- Early childhood care and education (Entry/Establishment ○ Financial operation ○ Quality of teaching and learning ○ Equitable access ○ Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability)
- Primary and secondary education (Entry/Establishment ○ Financial operation ○ Quality of teaching and learning ○ Equitable access ○ Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability)
- Tertiary education (Entry/Establishment ○ Financial operation ○ Quality of teaching and learning ○ Equitable access ○ Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability)
The Registration of Private Schools Ordinance 1962 defines private schools from ECCE to secondary education as an institution which is “run by a person or body of persons, not being the Government or a local council for the purpose of imparting organized instruction to ten or more children at a time” (Article 2. Definitions). The regulation does not include any institution which has been recognized by the government or a Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education or other prescribed authority.” No private school shall be established or run except in accordance with the provisions of this Ordinance.
In tertiary education, the Private University Act 2010 provides the legal framework for private universities and states that any person, body of persons or philanthropic organizations can establish an institution, and in 2010 under the Foreign university, its branches or study centres operating Rule 2014, foreign universities, their branches and joint venture initiatives with local universities or investors could establish institutions.
With one of the largest education systems in the world, Bangladesh has 25 types of primary schools with a range of ownership, management and financing. The structure of education system in Bangladesh consists of 5 years of primary education (grades 1– 5), 3 years of junior (or lower) secondary education (grades 6–8), 2 years of secondary education (grades 9–10), and 2 years of senior or higher secondary education (grades 11–12). From the last year of pre-primary education until the end of primary education, state or government schools are free and compulsory. Slightly less than half of primary schools are state schools which are owned, financed and operated by the government, and include three types of schools: government primary schools (GPS, 38,916 schools), newly nationalized primary schools (NNPS, 26,613 schools) and experimental schools (64 schools). Newly Nationalized Primary Schools (NNPS) were once privately established and categorized as registered non-government primary schools (RNGPS, 280 schools), but since 2013 RNGPS have been nationalized, and NNPS will be categorized as GPS.
Non-state managed, state schools
There are few public religious schools in primary and secondary education which are registered and funded by the government (3 schools). They are referred to as Aliya (Alia) madrassas, and they teach both religious and general education which is prescribed by the Madrassa Education Board. However, it is unclear if they are managed by faith-based organizations or the government.
Non-state funded, state schools
No information was found.
Independent, non-state schools
Non-state schools in Bangladesh include non-governmental organization (NGO) schools, non-registered non-government primary schools (NRNGPS), and high school attached primary schools (HSAP). These schools are owned and managed by non-state providers, and typically financed through tuition fees. NGO schools are typically funded by international and national NGOs and/or donors. Secondary education (5 years starting at age 11) is not free or compulsory, and almost all schools (97%) are categorized as non-state education provision, and include for-profit and not-for-profit schools although data at this education level is limited as it is not disaggregated by school type like primary education data.
State-funded (government-aided), non-state schools
Many schools in Bangladesh receive funding from the government, including by receiving support for teachers’ salaries. A small share of primary schools in Bangladesh include registered non-government primary schools (RGNPS), community schools (CS), reaching-out-of-school children (ROSC) project and Shishu Kollyan schools (SK). CS are established and managed by local community, and the government provides stipends for teachers and eligible rural students. Both ROSC and SK schools provide non-formal schooling for out-of school children and for working children in urban areas, and receive funding from the government and donors.
Contracted, non-state schools
No information was found.
Evidence indicates that homeschooling exists but not from official sources. While there were no regulations changes, there were changes in the way that the home learning environment was supported during this time, especially in rural areas where access to television and radio are scarce.
Unrecognized/ unregistered schools
Non-state religious schools are qwami (quomi) madrassas which are owned, operated and funded by private charitable schools and implement a primarily religious curriculum. They offer formal religious Islamic education (madrassah) in primary (Ebtedayee) and secondary (Dakhil, lower secondary, and Alim, upper secondary) education. These are unregistered and independent schools. Due to the limited data, evidence on how these schools are funded is unclear: from unknown funding sources to some funding from the government for teacher stipends and eligible rural students.
