NON-STATE ACTORS IN EDUCATION
2.2 Non-state education provision
3.1 Regulations by distinct levels of education
- Early childhood care and education (Entry/Establishment ○ Financial operation ○ Quality of teaching and learning ○ Equitable access ○ Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability)
- Primary and secondary education (Entry/Establishment ○ Financial operation ○ Quality of teaching and learning ○ Equitable access ○ Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability)
- Tertiary education (Entry/Establishment ○ Financial operation ○ Quality of teaching and learning ○ Equitable access ○ Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability)
3.2 Supplementary private tutoring
The Education and Training Act 2020, which came into force in August 2020 and applies to all education levels from early childhood to tertiary education, distinguishes between “state schools”, “state integrated schools” and “private schools”. The Act defines a proprietor as “the body corporate that has the primary responsibility for determining the special character of a private school or State integrated school and for supervising the maintenance of that special character; and owns, holds in trust, or leases the land and buildings that constitute the premises of the private school or a State integrated school”. A service provider is defined as the “body, agency or person” who operates an early childhood education and care centre, home-based education and care service, hospital-based education and care service, or playgroup. A private school is defined as a “school registered under section 214”, while a state-integrated school is defined as a “state school that offers education with a special character; and has been established as a State integrated school under clause 5 of Schedule 6”. Finally, a private training establishment is defined as “an establishment, other than an institution, that provides post-school education or training, including vocational education and training”.
2.1 State education provision
Most education (97% of schools and 96% of total student enrolment) at primary (ages 5-12) and secondary (ages 13-17) education levels is provided by the state. According to the Education and Training Act 2020 (Section 33), every domestic student in New Zealand is entitled to free education at any state school (including state-integrated schools) from the ages of 5 – 18, while education is compulsory from the ages of 6 – 15 (Section 35). However, parents usually need to pay for school uniforms, exam fees, stationery, and other course-related costs. International students (often referred to as foreign or fee-paying students) are required to pay fees for tuition, courses, administration, and use of capital facilities.
State schools are secular by law and can be single-sex or coeducational, special schools (providing education to students with special educational needs) or Kura Kaupapa Māori schools, where te reo Māori is the main language of instruction and the curriculum is based on Māori philosophies.
Non-state managed, state schools
New Zealand state schools have a high level of autonomy for governance and management.
Non-state funded, state schools
There are no non-state funded state schools.
2.2 Non-state education provision
Independent, non-state schools
There are no fully independent non-state schools.
State funded (government-aided), non-state schools
Private schools are independent, non-state schools that receive annual grants in the form of per-student subsidies from the state but are mostly funded through student tuition fees. The grants received may be administered on a conditional or unconditional basis to private schools that have been registered under the Education and Training Act 2020 (Section 214) with the amount of funding determined by the Minister each year. Private schools receive 80% of their operational costs from parental fees or donations and 100% of their capital costs through fees or stakeholder contributions. These schools may be day schools or boarding schools, and single sex or co-educational. There is great education variation in the private school sector, with many independent schools providing religious or value-based education, or promoting a particular philosophy or interpretation of mainstream education. Private schools include schools for gifted and talented students, schools with special character, international schools (catering mostly to international students), faith-based schools (e.g. Muslim schools and Christian schools), Montessori schools, Steiner schools, and schools that cater to students from disadvantaged backgrounds. These schools are independent in terms of school ownership, management, and operation, while they are additionally free to develop their own learning programs and are not required to follow the national curriculum of New Zealand. There are very few private schools in New Zealand compared to state and state-integrated schools, covering only 3% of all schools and 4% of total enrolments at primary and secondary education levels, with the lowest enrolments at primary (1.9%) and highest (6%) at secondary level. Over half (53%) of students attending private schools are in Auckland.
