz Republic for 2021-2040 (EDP-2040), the Education Development Strategy in the Kyrgyz Republic for 2021-2040 (EDS-2040), the Education Development Concept of the Kyrgyz Republic for 2021-2030 (EDC-2030), the National Development Program of the Kyrgyz Republic until 2026 (NDP-2026) as well as the Action Plan for Digitalization and development of digital infrastructure in the Kyrgyz Republic for 2022-2023

2.2. Technology infrastructures, technological capacity of schools and learning environments

2.2.1. Technology infrastructure and digital capacity of schools

Electricity: The National Development Strategy of the Kyrgyz Republic for 2018-2040 aspires that at least 10% of the country's total energy balance should consist of renewable energy. The Energy Law (1996) stipulates that energy efficiency should be considered during the development of other national energy-related programmes. It provides for a preferential feed-in tariff for renewable energy. No additional laws to ensure equitable access to infrastructures and network in schools have been found. 

The Kyrgyz Republic’s electricity subsector relies predominantly on hydroelectricity. To expand the access of the population to reliable and cheap electricity, within the framework of the NDP-2026, it is planned to launch such large projects as: the construction of large hydropower plant Kambar-Ata-1, the Upper Naryn HPP cascade, etc.; to implement the CASA-1000 project; as well as to develop alternative energy sources (solar and wind energy) in remote regions to reduce the cost of electricity transportation.  


Computers and devices: Under the “Learning for the Future” joint project of Kyrgyzstan’s MoES and the International Development Association (IDA), 1200 schools (out of 2,292) in the country are supposed to be equipped with computer equipment starting from 2020-2022. Each classroom will have 15 computers (25 thousand computers with furniture), MFPs (1200 pcs.). In these schools there will be 6 multimedia classrooms (projector, computer, UPS), it will allow using in teaching electronic materials on all major subjects with special attention to mathematics and science cycle subjects. The access of teachers to computers and devices get better with adoption by private micro-crediting organizations of programs for low-interest loans for purchasing laptops by teachers. No initiative to provide a device for every student/family has been found. 

Internet connectivity: The task of providing access to high-speed broadband Internet for households, regardless of the place of residence and income level, is included in the NDP-2026.This is reflected in the activities set out in theAction Plan for Digitalization and the EDP’s action plan, such as providing until the end of 2023 all public schools with access to the Internet at a speed of at least 10 Mb/s and LAN infrastructure; and to create the National Electronic Library of the Kyrgyz Republic with free educational resources. The plan has set a target to reduce the number of schoolchildren per 1 modern computer from 28 to 26 students. By 2023, it is planned to provide more than 500 schools (about 25% of all schools in the country) with classrooms equipped for the use of electronic materials in education (projector, computer, screen, etc), develop additional digital learning materials for subjects from grades 5 to 9, including electronic laboratory work and practical materials in the natural sciences (chemistry, physics, biology). 

2.2.2. Technology and learning environments

By order of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Kyrgyz Republic No. 47-r from 2021, a financial plan for the modernization and technical support of the following platforms of MoES was approved: 

  • – a catalog with video lessons on all school subjects filmed and broadcasted through TV channels during quarantine in COVID-19 pandemic. 

The educational platform "Electronic School" is under development. It supposes to automate the educational process in schools and be integrated with the EMIS. The system will allow persons with disabilities to receive a full school education. By the end of 2022, it is planned to connect 700 schools to the system. 

In March 2020, Kyrgyzstan declared a state of emergency and approved the Anti-Crisis Plan of the Ministry of Education and Science of for the COVID-19  pandemic period. Schools worked in a remote mode during the 4th school term relying on a mix of distance learning tools, including:  television to broadcast video classes under early childhood education, pre-primary school and school program; the educational portal, YouTube and a free package of mobile applications; feedback from teachers to students via the Internet and mobile applications for free internet communications; learning ‘as usual’ in schools of  boarding facilities and other residential institutions as well as in selected remotely located schools in the areas where the state of emergency was not declared. 

2.3. Technology competencies of learners and teachers

2.3.1. Learners

According to the NDP-2026 for e-government development and demand for e-services, it is necessary to improve digital literacy competencies among all citizens. To provide such skills on a mass scale Action Plan for Digitalization requires integration of teaching digital skills in the school curriculum, specifically by improving the teaching of the subject "Informatics". To cover some costs of bringing ICT into classrooms a financial agreement has been signed between the Kyrgyz Republic and the European Union with a special focus on the development of STEAM and digital skills, allowing to increase in the number of students who use a computer at school at least once a week. The initiative does not focus explicitly on girls. 

While revising the ICT curriculum content, it was recommended to use the Methodological Guidelines for the implementation of digital education in the educational system of the Kyrgyz Republic (MoES and KAE, 2020). In the guidelines, digital and media literacy was defined as a student’s ability to use modern ICTs to identify reliable sources of information, create their own knowledge, critically assess the modern media space, and communicate. 

