1. Terminology

2. Typology of provision

2.1 State education provision 

2.2 Non-state education provision 

2.3 Other types of schools 

3. Governance and regulations

3.1 Regulations by distinct levels of education

3.2 Supplementary private tutoring 


  1. Terminology

Laws for all levels of education in Sarajevo Canton are harmonized with national framework education laws, Framework Law on Primary and Secondary Education in Bosnia and Herzegovina (2003) and Framework Law on Higher Education in Bosnia and Herzegovina (2007). At all levels of education, neither Cantonal nor state laws mention the term “non-state actors”. The only non-state actors recognized by these laws are private educational institutions, mainly through regulations that provide for establishment. All private educational institutions are under the jurisdiction of these laws at the appropriate level of education.  

Pre-school education institutions and primary schools in Sarajevo Canton may be established by a domestic and foreign legal and natural person, according to the Law on preschool education of Sarajevo Canton (2008, Article 19), the national education framework law on Preschool Education in Bosnia and Herzegovina (2007), and Law on primary education of the Sarajevo Canton (2017, Article 9). The state law on primary and secondary education (2003, Article 30) also prescribes that public and private schools perform the activity of regular education (Article 29), and that religious schools be considered “private” (Article 31).  

Secondary schools may be established as a “public institution” and as an “institution” although it is not specified that it is a private institution, according to the Law on Secondary Education at the level of Sarajevo Canton (2017). Both types of secondary schools are to be established under equal conditions (Article 15). Similarly, the Law on Higher Education of Sarajevo Canton (2017) refers to different types of higher education institutions in the same way (Article 11), while the complementary framework law on higher education at the level of Bosnia and Herzegovina adds that school institutions can enter into public-private partnerships (Article 19).  


  1. Typology of provision

2.1 State education provision

State schools 

In Sarajevo Canton, most secondary schools are public (starting at age 15 and lasting 2 or 4 years) but we also did not find precise data. There are Gymnasiums (4 years), Technical and related schools (2-4 years), Vocational schools (2-4 years), Art schools (2-4 years), Schools for pupils with special needs (1-4 years) and Religious schools (4 years). There are a total of 40 high schools. While there are primary and secondary schools for children with disabilities, they can also be enrolled in regular schools. Primary education is compulsory and free for all children aged 6 to 15 and lasts for 9 years (three three-year cycles by ages 6–9; 9–12 and 12–15).  

According to the data of the Bureau of Statistics for 2020, there are 40 schools with 14,733 enrolled children (of which it is stated that one is religious and 3 are for children with disabilities), while the list of high schools on the ministry's website shows a number of 40 schools (4 schools on the list are private schools). 

Religious school are considered public institutions founded by the Islamic Community of Bosnia and Herzegovina and are partially managed by the state. 

Non-state managed, state schools 

There is one school in Sarajevo Canton that could be partially classified in this category, and that is "Gazi Husrev-beg's Madrasa". This school was founded by the Islamic Community of Bosnia and Herzegovina, but is considered a public institution by law. The school itself is managed by the school board, which also includes a representative of the ministry. The work of this school is partially financed by the ministry (Article 117, Rules of the Medresa, 2016).  

Non-state funded, state schools 

No information was found. 

2.2 Non-state education provision

Independent, non-state schools 

In Bosnia and Herzegovina, in 181 private preschool institutions, at the beginning of the school year 2019/2020, 10.492 children were enrolled of which 104 with disabilities. A total of 39 secondary schools in private ownership were registered in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 2019/2020.  

According to the Bureau of Statistics data for 2020, there are a total of 5454 children enrolled. There are 2519 children or 46.2% in private institutions. 

In Sarajevo Canton, in the 2019/2020 school year, 4,888 children attended private primary schools.  

In Canton Sarajevo there are independent, non-state schools in pre-school (one year before starting school), primary school and secondary school (first two grades). A legal entity or a natural person can establish them, but we found no official data on the types of these institutions. Independent, non-state pre-school, primary school and secondary school institutions are recognized and treated as private schools and as such are subject to all legal regulations as well as public schools.  

There is no precise data for the number of private primary and secondary education institutions, and the same is true for private secondary education institutions. The Bureau of Statistics data for 2020 lists 92 primary schools, but does not specify whether this includes private schools. The list available on the website of the competent ministry includes 81 schools, of which six are private. Data also shows 40 schools and does not specify which of these (if any) are private institutions, while the list of high schools on the ministry's website shows a number of 40 schools with 4 schools on the list being private schools. 

State funded (government-aided), non-state schools 

No information was found.  

