NON-STATE ACTORS IN EDUCATION
2.2 Non-state education provision
3.1 Regulations by distinct levels of education
- Early childhood care and education (Entry/Establishment ○ Financial operation ○ Quality of teaching and learning ○ Equitable access ○ Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability)
- Primary and secondary education (Entry/Establishment ○ Financial operation ○ Quality of teaching and learning ○ Equitable access ○ Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability)
- Tertiary education ( Financial operation ○ Equitable access )
3.3 Supplementary private tutoring
The Education Act 2028 (1971, as amended in 2017) which governs education from early childhood to upper secondary in Nepal, distinguishes between “community schools” and “institutional schools”, the latter of which are defined as “schools that have obtained approval or permission for operation on condition that they are not receiving regular grants from Government of Nepal”. While non-state actors are not specifically defined, the Act refers to companies, educational trusts, communities, and social, welfare or charitable institutions as various non-state actors operating within Nepal’s education system. The Higher Secondary Education Act 2046 (1989, as amended in 2006) additionally refers to “individuals or organizations”. The Companies Act 2063 (2006), which non-state educational institutions from primary level to higher education are required to be incorporated under, distinguishes between a “private company” and a “company not distributing profits” which may both be established by a “person desirous of incorporating a company”, that “shall be an autonomous and corporate body with perpetual succession”.
2.1 State education provision
Most education (81% of schools and enrolment) at primary (5 years, ages 5 – 9) and secondary level (7 years, ages 10 – 17) in Nepal is provided by state schools (renamed “community schools” in 2001). According to Article 31(2) of the Constitution of Nepal 2015 and the Act Relating to Compulsory and Free Education, 2075 (2018), the state is obliged to provide free and compulsory education to every child “up to the basic level” (primary and lower secondary, ages 5 – 12) and free education up to the secondary level (4 years, ages 13 – 16). The share of non-state schools in comparison to state schools increases at lower secondary (27.3%), secondary (33.7%), and higher secondary (27.9%) education levels. State schools are mainly funded by the government, with additional support from Village Development Committees, District Education Offices, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and local communities.
In addition to regular state schools, the government of Nepal has established mobile schools for migratory communities in the Himalayan districts where extreme climatic conditions do not allow for permanent settlement.
Non-state managed, state schools
Community schools (which have historically formed part of the network of state education in Nepal) are established by local communities in state-owned lands and buildings and are funded primarily through regular state grants to cover operational costs (in addition to financial assistance from the Village Development Committee and Municipality and individual or community contributions). While these schools are considered “public” in ownership and funding, they have a devolved management structure as they are directly operated and managed by local communities through School Management Committees, which consist of elected community representatives, teachers, and parents. These schools can mainly be categorized into three types, “community-aided”, “community-managed”, and “community-unaided” schools. Community-aided schools are fully supported by the government for operational costs, provision of teachers, and teacher salaries, whereas community-managed schools are fully responsible for their management, having applied to become formally devolved to their communities and managed by local bodies or management committees. Finally, community-unaided schools receive partial or no support from the government (which usually provides a grant for teacher salaries). All community schools are provided with free textbooks, scholarships, and per capita funding for teachers by the Government of Nepal and remain free at primary and lower secondary level. Secondary and higher secondary education levels may charge admission and tuition fees, but not to Dalits, Janjati, and girls below the poverty line (as recommended by the Village Education Committee).
Community schools in Nepal may also provide mother-tongue education in accordance with the right of every community in Nepal to “acquire education up to the basic level or secondary level in his or her mother tongue”. These schools, which are strongly encouraged by the government of Nepal, are similarly operated and managed by local communities with the assistance of the government and established according to need.
Non-state funded, state schools
No information was found.
