NON-STATE ACTORS IN EDUCATION
2.2 Non-state education provision
3.1 Regulations by distinct levels of education
- Early childhood care and education (Entry/Establishment ○ Financial operation ○ Equitable access ○ Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability)
- Primary and secondary education (Entry/Establishment ○ Financial operation ○ Quality of teaching and learning ○ Equitable access ○ Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability)
- Tertiary education (Entry/Establishment ○ Financial operation ○ Quality of teaching and learning ○ Equitable access ○ Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability)
3.3 Supplementary private tutoring
The Education Law No.20/2003 of the Republic of Indonesia, which governs education from early childhood to tertiary level, defines “community-based education providers” as “individuals, groups, families, professional associations, private companies, and community organizations” who are “not part of the Government” and who “participate in the implementation (administering and controlling) and quality control of educational services”. Paths, levels, and types of education can be realized in the form of educational units organized by the Government, Regional Governments, and/or the community. In the Indonesia Education Statistics Brief 2019, “private schools” are defined as “institutions...provided and held by (a) private institution or community and managed by government”.
2. Typology of provision
2.1 State education provision
Most education (73% of schools, 79% of total enrolments) at primary (6 years, ages 7 – 12) and lower secondary (3 years, ages 13 – 15) level is provided by the state, while the share of state provision decreases in upper secondary level (3 years, ages 16 – 18), where approximately 50% of education is provided by non-state actors. According to Education Law No.20/2003 (Article 6), the state is obliged to provide 9 years of free and compulsory education (covering ages 7 – 15) which can be categorized into general education (under the Ministry of Education and Culture) or religious education (under the Ministry of Religious Affairs).
Indonesia is home to the largest Islamic education system worldwide, where Islamic boarding school education is recognized by the government as an integral part of the national education system (Sisdiknas) ever since the enactment of the National Education System Law No.2/1989. Islamic boarding schools (pesantren) are viewed as educational institutions that have equal rights and obligations with other formal educational institutions. Thus, the basic policies of religious education in Islamic education institutions are in line with the basic policies of religious education in all national educational institutions.
Non-state managed, state schools
According to the Education Management and Administration Decree No.66/2010, state schools in Indonesia are overseen by either central or local government. The schools are led and managed by civil servants.
Non-state funded, state schools
The Education Financing Decree No.48/2008 stipulates that central and local governments bear the responsibility to allocate budget for education financing in Indonesian state schools. Sources of education funding (Article 9) can also come from the community, non-binding foreign assistance and/or other legal sources.
2.2 Non-state education provision
Independent, non-state schools
No information was found.
State-funded (government-aided), non-state schools
The most prevalent non-state schools in Indonesia are private Islamic schools, which provide faith-based Islamic education through religious texts alongside a non-religious curriculum. The majority of Islamic schools in the country are in the non-state sector (considered to be offering a “higher level of religious instruction” compared to state institutions). In 2017, private Islamic schools accounted for over 90% of Islamic education at primary (93%), lower secondary (92%), and upper secondary (90%) level, and 55% of all non-state schools in the country. These schools operate under the supervision of the Ministry of Religious Affairs and represent three main ideologies: (1) the traditionalist stream (traditional Islamic education), (2) the modernist stream (based on principles of “modern Islam”), and the (3) “integrationist” stream (following an integrated secular and religious curriculum), consisting of Madrasah, pesantren, and sekolah Islam that cater to both girls and boys. These schools can either be day schools or boarding schools. All private Islamic schools are operated and owned by religious groups and are primarily funded by communities, religious groups, and (partially) by the central government through grants to assist with operational costs. The modernist stream is run by the charitable organization Muhammadiyah, which is one of Indonesia’s largest non-state education providers and the country’s oldest Islamic mass organization (owning over 5,000 primary and secondary schools). Muhammadiyah schools follow the school of thought of Ahlus-Sunnah (Sunni Islam) and focus on education, health and social activities. In Indonesia, private Islamic schools mainly cater to poorer segments in society.