Contracted, non-state schools 

No information was found.  

2.3 Other types of schools


Homeschooling is prohibited in Bosnia and Herzegovina. 

Market contracted (Voucher schools) 

No information was found.  

Unregistered/Unrecognised schools 

Various NGOs or other non-formal education providers organize different courses, art schools, short thematic schools and educational programs. Such programs do not award formal diplomas or certificates and are not recognized and regulated by law. There are no official data on such education providers. 


  1. Governance and regulations

For all levels of education in Bosnia and Herzegovina, from pre-school to higher education, the law clearly recognizes non-governmental institutions as providers of education. Private educational institutions on all levels can be established by domestic and foreign natural and legal persons, in accordance with the principles established by laws and other conditions and criteria established in regulations in the field of education. There is no Ministry of Education at the state level, but the Ministry of Civil Affairs of Bosnia and Herzegovina has an education sector. The highest level of regulation in the field of education are the framework laws at the state level (Framework Law on Preschool Care and Education in BiHFramework Law on Primary and Secondary Education in BiHFramework Law on Higher Education in BiH) issued by this ministry. To fulfil the coordination role of the Ministry of Civil Affairs, three bodies have been formed, the Conference of Ministers of Education in BiH, the Council for General Education in BiH, and the Rectors' Conference of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Rectors of private universities are not members of this conference). There are also three agencies on the state-level: The Agency for Higher Education and Quality Assurance, the Center for Information and Recognition of Qualifications in Higher Education and the Agency for Preschool, Primary and Secondary Education. 

All education laws on all levels in Bosnia and Herzegovina guarantee that every citizen has the right to religious education. Representatives of each of the officially registered religious communities (the Islamic Community, Serbian Orthodox Church, and Catholic Church) to be responsible for teaching religious studies in public and private pre-, primary, and secondary schools and universities if there is sufficient demand. They also develop and approve religious curricula. Religious education teachers are also chosen and trained by religious communities. These people work for the schools where they teach, yet they are accredited by the religious authority that oversees the curriculum. With certain exceptions, public schools provide religious education in the majority religion of the school. Secondary school students who do not want to attend religion class have the option to do so if their school offers an ethics subject as an alternative, which many do. Parents of primary school kids may request that their child be excused from religion lessons. 

At the level of government of all cantons, there are ministries of education. These institutions are in charge of issuing the law on education which regulates all levels of education. Each of these laws in all cantons must be harmonized with state-level framework laws. This means that each of these laws also recognizes and regulates private school institutions. Ministries of education manage the process of establishing, ie accrediting and licensing private school institutions at all levels of education. They must be established in accordance with the standards and norms arising from these educational laws, and are subject to inspection by the competent educational inspections that supervise their work. The Agency for Higher Education and Quality Assurance (state-level agency), is responsible for the procedure and decision on accreditation and licensing of higher education institutions issued by the Ministry of Republika Srpska, cantonal ministries and the Brčko District of BiH. They assess the compliance of the accreditation decision with the norms and criteria of the framework law, and in case of non-compliance, give recommendations for further measures, up to the measure of annulment of the accreditation decision. Agency for Preschool, Primary and Secondary Education (state-level agency) is responsible for developing common core curricula (for preschool, primary and secondary education) with which each curriculum of each canton must be harmonized. 

In canton Sarajevo, the Ministry of Education and the Education Inspectorate supervise the legality of the work of preschool institutions, while professional supervision is performed by the Educational and Pedagogical Institute (Article 40). The same thing is with primary schools, where according to the cantonal law on primary schools, supervision is performed by the Ministry and the Education Inspectorate, and professional supervision by the Educational and Pedagogical Institute (Articles 111 and 112). According to In secondary schools, supervision is also performed by the Ministry, the Education Inspectorate and the Educational and Pedagogical Institute (Articles 138 and 139). The implementation of the cantonal law on higher education is supervised by the Ministry and the Education Inspectorate (Article 169).  

Vision: The Strategy for the Development of Education in Sarajevo Canton for the period 2020/25 has not yet been adopted and is not publicly available. The government of Sarajevo Canton has changed several times in the last few years, so the previously proposed strategy (2018-22) on the development of education has not been adopted. While non-state actors (private pre-school institutions, private primary schools, private secondary schools and private universities) are mentioned in the analysis of the current situation, there is no specific goal that includes them. 