2.2 Non-state education provision
Independent, non-state schools
Institutional schools are independent non-state schools that can be established by for-profit, not-for-profit, faith-based, or community-based organizations and have a 26% overall student enrolment in primary to higher secondary level. These schools do not receive any government grants and are financed through monthly tuition fees and trustees. Institutional schools are mainly classified into two categories: company schools (for-profit private schools registered under the Companies Act 2063) and trust schools (operating as non-profit entities with limited state assistance and managed by a public or private board of trustees). Trust schools can be further categorized into ‘private trust schools’ and ‘public trust schools’, the latter of which are owned and managed by a public board of trustees and have Ministry of Education representation in their management boards. In private trust schools, the land and buildings are owned and managed by private investors. The majority of institutional schools in Nepal are registered as for-profit company schools and are highly concentrated in urban areas. These schools use English as their medium of instruction (catering to an increasing demand for English instruction by parents and communities), while their curriculum is required to be approved by the government. Trust schools on the hand are the minority, and are mainly located in rural areas. The Kathmandu district has the highest share of institutional schools in Nepal (accounting for over 70% of all schools and enrolments), followed by the Tarai region (42%) and Hilly region (28%). Besides having a broad range in profit-orientation, institutional schools may also range from low-fee to high-fee institutions.
While not distinguished in official statistics, low-fee private schools educate a significant number of the population in Nepal (with a single low-fee private school chain catering to nearly 70,000 students). These schools charge an average of 100 NPR (0.83 USD) per month for tuition fees and cater to relatively lower-income households compared to high-fee institutions.
International schools are independent non-state schools that are classified into schools affiliated with foreign educational institutions and schools operated by diplomatic missions. Schools which are affiliated with foreign educational institutions provide education programs such as the International Baccalaureate (IB) and Cambridge programs and are closely regulated by the Government of Nepal, while those that are operated by diplomatic missions (through a formal agreement with the Government of Nepal) are not regulated by the government and do not follow the national curriculum. 30 Cambridge international schools were found to be operating in Nepal, and only three IB schools. All international schools use English as their language of instruction, with some operating in Nepali language as well.
State funded (government-aided), non-state schools
Religious schools also operate independently from the state in Nepal in the provision of primary and lower secondary education, with a significant majority (94%) of schools at primary level. Religious schools are run by various religious organizations and include Madrassas (Islamic), Gumbas (Buddhist) and Gurukuls (Hindu), of which Madrassas have the highest enrolment and institution numbers based on 2017 data gathered by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (81% of schools, compared to 10% Gumbas and 9% Gurukuls). Since 2008, the Government of Nepal has implemented education policies to “mainstream” these schools, which may become eligible for state grants if they register under District Education Offices and follow the national curriculum or government-approved textbooks. According to the Act Relating to Compulsory and Free Education, 2075 (2018), the government strongly encourages traditional education in Nepal “in order to preserve and protect the values, norms, culture, custom and practices related to education since the ancient time”.
Contracted non-state schools
No information was found.
2.3 Other types of schools
While there is no legal provision on homeschooling in Nepal, the Act Relating to Compulsory and Free Education, 2075 (2018) states that if any child cannot attend school during the compulsory education levels due to economic, physical, geographic, or mental condition, provisions may be made for them to attend a “boarding school” or “alternative education” system.
During the COVID-19 school closures in 2020, the government of Nepal aimed to continue the education of all students at primary and secondary level through distance learning methods such as the government’s online learning portal (for students who have internet access), TV and radio programs (for students who do not have internet access, but have access to a TV and/or radio), and the distribution of printed learning packs (for students who do not have access to either of the aforementioned media). Students with additional needs (defined as students with physical or mental disabilities or children from marginalized or poorer communities), were provided with tailored packages.
Market contracted (Voucher schools)
No information was found.
The number of institutional schools in Nepal is underestimated in official government statistics, as they do not account for a large market of unregistered institutional schools in many districts which do not provide any annual data. Siraha has one of the highest number of unregistered schools in the country. In 2014, the District Education Office estimated that approximately 260 schools were operating without government permission. In 2017, there were over 150 unregistered schools estimated to be operating in Rautahat (compared to 37 institutional schools in official government data). These schools also operate at early childhood education level, with the majority of preschools in Kathmandu operating as unregistered entities.
The country also has a large number of unregistered madrassas, Buddhist and Hindu schools due to operators wanting to avoid government auditing and following the national curriculum. According to the Centre of Education and Human Resource Development, approximately 2,500 to 3,000 full-time madrassas operate unregistered from the Ministry of Education and Training, compared to 911 madrassas registered with district education officers.
The Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (MoET) oversees the overall development of both state and non-state education from early childhood to secondary level in Nepal, with an established Department for Education responsible for implementing national education plans and policies at primary and secondary education levels. The Higher Secondary Education Board supervises both state and non-state upper secondary education, while Village Development Committees are responsible for overseeing non-state early childhood care and education centers, while non-state tertiary education institutions are registered as companies and do not operate under the Ministry of Education or University Grants Commission (UGC). There was no separate department or agency found that is exclusively responsible for non-state provision and regulation at any education level.
The Constitution adopted in 2015 established a federal government structure in Nepal, in which local level governments became primarily responsible for the operation and management of education. Specifically, Regional Education Directorates are responsible for each development region and District Education Offices have been established in each district to directly supervise and manage both state and non-state schools within their jurisdiction, as well as directly implement national education policies and laws.
Vision: Non-state education provision has been traditionally encouraged by the government of Nepal, particularly in assisting the state in reaching underserved areas and populations at secondary and tertiary levels. The School Sector Development Plan 2016/17 - 2022/23 specifically aims to “mobilize non-government and private actors in underserved areas” in addition to “strengthening public and private partnerships in secondary education, and to ensure adequate access to education for disadvantaged and excluded populations”. However, while these institutions have traditionally been allowed to operate either as businesses (with profit motives) or trusts (non-profit entities), the Eighth Amendment to the Education Act (2016) aims to limit this, by disallowing new schools to be established as for-profit companies. This principle is equally reflected in the National Education Policy 2019, that defines one of the country’s problems and challenges in education as “the private sector schools being profit-oriented, rather than service-oriented". The policy aims to enhance the quality of state education and “effectively implement Constitutionally-granted fundamental rights” in education. This includes “effectively regulating schools of private investment by the local government based on the standards and procedures formulated by the local government” and introducing provisions that will ensure schools remain “service-oriented" and take corporate social responsibility. To achieve this goal, the High Level National Education Commission Report for Reforming Higher Education and School Level Education issued in 2019 suggests that all institutional schools in Nepal be converted from for-profit companies to non-profit trusts as part of the government’s plan to “stop commercialization of education” and be closer in line with the Constitution of Nepal 2015 and the Act Relating to Compulsory and Free Education, 2075 (2018).
3.1 Regulations by distinct levels of education
Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) in Nepal is categorized as education and care before the age of five and is the education level with the highest involvement in non-state actors and provision (36.6%). The Education Act, 2028 (1971) distinguishes between two types of ECCE provision in the country: pre-primary (for children aged 4-5 as a downward extension of primary education) and child development centers (aimed at children below the age of 4). However, the Strategy for Early Childhood Development in Nepal (2004) suggests that not all ECCE centers operate based on this prescribed format, and most cater to children aged 3-5 (with small variations depending on type). Children below the age of three are mainly cared for and educated by parents or guardians and counselors.
Registration and approval: For a non-state organization (usually NGOs, INGOs, or local organizations) to establish a pre-primary or child development centre, an application must be submitted at least two months prior to the start of the academic year to the concerned Village Development Committee or Municipality based on the prescribed format provided in the Education Rules, 2059 (2002) (last amended in 2016). An inquiry is then made by the Committee or Municipality, which grant the applicant approval to open the centre if all the prescribed standards have been met, which include standards in infrastructure (building, space), health and sanitation, and curriculum.
License: The Village Development Committee or Municipality are responsible for granting the official license to open an ECCE centre in Nepal. This license may be revoked if the centre is found to have breached the Education Rules, 2059 (2002) in any way.
Profit-making: No information was found.
Taxes and subsidies: According to the Education Rules, 2059 (2002), the Government of Nepal may provide state grants to ECCE centers to cover establishment and facilitator costs upon prior recommendation from the District Education Officer. Moreover, subsidies are provided for ECCE facilitator salaries in centers operating within vulnerable and disadvantaged communities.
Quality of teaching and learning
Curriculum and education standards: Any curriculum adopted by non-state ECCE centres must be officially approved by the Curriculum Development Centre (operating under the Government of Nepal). Centers should overall aim for holistic (physical, mental, social, emotional) child development through activity-based creative learning, as well as preparing the children for entry into formal schooling.