Private schools are non-state schools which are established, operated and owned by private institutions or communities and mainly operate for-profit. These schools are funded by both the central and local governments through subsidies and grants to cover operational costs and teacher salaries, while some private schools are additionally provided with government teachers. At national level, private schools account for approximately 50% of education at upper secondary level and (when looking regionally) 57% of all schools at both primary and secondary level in Jakarta. While not distinguished in the country’s official government statistics (which broadly categorize schools as “public” and “private”), Indonesia has a wide variety of private schools that cater to different populations, ranging from low-fee to high-fee institutions, including low-fee private schools, community-learning centers, and international schools.
Low-fee private schools are defined by the Center for Indonesian Policy Studies as schools which charge a monthly tuition fee of 30,000 IDR (2.07 USD) to 130,000 IDR (8.97 USD) and provide education to relatively lower-income communities (when compared to private elite institutions). These schools are established, managed and funded by individuals, communities, or companies (with philanthropic, religious, or profit orientations) and receive government subsidies if they are registered or accredited by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Research, and Technology. Based on a case study conducted by the Center of Indonesian Policy Studies in 2017, in Koja (North Jakarta), out of 86 private schools, 59% were low-fee private schools.
Joint-cooperation educational institutions (international schools) are private schools which follow international curricula and examination systems, such as International Baccalaureate. According to 2021 data on the number of international schools in Indonesia, there are 44 international schools in Jakarta which cater to students aged 5 – 16 years old, almost all which have English as their language of instruction, with the requirement to teach Bahasa Indonesia as a compulsory subject. According to the Foreign Education Agencies Decree No.31/2014, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Research, and Technology declared that no private school shall bear the name “international” in Indonesia, which are now referred to as “joint-cooperation educational institutions”.
Indonesia also has several community-learning centers (CLCs) which are non-formal education units that organize learning activities based on community needs, and are primarily established and run by non-governmental organizations (NGOs) or communities (individuals and families) “on the initiative of, by and for the community‟. Local government education offices provide tutor training and supervisory services (including evaluation and monitoring). In 2015, out of over 10,000 community learning centers, 96% were found to be led by non-state (often NGO) initiatives.
Another legally-recognized form of non-formal education units in Indonesia is courses and training Institutions. They offer short courses to equip underprivileged individuals, especially youth and adults who leave primary and secondary education early, with skills that enable them to continue their formal education or work in the formal sector. In 2021, there are more than 10,000 Courses and Training Institutions throughout Indonesia, and they are entirely led by non-state initiatives (e.g. local communities, foundations, and NGOs). The MoECRT and local education offices are responsible to provide competitive funding and professional development programs to assist their operation and improve their quality and management.
Contracted, non-state schools
No information was found.
2.3 Other types of schools
Homeschooling is legal in Indonesia, defined as a form of informal education provided by families and surroundings in the Law No.20/2003 on the National Education System. Children that are homeschooled must be registered with the Ministry of Education, Culture, Research, and Technology and are enabled to take a national exam to obtain an “equivalent certificate” to formal education.
During the COVID-19 school closures in 2020, home learning was applied to all schools in Indonesia through remote learning methods which included television and radio broadcasts, and online learning platforms developed by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Research, and Technology.
Market contracted (Voucher schools)
No information was found.
No information was found.
3. Governance and regulations
The Ministries responsible for supervising and managing the education system in Indonesia are The Ministry of Education, Culture, Research, and Technology (responsible for both state and non-state provision from early childhood to secondary education, as well as colleges and universities), and the Ministry of Religious Affairs is responsible for all religious education, including non-state Islamic educational institutions. As a result of the Education Law No.20/2003, state and private schools under both ministries are subject to the same regulations (including registration and accreditation procedures, curriculum, textbooks, educational calendar, teaching load, and teaching quality standards) and are supported by the same programs. To coordinate religious education provision under the MoRA, the Directorate General of Islamic Education is divided into 5 separate directorates (each responsible for a different education level and type of Islamic instruction), the Secretariat of the Directorate General of Islamic Education, and Directorates of Madrasah Education, Early Education and Islamic Boarding Schools, Islamic Religious Education, and Islamic Higher Education.. Since 2003, the guidance and development of madrasah education in the context of increasing access and quality is currently coordinated by the Directorate of Madrasah Education at the Directorate General of Islamic Education.