At the national level, while no education development or strategy plan was found for primary and secondary education. Education plans for other education levels indicate the envisioned role of the private sector in education. The Preschool Education Development Platform Education in BiH for the Period 2017-22 has no mention of the private sector’s role. However, the Priorities for 2016-26 Higher Education Development in BiH has included as one of its priorities to increase public funding to higher education through both public and private contributions. Improvement of Quality And Relevance Of Vocational Education And Training In Bosnia And Herzegovina - In The Light Of Riga Conclusions - For the Period 2021–2030 envisions the private sector as partners in the improvement of VET.  

3.1 Regulations by distinct levels of education

Preschool education institutions have four types of programs, and each founder can register and organize for the implementation of one or more programs. The first is the program of care and educational work (6 months - 3 years), the second is the program of educational work (3 - 5 years), the third is the program of compulsory inclusion of children in preschool education until starting primary school (5 - 6 years). The last type of program refers to children with disabilities (Article 23). The number of public (35 or 51.47%) and private (33 or 48.53%) preschool institutions is approximately equal. Attendance at public preschool institutions is free.  

There are 33 private pre-school institutions, which accounts for 48.53% of total number of pre-school institutions in Canton Sarajevo.  

In Bosnia and Herzegovina, in 181 private preschool institutions, at the beginning of the school year 2019/20, 10.492 children were enrolled of which 104 with disabilities. 


Registration and approval: A preschool institution as an “institution” may be established by domestic and foreign legal and physical institutions in all forms of ownership (private, public or combined) with the approval of the Minister and the prior consent of the Government (cantonal law on preschool education, Article 19). A preschool institution may be established if there are a sufficient number of children to form at least two educational groups; if a sufficient number of employees with appropriate education is provided in accordance with the Standards and norms of preschool education; if the facility, equipment and teaching aids are provided in accordance with the Standards and norms; if there is a justification for the establishment, ie if there is a social need for the establishment of a preschool institution in that area, having in mind the existing network of preschool institutions. Application is reviewed and evaluated for the fulfilment of the conditions by an expert commission appointed by the competent ministry. 

Licence: According to the cantonal law on preschool education, the Minister appoints a commission that determines the fulfilment of the conditions for the establishment of a preschool institution. These conditions are determined by pedagogical standards (2016). The size of the space is prescribed, as well as the premises that these institutions must have: common areas, areas for isolation of sick children, changing rooms and toilets, auxiliary rooms, services and communications, professional library (with literature for staff and children). All preschool institutions should have the following general means for educational work (didactic means): TV set - in two educational groups; smartboard; DVD, to two educational groups; overhead projector, into two educational groups; microscope; camera; flannel with applications and for children's works-movable; magnetic school boards, to each educational group; video camera (if possible); computers (according to possibilities). The number of children according to age groups was also determined, followed by the number of staff according to the number of children. The commission is obliged to make a report with an opinion on the fulfilment of the conditions for the establishment of a preschool institution (Article 21). Licence duration is not explicitly stated in the law. Once the institution gets the licence, it expires when the institution ceases to exist (this can happen by the decision of the founder or if the competent inspection finds a violation of the law).

Financial operation

Profit-making: The founder of the preschool institution provides the funds (information on these funds is not public and is up to the founder) necessary for the establishment of the work and implementation of the preschool education program in accordance with the standards and norms (Article 20). The founder also provides salaries and compensation of employees, material costs, procurement of basic equipment and supplies, consumables for educational work, depreciation and ongoing investment maintenance of facilities, part of work and play material (toys and other basic didactic material), tools for professional development and additional education of employees (Article 54). Preschool education programs can also be financially supported by the participation of parents of children, then through gifts, bequests and donations or some other sources (Article 55). Funds for the implementation of shorter and specialized work programs and the cost of child nutrition are provided by service users (Article 56). Data on profit-making for these institutions is not public, but we did not find any regulation that explicitly prohibits these institutions from profit making. 

Taxes and subsidies: No information was found. 

Quality of teaching and learning

Curriculum and education standards: Pre-school education programs are based on the principles of the United Nations General Assembly Declaration on the Rights of the Child and the Convention on the Rights of the Child, in particular as regards the protection of children from cruelty and negligence, and procedures that may lead to any discrimination interest. In all private preschool institutions in the Sarajevo Canton, a common core of comprehensive development programs for work in (state and non-state) preschool institutions is being established and implemented (Article 25). 

Teaching profession: Employment of persons in preschool institutions is done through a public competition in all types of preschool institutions (state and non-state). Exceptionally, employees may be hired for a certain time and without a public competition in accordance with the labour law. The level of education of employees and other conditions for performing the work of preschool institutions are defined in more detail by standards and norms, common cores and programs for preschool education (Article 33). In addition to the educator, persons with higher and secondary education in the field of education and medicine may participate in the implementation of the program of educational work as assistants and volunteers (Article 34). For performing pedagogical-psychological tasks, the preschool institution has a pedagogue or pedagogue-psychologist and psychologist, depending on the size of the preschool institution and the number of children, in accordance with the standards and norms (Article 35). 

