- Early childhood care and education (Entry/Establishment ○ Financial operation ○ Quality of teaching and learning ○ Equitable access ○ Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability)
- Primary and secondary education (Entry/Establishment ○ Financial operation ○ Quality of teaching and learning ○ Equitable access ○ Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability)
- Tertiary education (Entry/Establishment ○ Financial operation ○ Quality of teaching and learning ○ Equitable access ○ Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability)
The Constitution of the Federal Republic of Brazil establishes the possibility for private actors to be part of Brazil's educational system. The 1996 Law on National Education Guidelines and Framework (Law N0. 9.394 as amended lastly in 2019). The 1996 Law on National Education Guidelines and Framework (Law N0. 9.394 as amended lastly in 2019) regulates government schools and private schools from Early Childhood Care Education (ECCE) to tertiary education. It defines a ‘private educational institution’ as those maintained and administered by individuals or legal entities under private law. More precisely, educational institutions of different levels are classified in the following administrative categories: (I) - public, i.e. those created or incorporated, maintained and administered by the Public authorities; II - private, i.e. those maintained and administered by individuals or legal entities of private law. III - community, in the form specified by the law of the law. Private and community institutions can qualify as confessional or philanthropic.
Tertiary education is governed by Decree No. 9235 (2017) that defines a ‘private higher education institution’ as one created and maintained by the private sector governed by private law. The Law 1368 of 2019 amends of Laws No 4,024 of 20 December 1961 and 9,394 of 20 December 1996 to include provisions relating to community universities.
In Brazil, most primary (nine years beginning at age six) and secondary education (three years beginning at age 15) is provided by the public schools. The 1996 Law on National Education Guidelines and Framework (as amended lastly in 2019) specifies compulsory and free basic education for children aged between 4 to 17. There is an established national curriculum for all education levels - early childhood education, primary education, and secondary education - but each state may include additional content according to the region's specifics, culture, and students.
According to their management and funding scheme, Brazil's decentralized education system sets public educational institutions into Federal District, state, and municipal schools. Public school funding is the primary responsibility of states and municipal governments; the federal government through Fundeb can further support those territories with specific needs, such as rural schools, ethnocultural regions, or local authorities with the most significant financial constraints.
The Constitution of the Federal Republic of Brazil specifies that educational institutions established in the indigenous territory must teach the Portuguese language but must also ensure the indigenous communities include their mother tongue in the learning processes. Indigenous school education must be adapted to the indigenous peoples' historical and cultural processes and follow the common national base and the principles that guide it.
The education system in rural populations must adapt to rural life's peculiarities in each region. The Law on National Education Guidelines and Framework (1996) includes considerations such as modifying curricular content and methodologies, school organization, and the school calendar's adaptation to the phases of the agricultural cycle and climatic conditions.
Quilombola School Education
According to the General National Curriculum Guidelines for Basic Education, the Quilombola School Education guides its political-pedagogical practices and actions, requiring its pedagogy in respect to the ethnocultural specificity of each community and specific formation of its teaching staff, observing the constitutional principles, the common national base, and the principles which guide Brazilian Basic Education.
Non-state managed, state schools
No information was found.
Non-state funded, state schools
Non-state partnerships in education (NGO, Philanthropic Organizations), Non-governmental organizations are involved in brazil's education in different areas, from partnerships to policy advisors to providers of curricular materials and programs for public schools and complimentary education programs. Some of them include the Leman Foundation and All For Education working with public schools.
Non-state educational institutions can include those provided by individuals, communities, non-government organizations (NGOs), philanthropic organizations, denominational organizations and enterprises. They include both for-profit and non-profit services. The 1996 Law on Education set in its art 7 that Education can be operated privately conditional on fulfillement of specific conditions, i.e. compliance with the general rules of national education and its education system; operating authorization and quality assessment by the Government; and self-financing capacity, with the reservation of what is provided for in Art. 213 of the Federal Constitution.