The education system is highly decentralized, with over 34 provinces and over 500 district/municipality governments playing a strong role in its management. At the district level, state and non-state education is supervised by District Education and Culture Offices and District Offices of Religious Affairs, each responsible for the direct administration and registration of state and non-state educational institutions within each district, with the latter being exclusively responsible for religious provision. Moreover, the Board of Education and School/Madrasah Committee are independent bodies which have been established to directly supervise the implementation of education at all levels within their jurisdiction. However, it is important to note that decentralization processes have mostly been developed for schools under the Ministry of Education, Culture, Research, and Technology as the majority of administrative processes and funding structures for Islamic schools still operate based on a hierarchical, centralized system.
Vision: According to the Education Law No.20/2003, education is encouraged to be provided by both the government and non-state actors in “cooperation and partnership, which is mutually reinforcing”. Specifically, the “community” has the right to participate in in the planning, monitoring, evaluation, and implementation of national educational programs and has the obligation to provide resource support. Private schools are therefore viewed as a form of community participation in increasing access to education for Indonesian citizens. The role of the non-state sector in education is further reinforced through the country’s Education Strategic Plan 2020-2024, which aims to increase the role of the private sector, including business and industry partners, in providing and supporting educational services.
3.1 Regulations by distinct levels of education
Early childhood care and education (Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini or PAUD) covers ages 0 – 6 and is almost exclusively (98% of schools, 94% of enrolments) provided by non-state actors including private providers, faith-based providers, and communities. Early childhood care and education (ECCE) services are mainly dedicated to two age groups: ages 4 – 6, provided in taman kanak-kanak (general kindergartens) or raudhatul athfal (kindergartens focused on Islamic education), and ages 0 – 3, provided in kelompok bermain (play groups) or taman penitipan anak (childcare centers). In 2017, 4% of non-state ECCE services were owned by the state (under the MoECRT), while all Islamic kindergartens were provided by non-state actors. According to the Early Childhood Development Strategy Study in Indonesia 2013, whereas the MoECRT and the MoRA are primarily responsible for this level of education, support services are also integrated through the Ministry of Home Affairs, the Ministry of Health, and the Ministry of Social Welfare.
Registration and approval: According to the Regulation No.137/2014 on Early Childhood Education Standards, ECCE services must register for a license with the District Education and Culture Office or District Office of Religious Affairs (as the case may be) based on local standards, accompanied by all the required documents and a registration fee. There is no requirement for applicants to be legal entities. Applications are assessed based on whether the center complies with the minimum standards in areas such as infrastructure, health and safety, activities, and (in the case of kindergartens) management. Facility standards for kindergartens are similar to those required for the establishment of a school, while play groups and childcare centers are evaluated on more basic standards such as space, health and safety. All services must additionally apply for accreditation with the National Accreditation Board in accordance with the Regulation No.13/2018 on the National Accreditation Board for Schools/Madrasah and Early Childhood Education.
License: If all local and national standards are met, the applicant is issued an operational license by the relevant District Office.
Profit-making: ECCE services are provided by both for-profit and non-profit providers, with no specific regulation found regarding profit-making.
Taxes and subsidies: According to the Regulation No.137/2014 on Early Childhood Education Standards, establishment and operational costs for ECCE services are often provided by the government and local governments through subsidies, in addition to assistance from communities and foundations.
Quality of teaching and learning
Curriculum and education standards: ECCE services are expected to deliver their own programs and activities, but all programs are required to comply with national standards in terms of the type of programs and content (based on age group and expected outcomes) and structured activities that address the children’s holistic needs, while developing their religious and moral values. According to the Education Law No.20/2003, local languages may be used as a medium of instruction in ECCE.
Teaching profession: Teachers and caregivers in ECCE services (both Islamic and secular) are required to meet the minimum standards and qualifications set out in the Regulation No. 19/2005 on the National Standards of Education (as amended by Regulation No.32/2013 and Regulation No.13/2015) and the Regulation No.137/2014 on Early Childhood Education Standards. In kindergartens, teachers are required to be university graduates, while caregivers in playgroups and childcare centers must have obtained a diploma and completed their training in early childhood education, the latter of which, for Islamic kindergartens, is conducted by the MoRA.
Fee-setting: While almost all ECCE services in Indonesia charge monthly fees for program attendance and additional costs, there was no regulation found regarding limits or increases in fee-setting.