The work of employees is evaluated based on the Rulebook issued by the Minister. An integral part of the Rulebook are the criteria that define the promotion and acquisition of special titles of educators and professional associates (Article 39). The federal Labour Law (2016) determines the minimum wage protects the rights and obligations of workers. However, the employer (founder) determines salaries, covers benefits and determines the working conditions of preschool teachers. 

Equitable access

Fee-setting: Fee-setting is not specified by law. Preschools can set any tuition fee they think is appropriate and the information on this is not public. 

Admission selection and processes: Non-state pre-school institutions have autonomy over the selection and admission process, but are subject to the same law as state pre-school institutions. This law prohibits discrimination against children (Article 7). They set the price of tuition, but every child has an equal right of access and equal opportunities to participate in appropriate upbringing and education without discrimination on any grounds. 

Policies for vulnerable groups: As mentioned before, when the capacities in public institutions are filled, those who are on the waiting list will receive funds for enrolment in private kindergartens. There is no specific quota for enrolment on children from any background (like vulnerable groups), only condition is that child is on the waiting list. We did not find the official document on the webpage of the Ministry, but it has been announced in the media. There is a subsidy program implemented by the competent ministry for enrolment in private pre-school institutions. When the capacities in public institutions are filled, those who are on the waiting list will receive funds for enrollment in private kindergartens. 

Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability

Reporting requirements: Preschool institutions are obliged to adopt annual work programs which are proposed by the council of educators and adopted by the board of the preschool institution. They are then submitted by the end of September of the current year to the Ministry, the competent educational and pedagogical institute and the competent body of the municipality. Reports on the work of preschool institutions in the first half of the year are considered according to the same procedure as annual reports, and are submitted to the Ministry, the Institute and the competent municipal body for consideration and adoption by January 31 of the current year (Article 41). 

Inspection: The professional council of educators consists of all employees who participate in the direct educational work in the preschool institution. This council monitors and analyzes the organization and implementation of educational work programs, determines the program of professional development of educators and nurses and monitors its implementation, considers and determines the proposal of the annual work program, considers and comments on reports on the work of professional bodies, commissions, committees and assets, forms, monitors and analyzes the work of professional bodies, commissions, boards and assets, nominates a representative of the board of directors, proposes and monitors the implementation of cooperation with parents and the local community. The expert council is headed by the director of the preschool institution (Article 43). Supervision over the legality of the work of the preschool institution (both state and non-state) is performed by the competent Education Inspectorate. The preschool institution is obliged to enable unhindered supervision and insight into the documentation and records kept in the preschool institution. 

Child assessment: No information was found. 

Sanctions: In case of termination of the preschool institution, the founder is obliged to enable the children enrolled in the preschool institution to continue the started preschool education in another preschool institution (Article 24). Preschool institutions can be closed according to the decision of the founder, and according to the decision of the competent ministry if the competent inspection determines the illegality of work on any grounds (if the law is violated in some way). 


Registration and approval: Primary or secondary school as an institution may be established by domestic and foreign legal and natural persons in all forms of ownership with the approval of the Minister and with the prior consent of the Sarajevo Canton Government and the final consent of Sarajevo Canton Assembly. According to the same laws, a school may perform the activity of education if it has a registered activity of education and if it meets the standards and norms in terms of technical, hygienic, spatial, personnel, material and other conditions. A school as a public institution and an institution may be established if there is a public interest in it, if funds are provided, if it has the required number of teachers, professional associates and other workers in accordance with the curriculum and the law. For the establishment, it is necessary that funds are provided for the work by the founders and that there is a sufficient number of students to form the prescribed number of classes.  

Schools must be established in accordance with pedagogical standards for primary (2018) and secondary (2004) schools. These standards determine the number of classes and groups, the number of students in the class, the student standard as well as the free activities of students. It also prescribes what the school space, equipment and teaching aids should be according to school subjects. The number and structure of staff (teaching staff, professional associates, department assistants, management staff, support and technical staff) as well as mobile expert teams for inclusive support have been determined. 

The founder of the secondary school is obliged to present the so-called guarantee, ie the amount of money that is necessary for all costs of managing the school for a period of at least five years. The amount of the guarantee is determined by multiplying the number of school classes by the indicated tuition fee, the number of students and the number of years of schooling. The same guarantee for five years is obligatory for primary schools, but there is no formula in the law according to which it is calculated, but it is said that it is determined by the government. 