Bangladesh education system is governed by the Ministry of Primary and Mass Education (MoPME) which is responsible for pre-primary and primary education, and the Ministry of Education (MoE) which governs secondary education, higher secondary education (grades 11-12), tertiary education and technical and vocational education and training (TVET). Within the ministries are various divisions responsible for education delivery including non-state education provision: within the MoPME are the Directorate of Primary Education and the Bureau of Non-Formal Education (BNFE) work. Under the MoE, post-primary education regulations are the responsibility of the Secondary and Higher Education Division and the Technical and Madrasah Education Division. Tertiary education is coordinated by the MoE and the University Grants Commission (UGC). The Ministry of Women and Children Affairs (MOWCA) oversees early childhood care and development from 0 to eight years old for young children before entering school. Other ministries and government agencies are involved in school management. For example, both state and non-state preschools can be governed by different ministries, including the Ministry of Chittagong Hill Tracts Affairs (which focuses on the socio-economic development of the southeast region of Chittagong Hill Tracts) or the Ministry of Religious Affairs. The Ministry of Social Welfare and the Ministry of Commerce are also responsible for some non-state primary schools. The NGO Affairs Bureau (NGOAB) within the Prime Minister’s Office is responsible for the NGOs operating with foreign assistance and registered under the Foreign Donations in Bangladesh.
At the district and sub-district level, education officials are responsible for supervision and monitoring of the educational institution within their jurisdiction.
Vision: Various key regulations guide Bangladesh’s education system and the role of non-state providers, including the National Education Policy 2010, the government’s five-year plans (the Seventh Five-Year Plan 2016-20 –most recent) and the National Strategy for Accelerated Poverty Reduction (NSAPR) which calls for stronger public-private partnerships. Sub-sector plans also describe the governance of the education levels and non-state actors: the Primary Education Development Programme (PEDP I-IV), Secondary Education Sector Development Project (SESDP) and the Strategic Plan for Higher Education. The Education Act 2020 is being finalized by the government. In Early Childhood Care and Education, the GO-NGO Collaboration is collaborative guideline in the form of public-private partnership for Universal Pre-Primary Education and review of Pre-primary education service delivery standards.
Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) in Bangladesh is generally used to denote day care services, early learning centers and preprimary education for children between 3 and 5 years of age. Non-state institutions comprise around 41 percent of the institutions providing ECE and around 63 percent of the children enrolled in ECE programs attend this institution, which include private preschools and kindergartens, private religious schools, nongovernmental organization (NGO) preschools, community-based schools and for-profit private schools.
Registration and approval: Many preschools are in primary schools, and their guidelines and processes for service delivery (e.g. monitoring process) are linked. However, in the case of establishment the Pre-primary Education Operational Framework (2008) sets the standards for the establishment of Pre-primary Education (PPE) within schools or in a center of at least 250 square feet for a maximum of 30 children per teacher, and the standards for curriculum and learning materials in all types of preschools. Guidelines on the role of NGOs in PPE were established in 2011. In addition, the PPE Expansion Plan of the Directorate of Primary Education (2012) establishes the objectives and strategies to deliver PPE for all types of non-state education providers. The 2021 Day Care Bill establishes the requirement for daycare centers to apply for registration and to be organized in four types; public daycare centers, subsidies daycare centers, daycare centers run by individuals or organizations for commercial purposes, and non-profitable daycare centers run by any individual, organization, non-government organization, associations, corporate sector or industrial sector.
Licence: No information was found.
Profit-making: Bangladesh legislation allows for daycare centers and pre-primary institutions to be established as non-profit or for-profit institutions run by individuals or organizations.
Taxes and subsidies: The Directorate of Primary Education (DPE) is responsible for the printing of Pre-primary Education textbooks and supplementary materials and for their distribution to government and nongovernment schools that use the national curriculum. The government has partnered with NGOs in an effort to promote play-centered PPE in several pilot schools.