Contracted non-state schools
State-integrated schools are private (non-state independent) schools that were originally established to provide education of a special character within the framework of a particular philosophical or religious belief that have been voluntarily and conditionally integrated into the state school system on a basis which preserves that special character (Schedule 6). Based on the integration agreement, these schools remain owned by non-state actors, but are funded by the state and governed by an elected Board of Trustees (similar to regular state schools). State-integrated schools are defined as state schools in the Education and Training Act 2020, and considered part of the state education system. While education in state-integrated schools must be free, service providers have the right to charge compulsory attendance dues if approved by the Minister of the Crown, which must only be used for the improvement of buildings or facilities. Finally, while students are required to be instructed based on national curricula and syllabi, the general education program should continue to reflect the school’s specific religious or philosophical beliefs. Integrated schools, which may run by a specific religious faith or specialist education philosophy, include Catholic, Anglican, Methodist, Islamic, Steiner and Montessori schools. Approximately 10% of primary and secondary students in New Zealand attend state-integrated schools.
2.3 Other types of schools
In New Zealand, parents, guardians or whānau have the choice to home-school their children from early childhood to upper secondary education once applying and receiving a Certificate of Exemption from their local Ministry of Education office. Parents, guardians or whānau are then free to access the Ministry of Education’s catalogue of teaching and learning material or directly purchase tuition through New Zealand’s state-funded correspondence school Te Aho o Te Kura Pounamu (Te Kura) that follows the national curriculum. Te Kura (formerly known as the Correspondence School) provides distance education to students who are unable to attend their local school due to several reasons, which may include medical conditions and special educational needs. Students aged 16-19 may also be eligible to attend Te Kura if they are not attending another school on a full-time basis. Based on data collected by the Ministry of Education, in July 2020 there were 7,749 students that were being home-schooled (with over half under the age of 12), representing 1% of total enrolments.
During the COVID-19 school closures, the Ministry of Education additionally released distance-learning resources to be accessible to all students in New Zealand, including educational television, online learning platforms, computers, and packs of printed learning material.
Market contracted (Voucher schools)
New Zealand has no voucher schools.
The Ministry of Education (Tā mātou kaupapa) is the main governing body which oversees the education system in New Zealand for both state and non-state educational institutions from early childhood to tertiary level. While there is no specific department that is exclusively responsible for non-state education provision, the Secretary for Education (through the supervision of the Minister) is responsible for registering non-state institutions from early childhood to upper secondary level, while the Education Review Office evaluates and reports on the quality of non-state institutions at those levels. Finally, the New Zealand Qualifications Authority (NZQA) is responsible for overseeing the regulation and monitoring of non-state tertiary establishment in New Zealand.
Te Rūnanga Nui o Nga Kura Kaupapa Māori o Aotearoa (or te kaitiaki o Te Aho Matua) is the body responsible for determining the content of Te Aho Matua and Māori education. The Ministry of Education consults the te kaitiaki o Te Aho Matua for matters relating to Māori education, including the curriculum, and approving school designations as Kura Kaupapa Māori (for state, state integrated or private schools).
Vision: The International Education Strategy has been refreshed and is under consultation before being finalised. However, small independently-owned English language schools are an important part of the mix of provision for tertiary level students.
3.1 Regulations by distinct levels of education
Early childhood care and education (ECCE) services are owned and operated by non-state actors in New Zealand and cover all ages under 6. ECCE services can be categorized into early childhood education and care centres (with kindergartens mainly catering to children between 2 and 5 years of age, and education and care services catering to children under the age of 6), home-based education and care services (home setting for up to 4 children under the age of 6), hospital-based education and care services (children under the age of 6 receiving treatment in hospital), kōhanga reo (Māori immersion setting catering to children under the age of 6), playcentres (children under the age of 6), and playgroups (facilitating children’s play for no more than 4 hours a day). ECCE services can be either teacher-led (kindergartens, education and care services, home-based services, hospital-based services), whānau-led (kōhanga reo), or parent-led (playgroups and playcentres). The majority (73%, excluding playgroups) of ECCE services in New Zealand are provided by teacher-led ECCE centres (kindergartens and education and care services).