Independent, non-state schools
Private schools are owned, managed, and financed by private actors, including individuals or legal entities. These schools must follow the minimum curricula standards set by the government but may include additional learning materials, language, and objectives according to their pedagogical plan.
International and Bilingual schools are private educational institutions that offer international curricula and foreign languages. These schools must comply with the national Portuguese language curriculum and include additional classes for their Political Pedagogical Project, international certification, and in the international language to be taught. International schools must meet the Brazilian educational legislation's precepts and reflect the compulsory curriculum of other countries, besides being accountable to international bodies, issuing double certification at the end of the course. International schools should be recognized as IB and should have both a Brazilian and an international director. There is also an increasing number of international English-medium schools which tend to teach foreign curricula and charge very high fees.
State funded (government-aided), non-state schools
According to the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Brazil (art. 213) public resources can be allocated to denominational or philanthropic schools, as defined by law, which demonstrates non-profit purpose and invests their financial surpluses. A non-state educational institution wishing to receive state funds must apply in its corresponding jurisdiction. The resources may be used for scholarships for primary and secondary education, according to the law, for those with insufficient resources when seats and regular courses are not available where the students reside, with the public authorities obliged to invest primarily in the expansion of their network in that place. Philanthropic Schools seeks to compensate for specific marginalized individuals' impediments to education access. The State of Amazonas defines these types of institutions as the ones that, not having lucrative purposes, aim to render, free of charge, educational services (Resolution N. 121/2016 - CEE/AM). Denominational Schools are those managed by religious organizations.
Contracted, non-state schools
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There is no specific legislation regulating homeschooling in Brazil. In 2018 the Brazilian Supreme Court ruled that homeschooling can't be considered a lawful means for parents to provide education to their children, because currently there is no law in Brazil regulating the practice. any means of learning differently from what was proposed by the Ministry of Education (MEC) is seen as illegal. Yet a Bill regulating the practice in Cascavel has been approved on the second vote by the City Council in August 2020 and calls for “parents and guardians to choose whether they want to enroll their children and teenagers in a school or whether they prefer to teach them at home”.
Market contracted (Voucher schools)
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No information was found.
Alternative Education (Migrant Education)
Non-state actors such as UNICEF have implemented different modalities and initiatives to establish learning centers for migrant minors. In 2019 UNICEF children and adolescents living in shelters were reached by emergency education activities carried out in 10 learning spaces and is also working on the possibility of recognizing learning spaces as part of formal education in the state. UNICEF has also partnered with local radio stations in Boa Vista, Manaus and Belém to develop an educational audio programme in three languages (Portuguese, Spanish and Warao), focused on refugee/ migrant children and adolescents.
Brazil is a federation of 26 states with an additional federal district. Brazil's educational system is divided between the Union, Federal District, State, and Municipal authorities. The Ministry of Education (MEC) defines the guiding principles and the national education policy for all education levels. MEC's organizational structure includes the Department of Early Childhood Education, the Secretariat of Basic Education, the Secretariat of Higher Education, and the Directorate of Specialized Modalities of Education and Brazilian Cultural Traditions. According to the 2019 Decree No. 10,195, the latter is responsible for planning and coordinating the educational actions and policies that promote rural populations, indigenous peoples, quilombo remnants, roaming populations, and traditional peoples and communities at all levels, stages, and modalities of teaching.
The educational governance is divided into tiers according to the education level. According to the 1996 Law on National Education Guidelines and Framework and the Subsidies for Accreditation and Operation of Child Education Institutions (1998) municipalities have two alternatives regarding their education system's responsibilities. They can be responsible for ECCE education, including private ECCE centers, or joining the state education system and legal framework. On the other hand, private primary and private secondary education and international schools at all levels are under the mandate of the state's authorities. According to the 2017 Decree No. 9235, private higher education institutions (HEIs) and community HEIs are under the federal education system regulated by the MEC and various entities in charge of evaluation, monitoring and quality assurance.