Curriculum or learning standards: According to the 2020 World Bank Report The Landscape of Early Childhood Education in Bangladesh, the Early Learning Development Standards (ELDS) were developed to have a set of agreed-upon standards for guiding ECD programs and services and covers 16 areas of child development to be attained through early years learning. Following the development of the Early Learning Development Standards, the Pre-primary Education curriculum is being revised. However, most of the private kindergarten schools do not have any prescribed common curriculum and the authority of the school decides the curriculum for students.
Teaching profession: At present the minimum qualification to work at a pre-primary government school is having a in government schools secondary school certificate and to attend a "Basic Training Course of Preschool Teacher" for 15 days; with the new teacher recruitment policy, the minimum qualification requirements has been raised to bachelor’s degree. No specific minimum teaching qualifications requirements was found for non-state centers.
Fee-setting: No information was found.
Admission selection and processes: No information was found.
Policies for vulnerable groups: In the process of nationalization, government-supported private schools aim to increase the free pre-primary education coverage. Once these schools are nationalized, the students will be absorbed into the government school system.
Reporting requirements: No information was found.
Inspection: The Women and Children Affairs Ministry is responsible for monitoring the daycare centers. According to the 2020 World Bank Report The Landscape of Early Childhood Education in Bangladesh, the Operational Framework for Preprimary Education, sets comprehensive guidelines and provide the basis for supervision checks which are to be conducted as part of regular monitoring. However, at present, private ECD centers remain largely outside the scope of national monitoring and quality assurance efforts.
Child Assessment: No information was found.
Sanctions: According to the 2021 Day Care Bill operating a day-care centers without registration or if the center that fails to maintain proper safety, security or the registration standards is liable to monitory fine, imprisonment or sanctions.
Registration and approval: The Registration of Private Schools Ordinance of 1962 regulates the process for the establishment and registration of non-state schools. It states that any person can establish a private school and must register the school with the “registering authority” which depends on the education level: the Directorate of Primary Education in the case of primary education, the Directorate of Secondary and Higher Education for junior secondary education, and the Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education or other prescribed authority in the case of secondary education. Registered non-state schools follow the government’s regulations on curriculum, fees and teacher qualifications while unregistered non-state schools are not required to do so. The provider must pay a registration fee.
While not a part of the registration process, schools must meet a maximum class size requirement of an average of student-teacher ratio of 30:1 (S.R.O. No-263 from Law of 2011, Art. 15 and 16 of the School-1, Section).
The Primary Education (Taking Over) Act of 1974 introduced the nationalization process of primary schools, and the National Education Policy states that Bangladesh will continue to do so as the “responsibility of primary education cannot be delegated to private or NGO sectors”.
Licence: No information found.
Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH): No information found.
Profit-making: The government allows all of the following provider types to operate a school: community, not-for-profit, faith-based, and for-profit.
Taxes and subsidies: Non-state schools receive textbooks from the government if they use the government approved curriculum which all registered independent non-state schools must implement. Non-state secondary schools and madrasas receive monthly payments from the government to pay teachers salaries.
Curriculum and education standards: Registration of Private Schools Ordinance of 1962, Section 2e–2f ensures non-state schools have autonomy over their curriculum while the National Education Policy 2010 aims to ensure a uniform syllabus and a core curriculum is followed across all state and non-state schools. Specific subjects are outlined, such as Bangla, English, Maths and Bangladesh Studies, among others, and extra subjects to be included would have to be cleared by relevant agency or division.
For religious schools, the Bangladesh Madrassa Education Board is responsible for the approval of madrassas in addition to their curriculum, textbooks, assessments and completion certificates for each of the education levels.
Textbooks and learning materials: All textbooks and education materials are the responsibility of the National Curriculum and Textbook Board (NCTB) which ensures textbooks for all schools.