Admission selection and processes: No information was found.
Policies for vulnerable groups: All non-state providers of ECCE services are required to have policies to support students from low-income backgrounds and with special educational needs.
Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability
Reporting requirements: All ECCE centers are required to develop an internal quality assurance mechanism at least once per academic semester to continuously evaluate their programs, in addition to proving to be financially accountable to the operational subsidies received by the government.
Inspection: All formal and non-formal ECCE services in Indonesia are subject to the quality standards set in the Regulation No.137/2014 on Early Childhood Education Standards. ECCE services are subject to inspections by local governments and external evaluations by the National Accreditation Board.
Child assessment: Children in all ECCE services are assessed in accordance with the Child Development Achievement Level and Assessment Standards set out in the Regulation No.137/2014 on Early Childhood Education Standards, which include growth observation (based on guidelines developed by the Ministry of Health) and detailed descriptions of core developmental competencies (based on age) in religious/moral values, language, cognition, as well as social and emotional development. Supervision and observation of the child’s growth and development is carried out and reported on a monthly basis by the head of the program or teacher, with assessment results submitted to parents.
Sanctions: Local governments or the National Accreditation Board may revoke a center’s accreditation license if the minimum standards are found to no longer be met. If any provider is operating without a valid license, they will be liable to imprisonment for up to 10 years and/or a maximum fine of 1 billion IR (71,202 USD).
Registration and approval: The Regulation No.36/2014 sets the conditions required to establish a private primary or secondary school in Indonesia under the MoECRT. While applicants were originally required to be foundations or charitable organizations with legal entity and a “notary deed”, non-state organizations without a charitable status within the Special Economic Zones of Indonesia can now establish schools by obtaining a business license under the new Job Creation Law 11/2020.
According to the Job Creation Law 11/2020, to establish a non-state school within the Special Economy Zones (SEZ) of Indonesia, the process is specified (Article 65). Educational establishments outside the SEZ shall continue to follow the registration process outlined in the Education Law No.20/2003 (and subsidiary legislations), with the ability to voluntarily apply for a business license under the Job Creation Law 11/2020 (with the exception of private Islamic schools which are still required to be registered under the MoRA). To establish a non-state school outside the SEZ of Indonesia, private, religious, or community providers must apply for registration with their local District Education and Culture Office or District Office of Religious Affairs (as the case may be), accompanied by any required documents. In the case of faith-based Islamic schools (including boarding schools), the owners and managers are required to be Muslim and must submit a statement of commitment to practicing Islamic values. All applications are assessed based on a number of standards, including staff qualifications, curriculum, facilities, and management, that must all comply with the Regulation No. 19/2005 on the National Standards of Education (as amended by Regulation No.32/2013 and Regulation No.13/2015) that set standards for each education level. Applicants are additionally required to apply for accreditation with the National Accreditation Board for Schools/Madrasah which determines the compliance of the school to national education standards. To gain recognition from the MoRA, Islamic schools are required to provide religious courses for a minimum of 6 hours per week, in addition to general instruction, as stipulated in Law No. 4/1950.
License: If all the minimum standards are met, the relevant district office may issue the provider a license for the establishment of a non-state school. Formal educational institutions established within the SEZ are provided with a business license under the Ministry of Economic Affairs, while schools established outside the SEZ are provided with a regular education license under the MoECRT or MoRA. In the case of faith-based Islamic schools, the license is granted by the MoRA upon recommendation from the local Office of Religious Affairs.
Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH): All schools are required to comply with the National Standards of Education (as amended by Regulation No.32/2013 and Regulation No.13/2015) which include water and sanitation standards. Faith-based Islamic schools are additionally required to comply with the Regulation No.14/2014 on the Establishment of Madrasah, which requires schools to provide a specific number of toilets per child.
Profit-making: According to Article 53 of the Education Law No.20/2003, educational legal entities established by the government or the community must be “based on the principle of non-profit organizations and can manage funds needed for developing an education unit”. While the Job Creation Law 11/2020 allows for the establishment of educational business entities within the SEZ through the provision of a business license under the Ministry of Economic Affairs, the law simultaneously stipulates that it “adheres to the principle that management (of) education unit is non-profit so it cannot (be) equated with the management of business activities”. The law further explains that educational establishments that have been established through the Ministry of Economic Affairs should continue to be run in accordance with the non-profit principle in the Education Law No.20/2003.