Regulations and criteria governing early childhood care and education
All ECCE services
Education (Early Childhood Services) Regulations 2008
Licensing Criteria for Early Childhood Education & Care Services
Education (Early Childhood Services Regulations) 2008
Licensing Criteria for Home-Based Education and Care Services 2008
Education (Early Childhood Services Regulations) 2008
Licensing Criteria for Hospital-Based Education and Care Services 2008
Education (Playgroups) Regulations 2008
Registration and approval: According to the Education and Training Act 2020, ECCE centres (kindergartens, education and care services, kohanga reo and playcentres) are required to be licensed under the Ministry of Education. Playgroups on the other hand may choose to apply for certification. Any application for a license to establish and operate an ECCE services must be made by the service provider, or an individual on behalf of the provider in the case o a body corporate. Community-based organizations can include incorporated services, charitable trusts, statutory trusts and community trusts. Applications for a license to operate an ECCE servic or the certification of playgroups are made directly to the Secretary. All applications must include any history of past convictions, health problems, money owned to the Crown, and adjudication of bankruptcy, in addition to a list of premises, equipment and evacuation scheme planned for the service proposed. Adult-child ratio requirements are regulated in the Education (Early Childhood Services) Regulations 2008.
License: If satisfied that the applicant complies with the minimum standards, the Secretary must issue a probationary licence (or interim certificate in the case of playgroups) which remains valid for up to 12 months. A full licence or certificate may then be granted by the Secretary if the premises and facilities, curriculum, qualifications, ratios, and service-size, governance, management and administration, and health and safety practices standards are met and the applicants have paid the licensing fee of NZ$2,817.50 .
Profit-making: ECCE services in New Zealand may operate on a profit-making basis.
Taxes and subsidies: As the state of New Zealand is not responsible for the provision of ECCE services in the country, all ECCE centres are funded by the state each year through general (or discretionary) grants to cover operational costs. A discretionary grant may also be paid to service providers for the purpose of establishing a licensed ECCE centre or certified playgroup. Finally, ECCE services may receive equity funding, which they will receive based on the number of children they serve in lower socioeconomic communities, or whether they deliver the curriculum at least half of the time in a language other than English, or if they are in isolated locations. During the COVID-19 lockdowns, the Ministry of Education continued to support ECCE services through operational grants. The Ministry of Social Development provided COVID-19 wage subsidies to ECCE services whose revenue had dropped by 30% at a flat rate of $585.80 NZD per week for each full-time employee, and $350 NZD per week for each part-time employee (before tax). The grant was paid to eligible ECCE services in a lump sum to cover 12 weeks during the first closures in 2020. Support was also provided during subsequent regional and national closures in 2021 due to the pandemic, but businesses had to have experienced a 40% drop in revenue rather than a 30% drop in revenue.
Quality of teaching and learning
Curriculum and education standards: The Early Childhood Education Curriculum Framework is prescribed by the Minister for all licensed ECCE services and certified playgroups. This curriculum standard is designed to enhance children’s overall learning and development through a positive and collaborative learning environment. Activities should cater to children’s needs (including children with special educational needs) and should foster their physical, cognitive, emotional, social, creative, and cultural development.
Teaching profession: Based on the Education (Early Childhood Services) Regulations 2008, 50% of the required staff in teacher-led ECCE services must hold a recognized (by the Teaching Council of Aotearoa New Zealand) qualification, while service providers must take all reasonable steps to provide staff with adequate professional support, professional development opportunities, and resources. Moreover, all service providers must hire staff based on the set adult-children ratio (which varies depending on the age and number of children).
Fee-setting: All ECCE services in New Zealand are allowed to levy fees for attendance (whether or not they are described as “free” services), without any limit in fee-setting found. All fees received from parents must be kept in record to always be available to the Minister upon request. In 2007, the 20 Hours ECE funding stream was introduced. This provides a higher rate of funding for 3-5 year olds for 20 hours per week, limited to 6 hours per day. Services that opt into the higher rates of funding must not charge parents fees for those hours.
Admission selection and processes: No regulation was found on admission selection and processes. The Licensing Criteria for Early Childhood Education & Care Services 2008 requires all services to maintain enrolment records for each child attending.
Policies for vulnerable groups: The Ministry of Education funds ECCE centres, home-based centres and kōhanga reo that serve high proportions of children from disadvantaged backgrounds through their Targeted Funding for Disadvantage (calculation considers the 20% of children attending ECE who have spent the largest portion of their life as the dependent of a beneficiary to be from disadvantaged backgrounds.). Further targeted support via Equity A and B Funding is provided forchildren from lower socioeconomic communities, with special needs, of non-English speaking backgrounds and cultures. Low income families can also receive the Childcare Subsidy, which reduces parental fees for up to 50 hours per week. Parents must apply for this subsidy through the Ministry of Social Development. The subsidy is paid directly to services rather than to parents. Eligibility is determined by parental income and number of children in the family.
Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability
Reporting requirements: Every service provider of an ECCE service is required to keep detailed records of child attendance, fees charges, and any other appropriate documentation required by the Secretary (which must be made available to the Secretary or parents upon request).
Inspection: The Secretary may authorize a review officer from the Education Review Office to enter and inspect the premises or offices of any licensed ECCE service or certified playgroup at any reasonable time and having given reasonable notice without a warrant. During the inspection, the review officer may require documents and information relating to the service, including matters relating to the curriculum delivery and health and safety of the service provided and checking the qualifications of staff and caregivers employed. Moreover, as all adults who live in a home where a home-based ECCE service is being provided are required to undergo police vetting, the review officer may check the paperwork of all people (whether caregiver or not) at a home-based service (Education and Training Act 2020).
Child assessment: There are no formal assessments at the ECCE level. The curriculum of all ECCE services must support the learning and development of the children and must be consistent with the curriculum framework, and teachers at the service observe children to support this. Photos and formative assessment (often narrative-based and sometimes called ‘learning stories’) are also used to show parents how their children are progressing.
Sanctions: If any ECCE centre is found to be operating without a license, the provider will be liable to a fine of up to $50,000 NZD, whereas if the centre ceases to operate without informing the Secretary, the proprietor will be liable to a fine up to NZ$200 (Education and Training Act 2020). Any license or certification may additionally be suspended or cancelled by the Secretary if found to not be compying with the minimum standards set out in the Education and Training Act 2020, Education (Early Childhood Services) Regulations 2008, or Education (Playgroups) Regulations 2008.
Registration and approval: All private schools operating in primary and secondary education levels are required to be registered with the Ministry of Education under the Education and Training Act 2020 (Section 214). Applications must be made to the Secretary by a proprietor (body corporate) along with any information on past convictions, health issues, or bankruptcy. The criteria that need to be fulfilled to be considered for a provisional license which is valid for 12 months include suitable premises, management, staff, and curriculum. The school must additionally have staffing that is suitable to the age range and level of its students, the curriculum taught at the school, and the size of the school. If satisfied, the Secretary must inform the Chief Review Officer of the provisional registration, which will be responsible for evaluating the school within the next 6-12 months and sending a written report to the Secretary to be considered for an official license.
If a private school or proprietor (body corporate) wishes to establish a state-integrated school, they must apply to the Minister to enter into negotiations for integration under Schedule 6. Integration must not jeopardize the special character of the school, with the proprietor continuing to have responsibility for supervising the maintenance of the special character. The Secretary may fix the maximum student enrolment and ensure the school complies with the average class size policy and teacher-student ratio. On integration, the school becomes part of the state education system, subject to most regulations applicable to state schools.
License: If all criteria are fulfilled to the satisfaction of the Secretary, the school receives an official license to operate.
Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH): All schools (state, state-integrated and private) must comply with the New Zealand Building Code, Building Act 2004, Health and Safety at Work Act 2015, and are strongly recommended to comply with the Toilet Design: Requirements and Reference Design 2017. Schools are required to provide separate toilet facilities for girls and boys over 8 years old (with specific guidelines for disabled students). As private schools are not owned by the government, school buildings are required to meet the Ministry’s education infrastructure design standards.
Profit-making: Private schools may operate for-profit,
Taxes and subsidies: All managers of private schools receive per-student subsidies (conditional or unconditional) from the state on an annual basis to assist in operational costs. The government covers 20% of their operational costs (with the remaining 80% funded through parental fees or donations). If the grant is conditional, private schools are required by law to comply with any conditions set by the Minister and keep records of any financial transactions to be available for inspection at any reasonable time. State-integrated schools receive 100% equivalent government funding to state schools, with school buildings funded by the proprietor and the government funding capital maintenance and modernisation.
Quality of teaching and learning
Curriculum and education standards: While private schools are free to develop their own learning programs and curriculum, the school principal and staff must be aware of National Education and Learning Priorities and implement them accordingly. State-integrated schools are required to follow the national curriculum, with freedom to teach their own additional special subjects that maintain their “special character”. English-medium schools use the New Zealand Curriculum, while Māori-medium schools (Kura Kaupapa Māori) use Te Marautanga o Aotearoa (a curriculum based on Māori philosophies).