Licence: After submitting the request for the establishment of both primary and secondary schools, the Minister issues a special act appointing an expert commission to consider the request and study, and to give an expert opinion on the social justification of establishing the school. The five-member expert commission is formed by the Minister from among prominent experts in the field of education, representatives of the founders and representatives of the Ministry. 

Similar to ECCE, licence duration for primary and secondary schools is not explicitly stated in the law. Licence expires when the institution ceases to exist by founders’ decision, or by decision of the competent ministry. Regular inspections (at least every four years, more often if necessary) are conducted in schools by the competent education inspection to check if the institution works according to law. In case of a violation, institutions are given a deadline to improve certain areas. If they fail to do so, the licence may be revoked by the competent ministry. 

Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH): In order to meet the safety requirements of the upper floor of the primary schools, they must have fire exits and stairs, hydrants and the optimal number of fire extinguishers. The school must have an evacuation plan in case of accidents and disasters, and clearly marked evacuation routes. The school must have access for people with disabilities. It is optimal that the school has an elevator. For the purpose of rational use of school space and social resources, the maximum area for which maintenance and cleaning costs are recognized has been regulated, with special emphasis on specific cases and objective circumstances. For the realization of cultural and public events in the school, the school has a suitable space with a minimum area of 200 square meters. The toilet area (separate area for boys, area for girls) must provide a minimum of two toilets on each floor of the school, optimally three toilets, separate for boys and girls. 

The conditions according to the standards for high schools are similar, but somewhat less precisely determined. For example, for toilets, there is no obligation of booths for boys and girls, but the number of booths is prescribed according to the number of students. The minimum number of booths is determined by providing one booth for every 28 students who attend school in one shift. 

Financial operation

Profit-making: The founder of the primary and secondary school provides the funds necessary for the establishment and operation of the school, in accordance with pedagogical standards for primary education and norms of school space, equipment and teaching aids. The founder of the school provides the funds needed for financing or co-financing the school for workers' salaries, capital projects for construction, extension and reconstruction of school space and its equipment, as well as funds for professional development and training of teachers, associates and other workers. The founder is also obliged to finance the education of students with disabilities, such as the costs of professional teams that provide assistance for working with students with disabilities, the implementation of the school development plan, school competitions, and procurement of teaching aids and transportation of students. The founder also provides funds for the maintenance of school facilities, as well as the education of students in the language and script of national minorities. In addition to the funds provided by the founder, the school may earn income provided that it does not jeopardize the core registered activity. For example, from current transfers from other levels of government and international organizations, from donations from legal and natural persons, or from the school's own revenues determined by a decree of the Government. 

The funds that the founder uses to establish the institution comes from his own private investment. Later on, when the institution is established and working, funds come in part from tuition fees. There is no explicit regulation that prohibits profit-making. 

Taxes and subsidies: No information was found. 

Quality of teaching and learning

Curriculum and education standards: The curricula for primary and secondary school are based on the principles of individualization and differentiation, integrated learning and teaching, active learning and application of learning, social interaction, development of social competencies, providing a safe and stimulating environment for learning, monitoring, evaluation and evaluation and partnerships with family and community. The curriculum for primary and secondary school is harmonized with the common core of curricula, which are adopted in accordance with the Framework Law on Primary and Secondary Education of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Common core curricula are produced by Agency for Pre-Primary, Primary and Secondary Education. In a school whose founder is not a Canton, the curriculum of each individual subject may have a maximum of 20% of specific contents in relation to the curriculum. 

Textbooks and learning materials: Only school textbooks and other teaching aids whose use has been approved by the Minister in accordance with the law may be used in primary school and secondary school. Nothing is specified regarding textbooks used by private institutions. According to the law on textbooks (2019), the exceptions are textbooks needed for teaching within international programs and textbooks, workbooks and other teaching aids for religious education, and religious subjects and subjects with a specific curriculum in schools founded by the church or religious community whose textbooks prepared and approved by the competent body of the religious community, and verified and included in the Cantonal list by the Ministry. 

Teaching profession: A primary school teacher has a university degree and teaches from the first to the fifth grade. The subject teacher has a university degree and teaches from the sixth to the ninth grade, and can also teach in the fifth grade based on the decision of the school principal. He teaches certain subjects in lower grades in accordance with the curriculum that regulates the profile and education of teachers for that subject (Article 84). The profile and education of teachers in high school is determined by the curriculum for each subject individually, depending on the type of high school, and the profile and education of all other workers are determined by pedagogical standards and norms (Article 120). 