Taxes and subsidies: Private schools in Indonesia receive assistance from the central and local governments in the form of subsidies, technical support, teacher salaries and (in some cases) teacher provision. Moreover, all schools that operate at primary and lower secondary levels (whether state or non-state) are provided with a per-student subsidy on a 3-month basis known as the school operational assistance grant (bantuan operasional sekolah, or BOS) under the government’s free education policy. Finally, non-state schools operating on a non-profit basis are provided with income tax exemptions and additional scholarships for Indonesian citizens to cover costs in tuition fees, examination fees, transport, and books.
Quality of teaching and learning
Curriculum and education standards: Non-state providers must develop a curriculum based on the framework and structure provided by the MoECRT and the MoRA in the Education Law No.20/2003 and the Regulation No. 19/2005 on the National Standards of Education (as amended by Regulation No.32/2013 and Regulation No.13/2015) which provide details regarding programs and outcomes at each education level. All schools are obliged to provide religious education in accordance with the Regulation No.55/2007 on Religious Education, which includes education in Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Christianity and Catholicism, in addition to courses in civic education, language, mathematics, science and social sciences (among others). However, while private schools must follow the same curriculum as state schools with the ability to only add one or two additional courses, private Islamic schools under the MoRA are required to provide an additional 6 courses in religious education (which are managed and supervised by the MoRA). Under Article 432 of the Job Creation Law 11/2020, joint-cooperation educational institutions at primary and secondary level are also required to provide religious and citizenship education to Indonesian citizens.
The language of instruction must be Bahasa Indonesia at all schools (state and non-state), with the exception of the first two grades of primary education which are allowed to use local languages if needed and some schools which use foreign languages to support learning.
Textbooks and learning materials: All schools in Indonesia are required to follow the Regulation No.71/2013 on Textbooks and Teacher’s Guide to Primary and Secondary Education, which lists the subjects that must be covered in textbooks provided according to school type (general or religious).
Teaching profession: All teachers must have the minimum academic and professional qualifications set out in the national standards and the Law No.14/2005 on Teachers and Lecturers based on each education level (which apply to both state and non-state teachers). The minimum academic qualification for all teachers (regardless of the education level they teach) is a higher education degree, with the exception of play group and childcare care teachers as well as teachers working in CLCs. Teacher salaries in non-state schools are determined based on the teacher’s contract with the school and are not subject to the government regulations that apply to state schools. All teachers are subject to the same working conditions in the Law No.14/2005 on Teachers and Lecturers, which includes provisions on the minimum wage, allowances, professional training, and additional benefits.
Corporal punishment: Corporal punishment is lawful in all schools in Indonesia, as it is explicitly prohibited in the 2014 Law of Child Protection and the Ministerial Regulation No. 82/2015 on the Prevention and Sanction of Violence in Schools, which protect children from violence and abuse in all schools.
Other safety measures and COVID-19: During the COVID-19 school closures in 2020, the curriculum for all schools in Indonesia was required to be adjusted to an “emergency curriculum” taking into consideration remote learning factors, which was issued both for schools offering general education (by the MoECRT) and for schools offering religious education (issued by the MoRA). Faith-based Islamic schools were additionally provided with an operational assistance grant to ease operational costs and support online learning.
Fee-setting: No information was found.
Admission selection and processes: According to the Regulation No.17/2010 on Education Management, schools are prohibited from discriminating on students in the admissions process on the basis of gender, religion, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, or physical or mental disability. The exception is schools which serve specific populations (based on religion or gender), who may admit students based on a preference to the student group served.
Policies for vulnerable groups: All non-state education providers are required to provide scholarships or grants to students from low-income backgrounds and students with special educational needs. Moreover, the government has implemented a number of conditional cash transfer schemes to increase student enrolment for children of low-income backgrounds, including the bantuan siswa miskin (poor students assistance program providing scholarships and bursaries) and the program keluarga harapan (family hope program providing student grants).
Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability
School board: According to Law No.44/2002 on the Education Board and School Committees, all non-state schools in Indonesia are required to be run in accordance with school/Madrasah-based management practices which is a form of autonomy in which schools are managed by the principal and school committees comprised of a minimum of nine members including parents, community leaders, teachers, non-governmental organizations, village officials, education professionals, and the private sector.