Teaching profession: Teachers employed in non-state ECCE centres are required to meet the minimum qualifications set out in the Education Rules, 2059 (2002) and receive basic training through district-level training programs organized by the Department for Education.
Fee-setting: Non-state ECCE centres all share overall operation costs with parents by charging tuition fees, but no particular fee-setting regulation was found.
Admission selection and processes: See Multi-level regulations.
Policies for vulnerable groups: See Multi-level regulations.
Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability
Reporting requirements: While there are various external quality assurance mechanisms in place, there was no information found on ECCE centers submitting reports to local authorities on a regular basis. Municipalities are responsible for providing updated records on ECCE aged children and submitting them to the respective District Education Office.
Inspection: The District Education Officer is responsible for carrying out regular inspections on whether ECCE centers are operating according to the Education Rules, 2059 (2002) and Education Act, 2028 (1971). Moreover, at the community level, ECCE Management Committees are responsible for monitoring the daily activities of all ECCE centers through regular visits and observations. The Focal Person then collects the reports of all ECCE Management Committees every 6 months and submits a report to the District Education Officer.
Child assessment: The facilitators of each ECCE center are required to monitor children’s progress on a regular basis through keeping portfolios and any other record keeping mechanism, while local health authorities monitor the health and nutrition status of the children.
Sanctions: If any ECCE center is found to be in breach of the prescribed standards, the District Education Officer has the authority to revoke the institution’s license and close the center down (as a final measure).
Registration and approval: The Government of Nepal allows not-for-profit, community, and faith-based organizations to establish non-state independent schools in Nepal. Based on the Education Act, 2028 (1971), if any of these actors intends to open a primary or secondary school, an application must be submitted to the Government of Nepal or the prescribed official (along with a letter of recommendation from the concerned District Education Office). If the applicant wishes to establish an institutional school at higher secondary level, an application must be additionally made to be affiliated with the Higher Secondary Education Council. All applications must be made at least 3 months prior to the start of the academic year, meeting the required standards set out in the Education Rules, 2059 (2002), which include minimum infrastructure requirements in land, classroom, space, student-teacher ratio, and toilets separated by sex. Registration fees may be required for all schools besides community or institutional schools that are established as Educational Trusts. While schools were originally allowed to be established as companies (for-profit) under the Companies Act 2063, the Eighth Amendment Bill of the Education Act prohibited institutional schools from being established as companies, requiring them to be opened as an educational trust (guthi) under the Guthi Sansthan (Trust Corporation). Schools run as Educational Trusts must state whether they will be run as a public or private trust (the latter of which is more independent and less assisted by the state). To establish a school affiliated with a foreign educational institution, a prior agreement must be made with the Government of Nepal and the application must be submitted directly to the government.
The law does not require religiously affiliated schools to register, but Islamic, Buddhist and Hindu schools must register as religious educational institutions with their local District Education Office (under the MoET) and provide information on their funding sources in order to receive same levels of funding with secular state/community schools. Catholic and Protestant groups must register as NGOs to operate institutional schools. Muslim, Hindu and Buddhist groups may also register as NGOs to operate private schools, but they will not be eligible to receive government funding.
License: One an application is received and an investigation has been made by the government or District Education Officer, the Government of Nepal or District Education Officer shall grant the applicant approval and the license to open the school (if the required conditions are met).
Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH): Based on Section 35(4) of the Constitution of Nepal (2015), “every citizen shall have the right of access to clean drinking water and sanitation”. The Education Rules, 2059 (2002) additionally state that there must be sufficient clean drinking water and clean toilets in each institutional school (separated by sex), which will be inspected prior to the school’s registration and monitored by each prescribed official.