At the beginning of the school year, the teacher is issued a decision on weekly assignment for direct teaching work and other tasks arising from direct teaching and educational work and from performing activities and tasks from the curriculum and annual work program (Article 85). According to the laws on secondary and primary school, the work of workers is systematically monitored and evaluated on the basis of a rulebook issued by the Minister in consultation with the union. Teachers, professionals and other associates are obliged to professionally improve and continuously educate themselves throughout their working life, with the aim of quality monitoring, encouragement and assistance in the education and development of students and performing other tasks determined by relevant regulations. 

The rights and obligations of teachers are protected by the federal labour law, which also determines the minimum wage. The employer (founder) determines salaries, covers benefits and determines the working conditions of teachers. 

Corporal punishment: According to the laws on primary and secondary school, physical punishment, belittling and insulting the personality of students, workers and parents, as well as inappropriate behaviour that damages the reputation of the school, the reputation of the educator and society as a whole, are prohibited in schools. 

Other safety measures and COVID-19: No information was found. 

Equitable access

Fee-setting: Fee-setting is not specified by law. 

Admission selection and processes: According to the laws on primary and secondary school, a student cannot be discriminated against in admission, participation in school activities or in any other decision related to that student. 

Policies for vulnerable groups: No information was found. 

Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability

School board: The number of members of the school board in secondary and primary school is determined by the act on the establishment of the school, and a representative proposed by the Ministry is obliged to be a member of the school. The composition of this school board is not further specified by law. The school board ensures the efficient and effective use of all school resources and takes care of the legal work of the school and its bodies. The competencies of the school board are the adoption of the work program (and work report submitted to the founder), school rules, annual school work program for the current year (the report on its implementation at the end of the first semester), general act on the internal organization and systematization of jobs. Personnel needs for the next five-year period, adoption of a decision on announcing a public competition and other general acts in accordance with the law are also their competencies. The school board appoints and dismisses the school principal. 

Reporting requirements: The school board in primary and secondary school is responsible for adopting the work program and work report that it submits to the founder. The school principal proposes the school's financial plan and submits a financial report to the school board and the founder. Professional supervision of the work of public institutions and institutions in the field of primary education is performed by the Ministry through the Educational and Pedagogical Institute. Inspection supervision over the work of the school in the field of application of laws, by-laws and general acts in the field of secondary and primary education is performed by cantonal inspectors in accordance with the law. 

School inspection: Primary and secondary school, if necessary, and at least once every two years, conducts the procedure of self-evaluation of the work of management and teaching staff, ie the success of the implementation of curricula in accordance with the regulations containing self-evaluation criteria. Self-evaluation necessarily evaluates: the quality of teaching and the interactive student-teacher relationship, correctness in communication, the attitude of the teaching staff towards the student in teaching and knowledge tests, as well as other elements determined by the rulebook. In order to improve the quality of the work of the educational activity, external evaluation is carried out in schools at least once in two years, in accordance with the rulebook on evaluation and self-evaluation criteria, which is adopted by the Minister. Supervision over the legality of the work of the primary and secondary schools (both state and non-state) is performed by the competent Education Inspectorate. Schools are obliged to enable unhindered supervision and insight into the documentation and records kept. 

Student assessments: See multi-level regulations regarding student assessment. 

Diplomas and degrees: If a private primary or secondary school is recognized by the ministry and operates in accordance with the law, the diplomas it issues are valid as those issued by public educational institutions.  

Sanctions on school closures: In case of termination of primary or secondary school, the founder is obliged to enable the found students to continue the education, and to enable the found workers to continue working in another school. Public schools in the Sarajevo Canton are obliged to accept students from a private school that has ceased to operate, if they meet the conditions provided for in pedagogical standards and norms. 

There are 22 public higher education institutions in the Sarajevo Canton) and 3 private higher education institutions. All those who have completed a four-year high school in Bosnia and Herzegovina or abroad (with the recognition of a diploma from the competent ministry) have access to higher education. Higher education can be acquired regularly, part-time, by distance learning, or by combining these three ways of studying, as provided by the statute of the higher education institution. According to the law on higher education, a higher education institution can be established as a public institution or as an institution. The faculties established as institutions are private faculties. Most faculties in Sarajevo Canton are public. 

According to the Agency for the Development of Higher Education and Quality Assurance, in the area of higher education in the academic year 2019/20 there are 24 accredited private higher education institutions were registered in BiH. 