Teaching profession: Teacher standards vary by non-state provider. The Non-government Teachers’ Registration and Certification Agency (NTRCA) law (2005) establishes an examination and registration system for non-state school teachers although the National Education Policy 2010 (p. 10) suggests a Private Teachers’ Selection Commission, similar to the Public Service Commission for Teachers’ Selection, would establish selection criteria for teachers in non-state schools which are approved and supported by the government, and for madrassahs in primary education. The Recognized Non-Government Secondary School Teachers (Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education, Dhaka) Terms and Conditions of Service Regulations 1979 establishes the criteria and standards for teachers in secondary non-state schools.
Corporal punishment: Corporal punishment is unlawful in schools according to a Supreme Court judgment issued on 13 January 2018, which stated that it violated the Constitutional prohibition of torture and cruel, inhuman, or degrading punishment or treatment.
Other safety measures and Covid-19: The Ministry of Primary and Mass Education (MoPME) and Ministry of Education (MOE) and the support of UNICEF (Coordinating Agency) developed the Bangladesh COVID-19 Response Plan for Education Sector. The Government of Bangladesh (GoB) has taken some \ initiatives to engage school-level students through distant learning mechanisms. Four working groups have been established to develop remote learning content and roll out lessons through Electronic Media Platform, Mobile Platform, Radio Platform, and Internet Platform. Government, Development Partners, and NGO entities are working together in each working group to produce and facilitate remote learning content to reach a maximum number of students.
Fee-setting: The Registration of Private Schools Ordinance of 1962 states that registered schools need to ensure that the fees charged will not be disproportionate to the facilities provided and will not exceed prescribed limits (Section 4-C). In addition to the criteria on establishment of schools, the expected Education Act of 2020 will also aim to include the criteria on operation of non-state education provision.
Admission selection and processes: No information was found.
Policies for vulnerable groups: The government has put in place different types of subsidies and stipends for students, including the Primary Education Stipend Program (PESP) and school feeding program which has increased coverage in recent years.
School board: The Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education, Dhaka (Managing Committee of the Recognised Non-Government Secondary Schools) Regulations (1977, amended 1991) states that all recognized non-government schools must be managed by a committee. The committee should consist of the Headmaster or the Headmistress of the School, “two teachers to be elected by the teachers of the School from amongst themselves; four guardians to be elected by the guardians of the students of the School from amongst themselves; one founder to be elected by the founders from amongst themselves; one donor to be elected by the donors from amongst themselves; one person interested in education to be nominated by the Deputy Director, Secondary and Special Education, Dhaka Division, Dhaka; and three representatives (two from Upa-Zilla Council one from Upa- Zilla Central Co-operative Society) in case of Community Schools only.”
Reporting requirements: The Annual primary school Census Report (APSC ) covers twenty-five types of primary level educational institutions offering primary education in Bangladesh. The census questionnaire collects information on enrollment, attendance, repetition, teachers’ qualifications, SMC’s information, water and sanitation, SLIPs, physical infrastructure and availability of teaching-learning materials. The APSC uses a structured questionnaire for online-based data collection that schools must complete. The questionnaire contains several sections. Essentially, the questionnaire collects basic information on the school – EMIS code, school type, name, address, establishment year, location, shift, playground, electricity connection, the School Learning Improvement Plan (SLIP), geographical location of schools, etc
School inspection: The Rules and Regulations under the Education Ministry for Establishing, Starting and Approving Private Schools, Colleges and Madrassas (23/4/97), describes the process for inspections and supervision of independent private and government-funded private schools. The government requires both types of schools to undergo inspections, with the frequency of inspection dependent on results of the previous round. The law stipulates that schools will be visited within four months of their opening to analyze the relevant papers and records, at which time the primary approval or rejection decision is taken. Three years after opening, a second inspection will occur and based on exam results, the school enrolment rate, class attendance, and the number of students sitting for the final exams, an additional five-year approval will be given.
Student assessment: The Bangladesh National Student Assessment (NSA) assesses students in grades 3 and 5 in Bangla and Math for the majority of state and non-state schools, except non-recognized, non-government private schools, community schools, NGO schools (except BRAC schools), experimental schools and Shishu Kallyan.