Profit-making: According to the Education Act, 2028 (1971), schools registered as Companies can operate for-profit, whereas schools registered as Educational Trusts are prohibited from being for-profit, with all their income maintained in a prescribed format and recognized by an official auditor. The Act additionally states that any social, welfare, or charitable institutions operating institutional schools are required to be under a public educational trust and not-for-profit. However, the Eighth Amendment Bill (2016) of the Education Act prohibited the establishment of company schools, requiring all new schools to be established as non-profit entities. Existing company schools could change their status to a public or private trust voluntarily. This recommendation is also outlined in the the Act Relating to Compulsory and Free Education, 2075 (2018), which states that “any school with private investment shall operate early childhood development and basic education to make it service-oriented and public welfare”. However, in both laws, the conversion is not made mandatory. In 2019, the High-Level National Education Commission released a report stating that all institutional schools established as for-profit companies should be converted into non-profit trusts in order to “stop the commercialization of education” during these basic levels. According to the report, the process of transformation of institutional schools from a profit model to a non-profit model will commence in 2022, after which the schools concerned will be given 10 years to convert into trusts. The commission argues that this recommendation needs to be taken seriously because the manner in which many institutional schools are operating (as profit-making entities) is against the Constitution of Nepal 2015 and the Act Relating to Compulsory and Free Education, 2075 (2018).
Taxes and subsidies: Schools registered as Educational Trusts are not required to pay any registration fees, while some are eligible to receive state land grants. Trust schools receive additional state support through the funding of merit-based scholarships, while religious schools may become eligible for state grants if they choose to follow the national curriculum or government-approved textbooks. If Hindu, Islamic, and Buddhist religious schools are registered as religious educational institutions under the MoET, they become eligible to receive government funding. Religious schools are not eligible for government funding if they are registered as NGOs. In addition to state funding, the government encourages any other private individual, organization, or institution to provide financial and technical support to schools established on a non-profit basis during primary and secondary levels which fall under “compulsory education”.
Quality of teaching and learning
Curriculum and education standards: Institutional schools must follow a government-approved curriculum and subjects, approved by the Government of Nepal through the Curriculum Development Centre, and additionally approved by the Higher Secondary Education Council if operating at higher secondary level. Schools can apply to the District Education Office to teach additional subjects. The language of instruction in all schools must be either the Nepali language, the English language, or both languages. Religious schools are not required to follow the national curriculum, but may become eligible for government subsidies if they register with the MoET and follow the approved curriculum. The National Education Policy 2019 aims to prepare a uniform outline in regards to curriculum and textbooks for all types of schools established and run in Nepal.
Textbooks and learning materials: All textbooks used by institutional schools must be pre-approved by the Government of Nepal and be in line with the country’s textbook policy, while any additional books used must be approved by the Curriculum Development Centre. According to the Education Rules, 2059 (2002), no content taught in institutional schools must undermine the nationality of Nepal. Religious schools are incentivized to follow government-approved textbooks through funding.
Teaching profession: Based on the Education Act, 2028 (1971), all teachers employed in institutional schools must have obtained a teaching license from the Teacher Service Commission (appointed by the Government of Nepal) and have obtained the prescribed qualifications (which are the same for teachers in state and non-state schools). The Committee is additionally responsible for approving the teacher salary, which must not be less than the minimum scale provided by the government. Institutional schools have the authority to dismiss teachers without any review from the district or central education authorities, while district authorities may terminate a teacher’s position in the school if that teacher is discovered to be working without the required teaching license. The conditions of service of teachers in state schools (including remuneration, allowances, leave, pension, and other benefits) are regulated separately to institutional schools in the Education Rules, 2059 (2002), with institutional schools explicitly not covered under these provisions. However, the National Education Policy 2019 aims to regulate all teachers’ service conditions in institutional schools.
Corporal punishment: According to Sections 7(5), 66(2)(d) and 67 (1) of the Act relating to Children in 2018, all corporal punishment is prohibited in primary and secondary schools in Nepal.
Fee-setting: Institutional schools are required to submit their fee structure to the District Education Officer, which must pre-approve any fees to be charged by the school. A Central Committee on Fees Management and Monitoring has additionally been established in the Education Rules, 2059 (2002), which is responsible for monitoring the determined fees. Institutional schools can be divided into four basic categories (A,B,C and D) according to educational services and infrastructure provided. According to their respective category, schools can determine the fees to be charged, which is based on their infrastructure and extra-curricular activities provided on school premises. However, all fees must be limited within the given range. If any additional fees are found to be collected without the prior approval of the prescribed authority, these fees will be immediately returned to the students and the school shall be fined up to 25,000 INR (340 USD).
Admission selection and processes: See Multi-level regulations.