One of the directions in the development of school education approved in EDS-2040 is the profiling of the school, including in mathematics, natural science and technology (STEM subjects). 

2.3.2. Teachers

According to the State Educational Standard of Higher Professional Education in the direction of "Pedagogical Education", the future teacher has to be able to use modern information and innovative technologies, specialized software and applications. Each university independently develops a pre-service educational program to ensure these competencies. 

For teachers’ in-service professional development the digital competency framework called “Qualification requirements for the ICT competencies of a secondary school teacher of the Kyrgyz Republic, 2021”, which has been developed based on UNESCO recommendations, has been introduced. The framework distinguishes 3 levels of teachers’ ICT competencies: 1) technology literacy, when teachers have an understanding of the benefits of using ICTs in the school, let students use ICT to learn more efficiently; 2) knowledge deepening, when teachers use ICTs to create a student-centered and collaborative learning environment, to participate in ICT policy elaboration at the school level, and for continuous professional development; 3) knowledge creation, when teachers with the use of ICTs create a learning environment that helps students develop fundamentally new knowledge, skills, and values ​​needed in an ever-changing world. 

According to the Law "On Education" (Art. 29), the Law "On the Status of Teachers" (Art. 5), every 5 years each teacher must undergo 72-hour in-service training. Republican Institute for Advanced Studies and Retraining of Pedagogical Workers (RIASRPW) under MoES is a governmental institution that specifically works with in-service teacher training on a national level. From 2019 RIASRPW offers online and blended types of re-training through the e-learning portal for teacher training, which has online courses containing information material, case studies (situational tasks, workbooks), tests, etc. The ICT skills training was one of the first training offered by the RIASRPW in the online format and gives basic skills on working with Moodle Learning Management Systems (LMS), Google classroom, and others. In addition to the governmental training, private providers also offer extensive ICT training for teachers.  

2.4. Cybersecurity and safety

2.4.1. Data privacy

There are no age-related data protection provisions in the country. However, the recently established State Agency on data protection of the Kyrgyz Republic has initiated elaboration of industry-specific lists of threats in terms of data protection, where MoES considered as priority authority to start with.  

The Cybersecurity Strategy of the Kyrgyz Republic for 2019-2023 envisages the introduction of systematic teaching of cybersecurity, computer hygiene, and digital literacy within the secondary school education and higher professional education of the Kyrgyz Republic.  

2.4.2. Online abuse and cyberbullying

The legislations of the Kyrgyz Republic do not regulate online abuse and cyberbullying issues at the level necessary. Throughout the legislative acts, one will not find any mention of the words “harassment,” “school violence” and “bullying,” not to mention cyberbullying. In terms of cyberbullying among young people, Code “On offences” (applicable to young people above 16), or the Criminal Code (applicable to young people above 14 in serious cases) could applied.  


3. Governance

3.1. Institutions in charge of technology in education and coordination mechanisms

The Ministry of Education of Kyrgzstan, and specifically the Digital transformation sector, headed by the Deputy minister, is the main government authority responsible for EdTech projects in the country, including administration of the umbrella platform for all other information systems in the education sphere. 

The Digital Development Department of the Administration of the President of the Kyrgyz Republic ratifies international agreements and projects in the field of digital development, approves funding from the state budget, assesses alternative investments and provides monitoring in terms of foreseen outcomes, coordination between all other state agencies involved in the projects. 

In parallel, the Ministry of Digital development of the Kyrgyz Republic is responsible for developing and supporting the implementation of state policy in the field of digitalization, enhancing national digital infrastructure, and e-governance. 

Finally, the State Electronic Interoperability Center “Tunduk” provides secure data exchange between information systems of various state and municipal authorities, for example, between MoES and the Ministry of Social Protection, which administers a database on orphans or disabled children. The State Enterprise Infocom is another technical provider for the MoES and provides software development services, technical support to already developed software products managed by MoES.  

3.2. Roles of schools

Improving the financial and administrative autonomy of schools is considered within EDS-2040 as a solution for strengthening educational institutions through the decentralized policy approach with increased accountability of school leadership to the community and the MoES. 

By order of the Ministry of Education and Science No. 1655/1 dated August 30, 2022, the “Recommendations on the limited use of mobile communication devices by students during the educational process within the educational institutions of the Kyrgyz Republic” were approved, except in cases when it is needed to search for information on the subject, creating and using online tests, to watch a training video or listen to an audio recording, for reading QR codes when searching for information, to use the electronic diary, etc.


This profile was commissioned by UNESCO IITE and developed by Lira Samykbaeva.

Last modified:

Tue, 03/10/2023 - 13:15