The National Education Council (Conselho Nacional de Educação) has normative and supervisory responsibilities for all school education area and it is established on a permanent basis.
All Private Higher Education Institutions (PHEIs) in Brazil are under the federal education system mandate. According to the Decree No. 9235 (2017), higher education governance involves various entities being the Ministry of Education (MEC), the main regulator. Within the MEC, Private Higher Education Institutions (PHEIs) are primarily under the Secretariat for Regulation and Supervision of Higher Education responsibility. Additionally, HEI governance includes complimentary organizations such the National Council of Education (CNE), as the National System for the Evaluation of Higher Education (SINAES) for quality assurance, the National Higher Education Assessment Committee (CONAES) for evaluation and the Anísio Teixeira National Institute of Educational Studies and Research (INEP) for research and evaluation
Vision: The National Education Plan (2014-2021) defined Brazil's educational goals for ten years. The plan sets out ten goals, including partnerships with non-governmental institutions (specifically non-profit organizations such as religious, charitable, or philanthropic organizations) to expand the supply of continuing education. Increasing access to early childhood education is one of the National Education Plan (2014-2021) pillars. To this end, the plan encourages partnerships with non-governmental actors, specifically non-profit, charitable, philanthropic, or religious organizations, that can complement state services in providing early childhood education free of charge. Thus, each municipality makes alliances, calls for bids, and tenders to increase its public early childhood education network as deemed necessary according to their own Municipal Early Childhood Education Plan. The National Early Childhood Plan (2010-2030), which represents a multi-sectoral effort of private enterprise, non-governmental organizations, and the state sector, includes within its general vision the role of private enterprise in early childhood and how, through gender policies, they can contribute to early childhood in Brazil.
In Brazil, the 1996 Law on National Education Guidelines and Framework states hat early childhood education is offered through nurseries (ages cero – three) and preschools (from ages four-five) – the latter being mandatory since 2009. The Law on National Education Guidelines and Framework and Framework and the 1998 Subsidies for Accreditation and Operation of Child Education Institutions specify municipalities can be responsible for ECCE education, public and non-state, or join the state educational system.
Registration and approval: The State or Municipal Council of Education in each municipality or state is responsible for authorizing and recognizing non-state early childhood education providers in their jurisdiction. Candidates must submit their application with the required documentation following each municipal or state resolution. Some requirements included in the legislation are demonstrating legal registration, financial capabilities, pedagogical requirements, and compliance with infrastructure requirements.
Every ECCE facility must comply with the 1988 Federal Ordinance No. 321 and the guiding principles of the 2006 MEC Basic infrastructure parameters for early childhood education institutions on infrastructure, which establishes the norms and minimum standards for the construction, installation, and operation of daycare centres throughout the country
Licence: No information was found.
Profit-making: Brazil's legal framework allows for-profit and non-profit ECCE centres to operate.
Taxes and subsidies: The state and municipalities can subsidize preschools and daycare centres through Fundeb, which authorizes the accounting of enrolments and public resources transfer to community, philanthropic, and non-profit early childhood education institutions. Each municipality or state oversees conducting public tenders with providers of non-profit, non-state educational centres to increase free early childhood education. The National Education Plan (2014-2021) sets for students' funding, daycare centres, preschools, partnerships, or public tenders with certified daycare centres such as charitable or social assistance organizations enrolment in early childhood facilities.
Curriculum and education standards: Non-state early childhood education centres have the flexibility to accommodate their curricular plans and learning standards but must comply with the National Curriculum Guidelines for Early Childhood Education (DCNEI) from the National Common Curriculum Base (BNCC).
Teaching profession: Teachers must meet the minimum educational requirements established to work as early childhood teachers in public or private schools. Additionally, the National Early Childhood Plan (2010-2030) and the Legal Framework for Early Childhood (MLPI) establish that all early childhood teachers must have a professional degree and knowledge of the most appropriate assistance practices.