Diplomas and degrees: No information was found.
Sanctions: A certificate issued to a non-state schools can be suspended or cancelled by the Registering Authority if they are in violation of any of the provisions in the Registration of Private Schools Ordinance of 1962 (Section 6). The provider may appeal the decision of the Registering Authority within 30 days from the date of order to the Appellate Authority. The decision made by the Appellate Authority is final.
The majority of universities institutions are provided by non-state actors. According to the University Grants Commission (UGC), there are 107 private universities, 46 public universities and 3 international universities in Bangladesh. Colleges and TVET are governed by different regulations and authorities creating a complex regulatory framework for tertiary education.
Registration and approval: The Private University Act of 2010 which replaces the 1992 act and establishes the governance and infrastructure criteria for starting new private institutions. The ministry initially grants new providers provisional permission, pending their fulfillment of multiple governances and infrastructure-related criteria. Permanent operational permission after institutions meets the subsequent criteria at the government's request.
Licence: No information was found.
Profit-making: Higher education is comprised of for-profit, not-for-profit and international institutions.
Taxes and subsidies: Higher education benefits from the exemption of the value added tax (VAT).
Curriculum or learning standards: The Strategic Plan for Higher Education in Bangladesh: 2017-2030provides state and non-state universities with the vision, key objectives and link to the SDGs in terms of teaching, research and service for this education level. The National Education Act of 2010 (paragraph 18) states that private universities are to be held to the same standard as public universities regarding curriculum, syllabus and recruitment of teachers.
Teaching profession: The National University regulates the staff positions, promotion, and firing decisions private colleges can make, but they have autonomy over teachers’ salaries and can recruit teachers certified by the Non-Government Teachers’ Registration and Certification Authority (NTRCA). Private universities can create new academic positions, draft conditions of service, and hire, promote, and fire academic and non-academic staff. Private universities are also able to set salaries and offer performance pay in contrast with public universities (GoB 2010, p. 9 and 21).
Fee-setting: While public universities have limits on the tuition fees they can charge students as they should be based on the financial capacity of families, tuition fees for private universities are not limited but universities must ensure that they are not for-profit as stated in the National Education Act of 2010 (paragraph 13, 18).
Admission selection and processes: Private universities have the autonomy to conduct their own admission procedures as well as to determine how many students to admit.
Board: All private universities must include within their governance structure a Board of Trustees. The Strategic Plan for Higher Education in Bangladesh: 2018-2030 contemplates modifications to the law regarding its composition.
Reporting requirements: Private universities must submit an annual report to detail and provide information about the institution’s educational standards. Both private and public universities are covered by the Higher Education Management Information System (HEMIS), which captures student-level data, student enrollment, graduation rates, demographic data, tuition fees, and data on faculty/student ratio.
Inspection: The Accreditation Council Act of 2017 establishes the monitoring and quality assurance process for all types of universities. The University Grants Commission (UGC), created through the President’s Order Act NO. 10 of 1973, is the regulatory body for all types of universities and oversees the financing, governance and accountability of state and non-state universities. The responsibility for university level of madrassah education (i.e. fazil and kamil) is of the Islamic University at Kushtia according to the National Education Act of 2010.
Assessment: No information was found.
Diplomas and degrees: After receiving permission from the University Grant Commission (UGC), private universities can award degrees.
Sanctions: If a private university fails to meet the requirements for its license, controverts any regulations, or any type of corruption is detected, the ministry can revoke its operating permit.
Private tutoring in Bangladesh is highest in urban areas with variations across regions.
No information found.
No information found.
The only regulation referring to private tutoring is under the Recognized Non-Government Secondary School Teachers (Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education, Dhaka) Terms and Conditions of Service Regulations 1979 (No. 9) which prohibits teachers whether permanent or temporary from engaging in private tuition. The expected Education Act of 2020 will prohibit private tuition as well as teachers’ note and guidebooks.