Registration and approval: A higher education institution may be established by a natural person with the academic title of full professor or scientific advisor or a legal entity registered in accordance with the law to perform activities in the field of education, after registration for at least five years. The interested person submits to the Ministry a request for the establishment of a new higher education institution / organizational unit, accompanied by a study on the justification of the establishment, a draft statute and study rules for the study cycles covered by the study (Article 13).  

After submitting a proper request for the establishment of a higher education institution, the Ministry appoints an expert commission by a special act to give an opinion on the compliance of the study with this law. The act on the appointment of the expert commission must contain a description of jobs and tasks, the manner of work, the deadline for the execution of entrusted jobs and tasks and the amount of remuneration for the work of the members of the commission. The Expert Commission submits a report on its work with an opinion to the Minister (Article 15). The decision establishing (2019) that the higher education institution or study program is accredited is issued for a period of five years. If there are any shortcomings (failure to meet a condition for the establishment that is not eliminatory), a conditional decision is issued for two years with recommendations for eliminating these shortcomings. 

Licence: Licensing is a process of verifying the fulfilment of conditions, which are prescribed by the Standards and norms, for the establishment and operation of a higher education institution for the purpose of granting a licence to perform higher education activities. The licence, at the request of the higher education institution, is granted by the Ministry after the licensing procedure. The licence determines: the type of institution, study programs, the maximum number of students who can enrol in study programs for all cycles and types of studies, as well as degrees or diplomas that a higher education institution can award.  

Financial operation

Profit-making: Private higher education institutions are financed from their own income, collected tuition fees and funds from other sources. Making a profit is not explicitly prohibited, but it is stated that all funds must be acquired and spent in accordance with the law and provided that it does not jeopardize the basic registered activity. 

Taxes and subsidies: No information was found. 

Quality of teaching and learning

Curriculum and education standards: Studies at a higher education institution (state and non-state) are conducted according to the curriculum adopted by the Senate of the institution in the manner and according to the procedure established by the statute of the institution. The higher education institution / organizational unit is obliged to adopt and continuously adjust the curricula so that the learning outcomes are defined and harmonized with the generic descriptors of qualification levels contained in the Decision on the adoption of the basics of the qualification framework in Bosnia and Herzegovina. 

The curriculum determines the subjects and their names, subject status, subject codes, number of ECTS credits and the total number of hours of lectures, exercises and other mandatory forms of teaching. The curriculum determines: the holder of the program, the goal of the program (knowledge, skills and competencies), the goal and learning outcomes, the content of the subject, the way of teaching, the way of evaluating knowledge, taking exams and other forms of knowledge testing, literature (compulsory and supplementary) the basis of which is the preparation for taking the exam and testing the knowledge of that subject. 

Teaching profession: The higher education institution awards academic titles that can be scientific-teaching, artistic-teaching, teaching and artistic. Academic staff at a higher education institution (both in state and private non-state institutions) is elected for a certain election period. An assistant is elected for a period of four years without the possibility of re-election, a senior assistant for a period of five years with the possibility of one re-election only if he achieves the degree of the third cycle of studies. A senior assistant in the art teaching profession is elected for a period of five years with the possibility of one re-election only if after the election he/she achieves publicly presented forms of artistic creation in accordance with the statute of the higher education institution. The lecturer is elected for a period of five years without the possibility of re-election, the assistant professor for a period of five years with the possibility of one re-election, and the associate professor for a period of six years with the possibility of one re-election. A full professor is elected permanently, with the obligation to achieve additional results in teaching and scientific research work in cycles of five years, which are precisely determined by the statute as well as their verification or evaluation. 

Equitable access

Fee-setting: Fee-setting is not specified by law. There are no specific policies that would determine the quota of students from a particular group that must be admitted. 

Admission selection and processes: Admission and enrollment in the first academic year is based on the final results of the public competition. Citizens of Bosnia and Herzegovina who have completed a four-year secondary education have the right to participate in the public competition. Foreign citizens with acquired appropriate secondary education have the right to participate in the public competition, in accordance with the law, conventions and interstate agreements that bind Bosnia and Herzegovina in the manner and under the conditions determined by law. The competition for enrollment of students in the first academic year at a private higher education institution, which is published with the prior consent of the Ministry, with financial elements, must contain the number of students in all statuses. The law prohibits discrimination against students on any grounds when enrolling in higher education institutions. Non-state institutions have the autonomy to establish their own admission process if it is such that it does not violate the law. 

Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability

Board: The board of directors of a higher education institution as an institution has between seven and 11 members, of which at least one third is appointed by the founder, and other members are appointed by the senate of the higher education institution. Members of the senate, the head of the higher education institution / organizational unit and the vice-rectors cannot be members of the board of directors. Sessions of the Board of Directors are attended by the Rector and Vice-Rectors without the right to decide. 