Fee-setting: According to 1999 Law No. 9870, non-state educational institutions may set their fee values annually.
Admission selection and processes: No information was found.
Policies for vulnerable groups: The government has specific programs and policies for vulnerable populations such as rural education, indigenous education, and vulnerable territories.
Reporting requirements: No information was found.
Inspection: The 1988 Federal Ordinance No. 321 establishes that authorities may inspect private childcare centers to ensure their compliance with sanitary regulations and authorization requirements.
Child assessment: According to 2013 Law No. 12.796, all ECCE centers must provide a document certifying each child development and learning processes.
Sanctions: Early childhood care and education centers may voluntarily request the cease of operation, or the state may suspend or revoke the permit.
Registration and approval: According to the 1996 Law on National Education Guidelines and Framework (as amended lastly in 2019) any private educational institution that intends on providing educational services in Brazil must request authorization from the government to operate. Primary and secondary educational institutions must apply for authorization at the State level through the Regional Board of Education of their jurisdiction following each State's guidelines and requirements. Some requirements for authorization include documentation on their curricular proposal, complying with requirements on staff qualifications and infrastructure such as regulations, classrooms according to the number of students enrolled according to the guidelines of minimum area (square meters) per student. Additionally, providers must submit the legal establishment and registration documentation in the National Registry of Legal Entities.
Bilingual and International Schools' authorization process is directly linked to the state and not the municipality, regardless of the education level. Every bilingual or international school must apply for accreditation after being granted the authorization for the establishment to operate. In Rio de Janeiro, these schools must obey the Resolution CEE Deliberation No 372 (2019) which sets for applications to include the school's political, pedagogical project.
Licence: Upon approval, a license will be granted according to the local regulations. In Bahia, the permit is valid for up to four if no irregularities are identified. In Amazonas, an educational institution that meets all the norms has its recognition granted for a maximum of 10 years.
International schools in Rio de Janeiro will be granted a license for five years subject to renewal for an equal or lesser period as decided by the board; renewal must be requested 180 days before the certificate's expiration following the CEE Deliberation No 372 (2019).
Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH): All non-state schools must follow established WASH requirements to operate, including the number of bathrooms per sex, students, and staff, the sanitary conditions, and the certificate that guarantees them. In some cases, the state’s resolution specifies that every educational institution must submit the duly signed term of responsibility document referring to the conditions of safety, hygiene, and definition of the property's use.
Profit-making: Brazil's legal framework allows for-profit and non-profit educational institutions to operate. It provides for educational institutions to be legally formed as non-governmental organizations such as associations and foundations and as enterprises under private law.
Taxes and subsidies: The Constitution of the Federal Republic of Brazil and the National Tax Code (2001) specifies for non-profit educational institutions to enjoy tax exemptions. According to the 2014 Decree No 842 non-profit legal entities recognized as social assistance charities, such as philanthropic schools, are exempt from paying the social security contribution. Donations from individuals and legal entities to the National Fund for Children and Adolescents is deductible from income tax. Based on the 1996 Education Law “Public resources will be allocated to public schools and may be directed to community, confessional or philanthropic schools that: 1 - prove non-profit purpose and do not distribute results, dividends, bonuses, equity or portion of their equity in any form or pretext; II - use their financial surpluses in education; III - ensure the allocation of their assets to another community, philanthropic or confessional school, or to the Public Power, in case of closure of their activities; IV - report to the Public Authorities for the resources received.
Curriculum and education standards: The Constitution of the Federal Republic of Brazil dictates for the National Curricular Guidelines for Basic Education to be followed by every public and non-state school in Brazil. The Law on National Education Guidelines and Framework allows states and municipalities to adapt and include content specific to their population, region, or needs. Furthermore, it mandates Afro-Brazilian and indigenous history and culture in public and private elementary and high school schools.