Textbooks and learning materials: Private schools develop their own learning programs and are not required to follow any particular textbooks.
Teaching profession: While the Education and Training Act 2020 states that any person may apply to the Teacher’s Council to be registered as a teacher in New Zealand, there was no regulation found requiring private school teachers to apply to the Council. The only reference regarding teacher qualifications in private schools was found in the registration process, where applicants must prove that any teachers employed are suitable to the age range and level of students, as well as the curriculum being taught. Teacher salaries must additionally be comparable to those paid for teachers with similar positions and qualifications in state schools. Teachers in state schools and state-integrated schools are covered under similar treatment and qualifications, as they are both covered under the Education School Staffing Order 2020 which explicitly “only applies to state schools” and includes provisions on employment, salaries, allowances and working hours. State-integrated schools are considered part of the state education system and defined as “state schools” in the Education and Training Act 2020. The Act specifically states that “every reference elsewhere in this Act and in any other enactment or document” to state schools “is to be treated as including reference to a state integrated school”. Teacher salaries in state-integrated schools are paid by the government.
Under the Education and Training Act 2020 (Schedule 4), all staff who work with children in Early Learning and schooling, including private and non-state education settings, are required to be police vetted.
Corporal punishment: According to the Education and Training Act 2020, corporal punishment is strictly prohibited by law in all registered schools (including state schools, state integrated schools, and private schools) by any person employed or managing the school, or supervising students.
Other safety measures and COVID-19: State and state-integrated schools are subject to MoE Health and Safety Code of Practice, which includes provisions on safe access to buildings for everyone. During the COVID-19 outbreak in 2020, the Ministry of Education released additional public health measures and recommendations depending on alert level (1-4) that apply to all schools (state and private). According to the Education and Training Act 2020, the Secretary was given the power to set rules in regard to distance learning, management, and school closures for any school in New Zealand (including private schools), which schools were required by law to adhere to.
Fee-setting: Private schools receive most of their funding through student fees and are free to set the fees the school will charge. No regulation was found regarding limits on any fees levied. State and state-integrated schools are free to attend for domestic students aged 5-19. However, integrated schools are allowed to charge a compulsory fee called “attendance dues” to help maintain their facilities. The proprietor is responsible for providing land and buildings for these schools, and this fee is intended to cover their property costs. Domestic students (New Zealand citizens and residents) are funded by the MoE, but international students are not. International students at state schools and state-integrated schools are often referred to as foreign or fee-paying students and are required to pay fees to cover costs in tuition, course fees, administration and use of capital facilities, as well as the Education Export Levy (Education and Training Act 2020). All schools may ask parents for donations, which must be voluntary contributions and not compulsory in any way.
Admission selection and processes: While the Education and Training Act 2020 does not regulate selective admission in private schools, the Human Rights Act 1993 makes it unlawful for any educational establishment “(a) to refuse or fail to admit a person as a pupil or student or (b) to admit a person as a pupil or a student on less favorable terms and conditions than would otherwise be made available… by reason of any of the prohibited grounds of discrimination” (Section 57). The only exception to this is schools maintained wholly or partially for specific students (such as sex, religion, or disability). State integrated schools are allowed to give preference to specific students in accordance with the special character of the school, in contrast to state schools.
Policies for vulnerable groups: There are school transport assistance schemes available for students enrolled in state schools and state integrated schools. To become eligible for this scheme, the school must be the closest school the child can enrol in with no suitable public transport option. The government also provides Specialized School Transport Assistance to assist children and young people with safety and/or mobility needs that prevent them from travelling independently to a school, which similarly applies to state schools and state integrated schools (and not private schools). If a child is struggling to attend a school due to remote location or other difficulties, the government may also provide a boarding allowance for attending a boarding school or private boarding arrangement. Boarding allowances include access barrier and multiple barrier allowances. Some private schools may also provide financial assistance to students through bursaries and scholarships, although this is not mandated by law. Some scholarships cover most or all the fees of students who may not otherwise have been able to attend the private school. All schools are required to be inclusive under the Education and Training Act 2020, which is reinforced in the New Zealand Disability Strategy.