Policies for vulnerable groups: According to the Education Act, 2028 (1971), all institutional schools are required to provide free scholarships to at least 10% of enrolled students in the school which are below the poverty line, or mentally or physically disabled. Students “below the poverty line” are defined in the Education Rules, 2059 (2002) as Dalit students, ethnic communities, and others which may be recommended by the Village Development Committee or concerned Municipality. Article 40(2) of the Constitution of Nepal (2015) additionally states that Dalit students shall be provided with free education scholarships by law from primary to higher secondary education. All institutional schools are required to form a Scholarship Selection Committee which will be responsible for selecting the students to receive each scholarship.
Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability
School board: All institutional schools are required to establish a School Management Committee to oversee daily management of the school and implement the government-approved curriculum and textbooks. School Management Committees must be comprised of parents, (2, with at least one woman), one teacher, one person nominated by the District Education Office, one local intellectual or education specialist, and the headmaster. Public trust schools additionally have a Ministry of Education representative in their board of management.
Reporting requirements: The Supervisor of each institutional school is required to monitor the school’s academic and staff performance each month and submit a report to Village Development Committee and District Education Officer. Moreover, all schools must keep detailed records of their income and expenditure (to be inspected at any time by the District Education Officer). The National Education Policy 2019 aims to introduce a provision for maintaining transparency in income and expenditures in institutional schools, through an online-based accounting system for these schools.
School inspection: The District Education Officer is responsible for monitoring whether institutional schools are being run based on the prescribed standards and laws set out in the Education Act, 2028 (1971) and Education Rules, 2059 (2002) through regular school inspections. Details of the inspection report carried out by the District Education Officer are forwarded to the Regional Directorate every 2 months, including details on how to improve the quality of education provided in each school.
Student assessment: Students in institutional schools sit for the same board examinations as students in state schools.
Diplomas and degrees: For a student to be admitted to an institutional school (or transition to the next education level), the necessary certificates and examinations must be submitted to the school. These include the Primary School Leaving Examination Certificate for admission to lower secondary, the School Leaving Certificate Examination for admission to higher secondary, and any annual examination and transfer certificate for admission to all other classes. No student shall be admitted to an institutional school without the required certificate or without having passed the annual examinations.
Sanctions: If any institutional school does not submit the required monthly report, the District Education Officer may impose fines or even cancel the school’s registration (as a final measure). Moreover, the District Education Officer has the authority to close a school down (with the approval of the District Education Committee) if found to be in breach of any of the rules during the inspection. Finally, if a school that is affiliated with a foreign educational institution is operating without the required permission, the government has the authority to close the school down.
Tertiary education in Nepal consists of 11 state universities and various affiliated campuses. Non-state or private tertiary education institutions can only be established as affiliated campuses to universities, through which universities give them the authority to offer university programs. Based on 2018/19 data published by the UGC, the majority (52.15%) of affiliated campuses are private and offering Bachelor’s- degrees, with a 36.56% share of total student enrolment.
While the Ministry of Education and UGC have overall authority of higher education in Nepal, private campuses operate almost entirely independently as registered companies.
Registration and approval: To establish a private campus and be affiliated with a state university, private individuals, organizations or groups must make an application to be registered under the Companies Act 2063 (2006) with the Companies Registrar Office (set up by the Government of Nepal). The application must be based on the prescribed format provided by the Act and be accompanied with the required documents and registration fee.
License: Based on the application received and inquires made by the Companies Registrar Office, the company will be granted a registration certificate by the Office within 15 days of the day the application was filed.
Profit-making: As private campuses are established and registered as companies under the Companies Act 2063 (2006) of Nepal, they are allowed to operate for-profit without any restrictions from the Ministry of Education, UGC, or their affiliated universities.
Taxes and subsidies: No information was found.
Quality of teaching and learning
Curriculum and education standards: Private campuses depend on their affiliated universities for any programs offered, with the ability to be affiliated with different universities and offer a variety of programs.
Teaching profession: The Campus Management Committee of each private campus is responsible for hiring and managing any staff employed at the institution.
Fee-setting: Private campuses almost exclusively depend on fees for their operation and development, and have full autonomy on setting and managing these fees, with no regulation or monitoring from their affiliated university, the Ministry of Education or University Grants Commission.