Bilingual and international schools must comply with the minimum standards. However, they may include additional classes within their pedagogical policy according to international curriculum guidelines and the specific language to be taught. In Rio de Janeiro, schools must meet minimum curricula requirements such as certain hours of foreign language instruction and certificates of accreditation of languages taught. (CEE Deliberation No 372 (2019)).
Textbooks and learning materials: The Federal Government invests in textbooks based on the national curriculum for the municipal network. However, municipalities may contract with private companies for the provision of services, including programs and textbooks. In some cases, such as in Sao Paulo, private schools must adapt in primary level books approved by the MEC. Schools using books in foreign languages must request authorization from the Education Department, and every institution must register the books the students will be using.
Teaching profession: According to the Consolidation of Labor Laws (1943) Section XII regarding teacher's regulations, it specifies that the paid exercise of teaching in private schools requires legal qualification and registration with the MEC. Furthermore, it specifies that the private educational institution that does not decently remunerate its teachers or does not pay them remuneration each month on time will not be allowed to operate. The Ministry of Education and Health establishes the criteria for determining the decent remuneration due to teachers and ensures the execution of the precept established in this article. The Law on National Education Guidelines and Framework specifies for all teachers to have the necessary professional training according to the level at which they will be teaching. Each state further includes the guidelines in its local legislation.
International and bilingual schools must have a teaching staff with the proper qualification for the Brazilian curricular components and trained professors that teach the components in a foreign language with a certificate that proves their proficiency (Rio de Janeiro CEE Deliberation No 372 (2019)).
Corporal punishment: Corporal punishment is not allowed in private schools.
Other safety measures and COVID-19: In Brazil, regulations regarding the flexibility to teach online and the number of school days established has also been modified. Through Opinion No. 19 of the National Council of Education (CNE), the Minister of Education extends until December 31, 2021, the permission for remote activities in primary and higher education throughout the country. In the mandate, the municipal, state public education systems and private institutions have the autonomy to regulate the reorganization of calendars and curricular replanning over the next year. The private sector has also contributed to facilitate distance learning and share content among teachers, parents, and tutors, the Royal Society Publishing, offers activities, resources, and videos for teachers of various academic levels. States have created specific precautionary and classroom education guidelines such as Mato Grosso Institutional Measures to be Adopted in Basic Elementary, Middle and High School established prevention guidelines such as distancing and the use of alcohol gel and the cancellation of educational visits as precautionary measures during COVID-19.
Fee-setting: Law No. 9870 (1999) Private schools can determine their fee annually. As a requirement, schools must disclose the increase in their school fees 45 days before the enrolment date. However, there is no legal provision that determines a maximum percentage of increase. Any increase must be compatible with the provision of the service. If there are indications of an abusive increase, a complaint can be made to the local consumer protection agency. During the COVID-19 pandemic, various legislative initiatives at the central and municipal levels were introduced in their respective legislative bodies to reduce private institutions' fees; however, it is unknown if any legislative initiative has become binding to date.
Admission selection and processes: No information was found.
Policies for vulnerable groups: The government has specific programs and policies for vulnerable populations such as rural education, indigenous education, and vulnerable territories. According to the education law 1996, resources received by the schools may be allocated to scholarships for basic education, for those with insufficient resources, when seats and regular schools in the public network are not available".
School board: No specific requirement was found concerning mandatory board management structure at a national level. However, in Rio de Janeiro, private educational institutions must have a director and a subdirector who meet the minimum professional training requirements. Additionally, institutions with more than 200 students must have a pedagogical advisor and an education secretary who also meet the established academic requirements. (CEE Deliberation No. 388 (2020))
Reporting requirements: No information was found.
School inspection: Inspection Commission for on-site visits are carried on in order to verify and attest the veracity of the facts and documents attached in the non-state school’s authorization application.