The MoE also works to ensure that its policies, plans and national curriculum (that is adopted by state and state integrated schools) honours and supports local tikanga Māori, mātauranga Māori, and te ao Māori, taking all reasonable steps to make instruction available in tikanga Māori and te reo Māori and achieving equitable outcomes for Māori students. State and state integrated schools that are designated as Kura Kaupapa Māori are required to ensure that Māori is to be the main language of instruction at the school and that the school operates in accordance with Te Aho Matua.
Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability
School board: Private schools in New Zealand are governed by their own independent boards, while state and state-integrated schools are required to establish a school board (also referred to as a Board of Trustees) with specific membership. Members of the school board of state and state-integrated schools must include the principal, local community members, and representatives of staff, students (for Grades 9 and above), parents, and (in the case of state-integrated schools), a proprietor.
Reporting requirements: All educational institutions must keep records of student progress, as well as details on any grants and allowances received by the government. State-integrated schools are additionally subject to accountability mechanisms such as the inspectorate system.
School inspection: According to the Education and Training Act 2020, the Secretary may authorize a review officer from the Education Review Office to enter and inspect a registered private school at any reasonable time with the aim to prepare a written evaluation report to the Secretary and school principal.
Student assessment: Private schools can follow different assessment and examination systems compared to state and state-integrated schools. While these schools have their own assessment standards, these are regularly reviewed by the Education Review Office. State integrated schools follow the same assessments with state schools.
Diplomas and degrees: The National Certificate of Educational Achievement is the main national qualification for secondary school students, which is recognized by tertiary institutions in New Zealand and abroad.
Sanctions: If the school managers are found to be breaching any statutory duties or the review officer has reasonable grounds to believe that serious criminal activity is occurring in the school, the Secretary must issue a notice to the school requiring the manager to comply and on final measure cancel the school’s registration if no improvement is made. Moreover, if the school is found to have not complied with the guidelines set out in the Education and Training Act 2020, the Secretary has the authority to impose conditions and cancel a school’s registration as a final measure. If any private school is found to be operating without a license, the owner will be liable upon conviction to a fine up to NZ$50,000 (35,397 USD). Finally, if the school ceases to operate without informing the Secretary, the owner will be liable upon conviction to a fine up to NZ$200 (141 USD) for every day the offense took place. While the Minister may order the closure of state-integrated schools, there was no information found on the closure of private schools.
Tertiary education in New Zealand is mostly provided by the state through universities (43% enrolment), institutes of technology and polytechnics (33%), and wānanga (10%). The only non-state provision of tertiary education in the country comes in the form of private training establishments (14% enrolment) which are established and owned by body corporates, providing post-school education programs or training to domestic and international students in New Zealand. These establishments offer vocational courses at certificate or diploma level.
Registration and approval: All private training establishments (PTEs) are required to make an application to be registered to the NZQA. PTEs provide tertiary education or vocational training, which is separate to polytechnics, universities and wānanga. The registration of PTEs is covered under the Education and Training Act 2020 and Private Training Establishment Registration Rules 2021. Applicants must be body corporates, while applications must include the required registration fee (which is to be renewed on an annual basis), a statement on the type of education proposed to be provided, a statutory declaration from each governing member of the establishment, and the staff, facilities, and equipment to be used. The NZQA must verify that each governing member is fit to establish a PTE and that any other conditions of registration set out in the Education and Training Act 2020 are met.
License: If satisfied that all registration criteria have been met, the NZQA may grant the applicants a registration certificate for a specified period or indefinitely (depending on each application). Within the first year of registration, the PTE must provide an education program which will be approved and accredited by the NZQA.
Profit-making: There is no restriction in profit-making for PTEs, with institutions responsible for their own finances. All PTEs must ensure they remain financially sustainable and able to meet their financial commitments.
Taxes and subsidies: PTEs are not entitled to any financial assistance from the state upon registration, but they may apply for funding to the TEC. The TEC assesses an application based on a list of transparent criteria which include whether an establishment contributes towards the national tertiary education strategy, and the quality of programs and activities offered. If approved, the TEC determines the amount of funding to be provided on a case-by-case basis.