The Board of Directors gives an opinion on the statute of the higher education institution, adopts the rulebook on the work of the higher education institution, the rectorate and organizational units and other general acts in accordance with the law and the statute of the higher education institution. The Board of Directors decides on the complaints or appeals of employees against the decisions of the bodies of the higher education institution / organizational unit that in the first instance decided on the rights, obligations and responsibilities of employees from employment. The Board of Directors determines the plans for financing and development of the higher education institution, adopts the annual work program of the higher education institution, at the proposal of the senate of the higher education institution and monitors its implementation. They submit a six-month and annual report to the founder on the work with a report on the financial operations of the higher education institution. The Board of Directors directs, controls and evaluates the work of the head of the higher education institution / organizational unit in the field of financial operations and takes the necessary measures and activities to ensure the legality of the financial and overall operations of the higher education institution. They decide on the use of funds beyond the amount available to the head of the higher education institution / organizational unit, which is determined by the statute of the higher education institution.  

Reporting requirements: Private higher education institutions are obliged to respect the law and work in accordance with the law. It is prescribed that they must have internal quality control, but it is left to them to determine how they will implement it. Private institutions (as well as state ones) are subject to an inspection carried out by the competent Education Inspectorate, and are obliged to provide the inspection with uninterrupted work and access to the documentation they need. The inspection determines whether the law and prescribed norms are being violated or complied with, and submits a report to the ministry, which imposes measures if necessary. The financial work of private higher education institutions is not public and transparent. When announcing a public competition for student enrolment, private institutions are obliged to publish a notice of the competition in the daily newspaper, with the prior consent of the relevant ministry no later than two months before the beginning of the academic year. Private institutions are also obliged to announce a public competition for employment and publish it in a daily newspaper. 

Inspection: The Senate has the responsibility for academic issues in a higher education institution as the highest academic body consisting of representatives of academic staff or research staff employed at the higher education institution / organizational unit, as well as representatives of academic staff employed in institutions representing the teaching base, and student representatives, as precisely regulated by the statute. 

Supervision over the implementation of the law on higher education and regulations adopted for its implementation at higher education institutions is performed by the Ministry in the manner prescribed by law. In performing supervision, the Ministry may, in order to determine the relevant facts and circumstances in each specific case, request the competent inspection to carry out actions in accordance with the law and provide information on the established situation and measures taken. This is done every four years or more often as needed. 

Assessment: A student has the right and obligation to study according to the adopted and approved study rules and curriculum and to be examined and evaluated in accordance with rules that are transparent, fair and accessible to every student. The student has the obligation to adhere to the rules of study prescribed by the higher education institution and to fulfil the teaching and other obligations of the student. The student should also show respect for the rights of academic and non-academic staff, as well as the rights of other students in the higher education institution, and properly perform their study obligations and participate in academic activities, as well as respect house rules, code of ethics and code of conduct and dress. The statute of the higher education institution regulates more precisely: the procedure of disciplinary responsibility of the student, serious and minor violations of obligations, disciplinary bodies, the procedure for determining the responsibility of the student and other relevant issues. 

Diplomas and degrees: If a private higher education institution is recognized by the ministry and operates in accordance with the law, the diplomas it issues are valid as those in public educational institutions. 

Sanctions on institutional closures: A higher education institution that terminates its work is obliged to provide funds for the completion of studies, at another appropriately accredited higher education institution, for all students who are enrolled before making a decision on termination of work at the study price indicated in the study. 

3.2 Supplementary private tutoring

There is little to no data and research when it comes to private tuition in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The latest research we found was conducted in 2010. Data are qualitative and were collected through 27 interviews with respondents from relevant institutions. The findings showed that there is a developed market for private tuition in Bosnia and Herzegovina, which is not regulated in any way. Tuition is significantly present at all levels of education, with the least presence in higher education. 

The service providers are usually teachers, then students and professionals from a certain field (mechanical engineers, electrical engineers, etc.). The identified causes of private tuition are primarily educational in nature and then social and economic. Insufficiently trained and educated teachers and problems related to inadequate curriculum, textbooks and lack of standards are at the top of the hierarchy of causes, followed by dissatisfaction of teachers with their economic and social status, changes in social values and the so-called bad parenting. 

There is no quantitative data on private tuition. 


No information was found.  

Financial operation and quality

No information was found.  

Teaching profession

No information was found.

Dernière modification:

jeu 02/12/2021 - 18:37