Student assessment: The National Assessment of Basic Education (SAEB) is a sample-based assessment system that assesses students every two years in Private schools in order to make a diagnosis of Brazilian basic education. The National Institute for Educational Studies and Research (Instituto Nacional de Estudos e Pesquisas Educacionais Anísio Teixeira, INEP) is an independent organization responsible for national assessment and evaluation of education system in Brazil.
Diplomas and degrees: Non-state schools that have been granted recognition are allowed to issue valid certificates recognized by the State. International and Bilingual schools must enable the students' double certification, one recognized by the State Secretariat of Education and another recognized by international organizations that supervise the institution's operation and periodically renew its certificate (Rio de Janeiro CEE Deliberation No 372 (2019)).
Sanctions: All non-state schools when found to be operating illegally are liable to sanctions. The closing of an institution may be due to non-compliance with the minimum requirements for its authorization and compliance with the legal framework, in which case the state will be the one to request its closure. When the closure is an initiative of the non-state school, it must request authorization from the Secretary of State Education prior to its closure and follow the prescribed procedure established by the state’s legislation. Legislation and requirements vary within the regions. However, all of them have within its legal framework pre-established requirements, including sending all the documents and information about the administration, students, and facilities to the Secretary of State Education.
In Brazil, most higher education institutions are private (In 2018, 88% of institutions) Private higher education institutions can be of the following type of Private Community, Private For-Profit, and Private Non-Profit (mainly confessional and philanthropic). However most private universities are run for-profit.
The main legal framework for Private Higher Education Institutions is the 2017 Decree No. 9235 that Provides for the exercise of the functions of regulation, supervision, and evaluation of higher education institutions and undergraduate and graduate higher education courses in the federal education system and the National System for the Evaluation of Higher Education (SINAES) created by Law No. 10,861 (2004).
Registration and approval: All private higher education institutions (HEIs) must be authorized and accredited to operate legally in Brazil. All applications (authorization, recognition, renewal of course recognition, accreditation and re-accreditation) are submitted to the MEC through e-MEC electronic system. Every applicant must pay the prescribed fee and submit all required documentation including the registration in the National Register of Legal Entities of the Ministry of Finance, staff credentials, financial statements, program descriptions and infrastructure requirements. The latter, the physical facilities, includes complying with building security guidelines. According to 2017 Decree No. 9235, private institutions of higher education are initially accredited as a college. Only after being in regular operation and with a satisfactory standard of quality can private colleges apply for their accreditation as a university center and university. The different institutional academic organization (colleges, universities center and universities) is accompanied by prerogatives in autonomy, curricular flexibility, and student enrollment capacity.
Licence: Once a Private Higher Education Institutions (PHEIs) has been granted accreditation it must be renewed periodically by means of re-accreditation.
Profit-making: The federal government allows for for-profit higher education institutions to be established in Brazil.
Taxes and subsidies: According to the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Brazil (art. 213) government financial support can be granted to private university research, extension activities, and activities to stimulate and foster innovation.
Curriculum and education standards: As established in the 2017 Decree No. 9235, private colleges depend on authorization from the MEC to start offering an undergraduate course which are evaluated in three dimensions: the didactic-pedagogical organization, the teaching and technical-administrative staff, and the physical facilities. Universities and university centres, which have autonomy prerogatives, do not need authorization from the MEC to start offering an undergraduate course (except in cases of opening courses in medicine, dentistry, psychology, and law, which always require authorization). However, all institutions – colleges, university centres, or universities – must inform the MEC of the open courses for supervision, evaluation, and subsequent recognition of the Ministry.