Reporting requirements: All schools in Indonesia (irrespective of ownership) are held accountable through accreditation by the National Accreditation Board of Schools/Madrasahs (Badan Akreditasi Nasional Sekolah or BAN-SM). Each school is required to complete accreditation forms and submit them to the BAN-SM, which then conducts an evaluation and grades schools into either A, B, or C. Finally, all schools must establish an internal quality assurance mechanism and display their mission and vision statements openly to parents, students, teachers, and any other relevant education stakeholder.
School inspection: All schools in Indonesia are externally evaluated based on their compliance with national education standards by three main bodies: the National Accreditation Board for Schools/Madrasah, the Quality Education Assurance Unit, and the National Education Standards Board. All state and non-state schools in Indonesia are required to undergo school inspections by local education authorities at least once per year, in which they are comprehensively assessed, followed by specific interventions for their continuous development.
Student assessment: Students in both secular and Islamic private schools sit for school-based school/madrasah examinations.
Diplomas and degrees: The Regulation No. 19/2005 on the National Standards of Education (as amended by Regulation No.32/2013 and Regulation No.13/2015) stipulates a minimum standard of academic competence which each student much achieve to progress to the next education level, which applies to all schools in Indonesia. The Education Law No.20/2003 additionally states that any provider who issues certificates to students must be accredited and licensed by the relevant authorities. Moreover, it is important to note that due to the unification of the education system, students are not required to remain in their sectors (state or private) by design, and can transfer to a school in the other sector. Finally, as stipulated in Joint Ministerial Decree No.6/1975, a madrasah diploma holds the same value as a general education diploma of the same level, with madrasah graduates from private institutions also able to continue their education at state institutions at the same or higher level.
Sanctions: A school’s accreditation license may be revoked at any time by the National Accreditation Board if standards are no longer met, with no information on school closures following the revocation. If any school is found to be operating without a valid license, the provider will be liable to imprisonment for up to 10 years and/or a maximum fine of 1 billion IDR (71,202 USD).
Tertiary education in Indonesia can take the form of state or private (non-state) universities and institutes, and be further categorized into general or religious institutions. Private higher education institutions (HEIs) are established and managed by non-profit faith-based providers, foundations, or communities and cover over 95% of all HEIs in Indonesia, and 60% of total enrolments. Both state and private general institutions are supervised by the MoECRT, while religious institutions are overseen by the MoRA.
Registration and approval: According to the Law No. 12/2012 on Higher Education, a legal entity, foundation or association can only establish a private HEI on a non-profit basis by registering with the Directorate General of Higher Education (under the Ministry of Education, Culture, Research, and Technology) or the Ministry of Religious Affairs (in the case of a faith-based institution), accompanied by any required documents. All applicants are required to have a statute and meet the minimum accreditation standards set by the Higher Education National Accreditation Board, which recommends an institution for a license based on its compliance to the required standards.
License: If all minimum requirements are met (and approved by the Higher Education National Accreditation Board), the relevant Ministry grants the provider a license to operate.
Profit-making: According to the Law No. 12/2012 on Higher Education, private HEIs are prohibited from operating on a for-profit basis and will only be registered and licensed if they are non-profit entities. The principle of “non-profit" entity requires all private HEIs to reinvest any of their remaining proceeds back into the institution to improve its capacity and quality.
Taxes and subsidies: The government allocates subsidies to state and private HEIs to cover lecturer and academic staff salaries, research costs, and institution development, while all institutions are additionally entitled to raise funds from the community. The amount of subsidy to each institution is calculated periodically by the Minister by considering the institution’s achievement of the National Higher Education Standards, type of study program, and fees.
Quality of teaching and learning
Curriculum and education standards: While all HEIs in Indonesia (irrespective of ownership) are free to develop their own curriculum and academic program, the Education Law No.20/2003 requires all institutions to include courses on religious education, civic education, and language, in addition to basing their curriculum on the National Higher Education Standards. Finally, Bahasa Indonesia must be the language of instruction in all HEIs, with regional languages and foreign languages allowed to be used for specific literature or foreign language programs.