Quality of teaching and learning
Curriculum and education standards: Registered PTEs must provide a program of study that leads to a qualification listed on the National Qualifications Framework. All institutions are required to apply to the NZQA for approval of their program, with approved programs only delivered by accredited providers. The NZQA has developed Guidelines for applying for approval of programmes leading to New Zealand qualifications at Levels 1 - 6 on the NZQF and the accreditation of organisations to provide approved programmes. Once a program has been approved, the NZQA must approve any changes that may be made to the program.
Teaching profession: The academic staff employed in PTEs must be sufficiently experienced and qualified to at least one level above the one being taught or have demonstrated equivalent experience. The skills and subject knowledge of the teaching staff must be relevant to student needs and relevant stakeholders.
Fee-setting: All PTEs may charge compulsory tuition fees, which are only limited for PTEs which receive funding from the Tertiary Education Commission (TEC). According to the Education and Training Act 2020, any PTE which is funded by the TEC is prohibited from charging domestic students tuition fees that exceed the maximum fee amount provided by the TEC. Any information on fees charged must be made available to students before enrolment and the NZQA will be authorized to apply any rules to a PTE regarding student fee protection. PTEs must comply with the Student Fee Protection Rules 2021, which include withdrawal and refund policies for student tuition fees in various circumstances.
Admission selection and processes: While there were several scholarship schemes found that support domestic students in pursuing tertiary education (such as the Māori Education Trust, The Sir Apirana Ngata Memorial Scholarship, or the Tagaloa Scholarship) these were all referred to in regard to tertiary institutions, and not specifically to access PTEs. PTEs are required to comply with the PTE Enrolment and Academic Records Rules 2021 and Private Training Establishment Registration Rules 2021. All institutions must provide students with adequate information on entry and selection criteria and keep accurate enrolment records for each student. To admit international students, PTEs with a category 1,2 or 3 can apply to become a signatory of the Education (Pastoral Care of International Students) Code of Practice 2016.
Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability
Board: PTEs are required to list the names of all their governing members to the NZQA.
Reporting requirements: All PTEs must keep up-to-date records of student enrollment, programs, and standards-based training that must be made readily available to the NZQA upon request. Moreover, institutions are required to submit Annual Financial Returns to the NZQA at the end of each financial year (Private Training Establishment Registration Rules 2021). PTEs that are funded by the TEC are not required to submit these returns. Finally, all institutions must undertake on-going self-assessment.
Inspection: The NZQA is responsible for prescribing quality assurance requirements for all PTEs. Specifically, any person may be authorized by the Chief Executive of the NZQA to enter and inspect the premises of a PTE at any reasonable time and inspect documents and educational material. The NZQA, which reports directly to the Minister, is additionally responsible for ensuring that any programs or qualifications offered are regularly monitored and reviewed. Moreover, all PTEs are required to participate in the external evaluation and review of the NZQA, which usually happens once every 4 years.
Assessment: The NZQA regulates assessment and examination standards for all institutions. Assessment standards must be delivered based on the Directory of Assessment Standards.
Diplomas and degrees: All PTEs must apply to the NZQA for permission to grant awards, which include degreed, qualifications, certificates, and diplomas. The NZQA is then authorized to prescribe any rules concerning the programs’ approval or accreditation, making sure that any programs offered are of adequate quality and maintain international comparability.
Sanctions: If any governing member is found to have provided false or misleading information, or is convicted of any criminal offense, the NZQA has the authority to refuse of cancel a registration. If a PTE is found to be operating without a registration, the governing members will be liable upon conviction to a fine up to NZ$10,000 (71,059 USD). If the PTE closes, the institution is required to forward each student’s records to the student’s new provider or the student directly (if there is no new provider).
3.2 Supplementary private tutoring
There were no regulations found concerning private supplementary tuition in New Zealand. Section 70 of Education and Training Act 2020 only states that the board of a state school may provide evening classes to students (with a fee), that are to be held outside normal school hours (after school or during weekends), but these classes are only open to people who are not enrolled full-time in the school.
No information was found.
Financial operation and quality
No information was found.
No information was found.
This profile has been reviewed by the Ministry of Education (New Zealand).