Teaching profession: Following the 2004 Law No. 10,861, for the accreditation process, the institution, private higher education institutions must include a profile of faculty and distance education tutors, with the indication of degree requirements, experience in higher education and non-academic professional experience, selection and hiring criteria, the existence of a career plan, the work regime, procedures for the eventual replacement of teachers in the staff and the incorporation of teachers with proven experience in strategic areas linked to national development, innovation and competitiveness, in order to promote articulation with the labour market. Furthermore, institutions must comply with a certain percentage of professors with doctoral or master's degrees to obtain another institutional category – colleges, university centres, or universities – during the re-accreditation process.
Fee-setting: The 1999 Law No. 9870 allows for a non-state higher education institution to set their school fees value.
Admission selection and processes: In conformity with Article 32 of the Normative Ordinance No. 40/2007, (as amended in 2010), each higher education centre may choose its admission modality and test to be taken; however, they must follow the guidelines established on disseminating and communicating the procedures and structure of the career.
Policies for vulnerable groups: As the competition is largest for public universities, affirmative action legislation (lei de cotas) introduced in 2012 a quota system reserving seats (50%) for underrepresented groups in federal universities
Board: No specific regulation was found at the Federal level concerning the mandatory establishment of a board in a private educational institution management structure. However, for the accreditation process, private higher education institutions must include their administrative organization of the institution and management policies, identifying the forms of participation of teachers, tutors, and students in the collegiate bodies.
Reporting requirements: According to the 2004 Law No. 10,861, every higher education institution, public or private, must create an Evaluation Commission (CPA), with the attributions of conducting the institution's internal evaluation processes, systematization, and provision of information requested by Anísio Teixeira National Institute of Educational Studies and Research (INEP). The National Commission for the Evaluation of Higher Education (CONAES) is the collegiate body for the coordination and supervision of the National System for the Evaluation of Higher Education (SINAES) created by Law No. 10,861 (2004) is formed by three main components: evaluating institutions, courses, and student performance. If the courses present unsatisfactory results in the National System for the Evaluation of Higher Education (SINAES) evaluation, referrals, procedures, and actions will be established with indicators, deadlines, and adopted methods. The e-MEC electronic system includes the e-MEC Register of Higher Education Institutions and Courses (e-MEC Registry) as an official database of information relating to HEIs and courses taught by them. The e-MEC Registry includes all the INEP evaluations on the quality indicators for accreditation obtained by each HEIs.
Inspection: The Law No. 10,861 (2004) establishes for on-site inspections to be carried out by the National System for the Evaluation of Higher Education (SINAES) to verify institutional compliance with the accreditation requirements to maintain or upgrade its institutional category during every re-accreditation process.
Assessment: Every institution of higher education, private and public, must include the National Student Performance Examination (ENADE) to evaluate the knowledge of students in relation to the content provided in the curricular guidelines. The MEC can grant scholarships and specific assistance to students who have outstanding ENADE test performance.
Diplomas and degrees: Private institutions of higher education which have been granted recognition are allowed to issue diplomas with national validity. The educational institution must request the renewal of recognition at each evaluation cycle of the National System for the Evaluation of Higher Education (SINAES).
Sanctions: The closure of a private institution of higher education may be due to non-compliance with the minimum requirements for its authorization and accreditation, in which case the federal authority will be the one to request its closure. When the closure is an initiative of the PHEIs, it must request authorization from the Secretariat for Regulation and Supervision of Higher Education and follow the federal education system legislation's prescribed procedure. Upon closure solicitation, all academic records and student documentation must be transferred to other institutions or for the maintainer to control and manage the information. (Decree No. 9235, 2017)
Private tutoring institutions or reinforcement schools can be established through commercial laws as a Microentrepreneur or Business Registration following the prescribed requirements. Documents needed to set up a tutoring service are: Documentation at the Board of Trade, CNPJ, Authenticated copy of RG and CPF, State Department of Finance, IPTU of the property, Copy of the Lease or Purchase and Sale Agreement, Operation Permit, among other documents specific to the city. According to the CNAE 8599-6/99 , a reinforcement school can be included within the Other Teaching Activities Not Previously Specified tax legislation.
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