Teaching profession: All lecturers and academic staff employed in state and private HEIs must have the minimum qualifications set out in the Education Law No.20/2003 (with a Master’s degree from an accredited HEI at a minimum), while all foreign HEIs are required to prioritize lecturers and academic staff of Indonesian nationality. Moreover, lecturers and academic staff must be provided with a basic salary in accordance with government regulations.
Fee-setting: Any fees charged by HEIs in Indonesia must be based on the “principle of affordability” and include education fee assistance or exemptions for underprivileged students.
Admission selection and processes: Student admissions processes in private HEIs are determined by each individual institution, with all providers (state and private) are required to admit students that have “high academic potential” and are more economically disadvantaged at a 20% rate compared to all students accepted. Foreign nationals may also be admitted based on specific requirements listed in the Law No. 12/2012 on Higher Education.
Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability
Board: According to the Education Law No.20/2003, the management of each HEI must be based on the principles of “autonomy, public accountability, quality assurance, and transparent evaluation”, with no specific regulation found on the establishment and membership of institutional boards.
Reporting requirements: All HEIs in Indonesia (state and private) are accountable to the Higher Education National Accreditation Board through mandatory accreditation, self-assessment mechanisms, and annual reporting. At first, only private HEIs were required to have their programs accredited by the Higher Education National Accreditation Board allowing them to obtain “equal status” (disamakan) with state institutions, which was later abolished, obliging all HEIs (irrespective of ownership) to seek program accreditation which is viewed as a form of “public accountability”. Accreditation is granted in five-year periods and requires institutions to meet the minimum criteria in infrastructure, research, academic staff qualifications, funding and management, and graduation rates with programs being grouped either as A (very good), B (good), C (satisfactory), or D (unsatisfactory), the results of which are made public. Accountability is further measured through student-staff ratio, adequacy of facilities, and quality administration.
Inspection: The quality of all state and private HEIs in Indonesia is assessed by the Higher Education National Accreditation Board (BAN-PT) based on the National Standards of Higher Education. According to the Law No. 12/2012 on Higher Education, the Higher Education National Accreditation Board conducts periodic and transparent external evaluations on the quality and efficiency of each institution through on-site inspections, with no specific information found on the regularity of these inspections.
Assessment: No information was found.
Diplomas and degrees: State and private HEIs in Indonesia may only issue academic or professional degrees if they have been accredited by the Higher Education National Accreditation Board and meet all the national standards.
Sanctions: If any HEI provider does not meet the national or accreditation standards, the institution will be “subject to administrative sanction” and Ministry responsible may close the institution upon recommendation from the Higher Education National Accreditation Board. Depending on the violation, sanctions can also include termination of government assistance, temporary suspension of activities, or imprisonment. Finally, if any HEI is found to be operating or issuing degrees without a valid license from the relevant Ministry or issuing, the provider will be liable to imprisonment for up to 10 years and/or a maximum fine of 1 billion IDR (71,202 USD).
3.2 Supplementary private tutoring
Private supplementary tutoring services are increasingly widespread in Indonesia, provided by schools, individuals or private tutoring agencies either one-on-one, in groups, or through online services. Private tutoring is viewed as “non-formal education” in the Education Law No.20/2003, which “functions as a substitute, complement, and/or supplement to formal education”, subject to specific national education standards and regulated by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Research, and Technology.
Private tutoring centers are required to register with the District Education and Culture Office which issues licenses to centers based on whether they comply with minimum standards. Similar to schools, applications are assessed based on the curriculum provided, teacher qualifications, and facilities, while private tutoring centers must additionally be accredited by the National Accreditation Board for Non-Formal Education and comply with the relevant national standards. The District Education and Culture Office additionally has the authority to revoke a center’s license if the national standards are not met.
Financial operation and quality
According to the National Standards of Education, the operation and quality of private tutoring services is supervised by the relevant District Education and Culture Office. All centers are required to provide satisfactory facilities and equipment to enable learning, while services are not required to follow the school curriculum (but a curriculum focused on student skills and competencies).
The Law No.14/2005 on Teachers and Lecturers does not have any regulation regarding teachers providing private tutoring services or teacher qualifications in non-formal education settings.
This profile has been reviewed by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Research and Technology (Indonesia).