Admission selection and processes: No information was found.
Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability
Board: Private campuses have almost full management autonomy through an established Campus Management Committee which is responsible for overall campus management and operation. This Committee mainly consists of investors and must be approved by the Vice Chancellor of the affiliated university.
Reportung requirements: Private campuses are required to pay affiliation fees to the universities, in addition to submitting reports on program activities, examination results, and student enrolment to their affiliated universities. There is no accountability mechanism in place towards the UGC or the Ministry of Education.
Inspection: While private campuses are considered the main responsibility of their affiliated universities, they are not monitored by these universities or by the Ministry of Education. There is no regulative or policy framework for their quality assurance other than the requirements for registration and taxes based on the Companies Act. These campuses have almost full managerial autonomy and only depend on their affiliating universities for program affiliation, the academic calendar, examinations and certifications. The UGC only monitors universities and community campuses which receive government funding, with no strategy for monitoring private campuses. The university with which each campus is affiliated is responsible for monitoring their academic programs, examination records, and student enrollment, with no specific information on regular inspections found.
Assessment: Private campuses administer examinations based on their affiliated universities, depending on them for examination administration and any other student assessments.
Diplomas and degrees: Private campuses depend on their affiliated universities for program affiliation, certification, and examinations.
Sanctions: No information was found.
3.2 Multi-level regulations
This section covers regulations for non-state educational institutions from early childhood to upper secondary level in Nepal, which are covered under the Act Relating to Compulsory and Free Education, 2075 (2018).
Profit-making: According to the The Act Relating to Compulsory and Free Education, 2075 (2018), any educational institution which operates at ECCE to secondary level as a company is required to be “service-oriented” and working towards “public welfare”.
Admission selection and processes: All non-state schools and ECCE centres in Nepal (irrespective of whether they are registered as companies or trusts) are required to make reservation for seats (at a 10-15% rate of their total admissions, depending on the number of students enrolled) to provide free education (up to Grade 12) to “qualified and capable children” from disadvantaged groups such Dalit citizens, children with disabilities, economically disadvantaged students, and out-of-school children.
Policies for vulnerable groups: Dalit students, students with disabilities, out-of-school children, and children who are economically disadvantaged have special rights to acquire free education and be provided with scholarships at state and non-state schools and ECCE centres. The Act Relating to Compulsory and Free Education, 2075 (2018) additionally stipulates that these students may acquire scholarships for free study for the grades higher than the ones which they have received free education for.
3.3 Supplementary private tutoring
The private tuition industry appears to be quite extensive in Nepal, with approximately half of students in both community (49%) and institutional schools (51%) found to be receiving private tutoring classes based on a study conducted in 2013. The types of private tuition classes conducted in Nepal are one-on-one, small groups, or private tutoring centers, with a growing trend of private tutoring in residential hostels (run by both community and institutional schools). Whereas teachers appear to be allowed to offer these additional tuition classes to students, there were no regulations or official sources found regarding the private tuition industry in Nepal. The Education Act, 2028 (1971) only briefly mentions that the government of Nepal may frame rules regarding “coaching class, language teaching class and teachers training class operated in private sector”, specifically regulating the operation of “additional classes” provided in community or institutional schools.
The Education Act 2028 (1971) mentions that government permission is required for “coaching class, language teaching class and teachers training class operated in private sector”. According to the Education Rules 2059, if any community of institutional school wants to provide “additional classes”, an application must be submitted to the District Education Officer, which must fulfil the minimum requirements in infrastructure and fees. The government has made it mandatory for all coaching and private tuition centres to also gain permission from the District Education Office, aiming to bring these institutions under increasing legal parameters. Upon registration, coaching centres are required to deposit Rs 50,000 (418 USD) and tuition centres Rs 15,000 (125 USD) to the government.
Financial operation and quality
Any coaching centres, tuition centres, and additional classes provided in community or institutional schools must meet the minimum requirements in fees set by the government and monitoring by each District Education Officer (which must approve any fees charged). Moreover, all centres are required to reserve 5% of their seats for disabled, women, and dalits, which must be provided with free services.
Teachers are allowed to provide private tutoring, which is often organized by the schools themselves.