NON-STATE ACTORS IN EDUCATION

1. Terminology

2. Typology of provision

2.1 State education provision 

2.2 Non-state education provision 

2.3 Other types of schools 

3. Governance and regulations

3.1 Regulations by distinct levels of education

3.2 Multi-level regulations 

3.3 Supplementary private tutoring 

 

  1. Terminology

The Constitution of the Turk and Caicos Islands and the 1989 Education Ordinance (amended in 2014) recognize that the school system is comprised of public and private educational institutions. The latter regulates pre-primary education and secondary education for public and private schools and defines a ‘private school’ as a school provided and maintained by some person or authority other than the government. The legislation allows individuals, legal persons, or non-profit organizations to establish a private school in the Turk and Caicos Islands.

 

  1. Typology of provision

2.1 State education provision

State schools

Most primary education (six years beginning at age four) and secondary education (five years beginning at age 12) is provided by public schools (64% enrolment). Education is free and compulsory from age four to 16; however, families have to pay for uniforms, books, lunch, and other non-tuition related fees. Although the Turks and Caicos Islands (TCI) have a higher number of private school facilities, they account for a smaller number of enrolled students than public schools.

Alternative education is design to provide 'at risk' students who, because of different life circumstances, have been alienated from the schooling system or are unable to attend, for a period of time or throughout compulsory education, the 'regular school structure.' 

Non-state managed, state schools

No information was found.

Non-state funded, state schools

No information was found.

2.2 Non-state education provision

Independent, non-state schools

Private schools are those owned, managed, and financed by non-state actors. Although they account for more facilities on the TIC islands, these schools have fewer students' enrolment than the state's education. While public schools are present throughout the national territory, private school facilities are centralized primarily on one island (80%). These types of schools include institutions such as non-profit schools, international schools, and denominational private schools.

State-funded (government-aided), non-state schools

No information was found.

Contracted, non-state schools

No information was found.

2.3 Other types of schools

Homeschooling

The Education Ordinance specifies for every child to attend compulsory education. Attending a school facility can be excused when, in the Minister's opinion, the child is receiving satisfactory instruction at home or elsewhere or due to health issues or any other unavoidable cause.

Market contracted (Voucher schools)

No information was found.

Unregistered/Unrecognised schools

No information was found.

 

  1. Governance and regulations

The Ministry of Education, Youth, Culture and Library Services (MoEYCLS) has the overall governance of the education system from pre-primary to tertiary level. As part of the MoEYCLS, the Director of Education is responsible for overseeing public and private educational institutions in the Turks and Caicos Islands. The Ministry of Education, Youth, Culture and Library Services (MoEYCLS) is mainly responsible for the ECCE center. However, this area's interventions require collaboration with other ministries, including the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Social Development. Higher education institutions are under the Ministry of Education, Youth, Culture and Library Services (MoEYCLS) and the Higher Education Advisory Board.

Vision: The Education Sector Plan 2018-2022 includes promoting and incentivizing the private sector to establish or expand existing Early Childhood Development (ECD) centers, primary school facilities, and higher education institutions (HEIs).

 

3.1 Regulations by distinct levels of education
 

The Education Sector Plan, 2018-2022, considers Early Childhood Development (ECD) Services as one of the main strategies for further establishing, improving, and developing. According to the Sector Plan, the ECD will be consistent with the CARICOM guidelines established for ECD services in the Caribbean; however, no legislation has been enacted.

Entry/Establishment

Registration and approval: See Multi-level regulations.

Licence: No information was found.

Financial operation

Profit-making: No information was found.

Taxes and subsidies: No information was found.

Quality of teaching and learning

Curriculum and education standards: No information was found.

Teaching profession: No information was found.

Equitable access

Fee-setting: No information was found.

Admission selection and processes: No information was found.

Policies for vulnerable groups: No information was found.

Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability

Reporting requirements: No information was found.

Inspection: No information was found.

Child assessment: No information was found.

Sanctions: No information was found.

Entry/Establishment

Registration and approval: See Multi-level regulations.

Licence: No information was found.

Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH): No information was found.

Financial operation

Profit-making: No information was found.

Taxes and subsidies: No information was found.

Quality of teaching and learning

Curriculum and education standards: There is a national curriculum, but it is unclear whether private schools must follow it. The description mentions that these are educational guidelines not static but lends to creativity and flexibility.

Textbooks and learning materials: According to the Education Ordinance, the Minister oversees ensuring the curricula, textbooks, and practices in all schools are in conformity with national standards of education.

Teaching profession: All private school teachers must hold a certificate of fitness issued by the Director of Education to be hired as a staff member in a private school. The Director of Education can refuse to issue a teacher's certificate if the candidate does not comply with the established requirements. If any private school employs a teacher who does not hold the required certificate, it is liable to a penalty prescribed by the law.

Corporal punishment: The Education Ordinance allows for corporal punishment to be enforced in public schools when no other penalty is considered suitable but must be administered following the specifications established under the Ordinance. No information was explicitly found regarding private schools.

Other safety measures and COVID-19: All schools still have remote learning in Turk and Caicos (2021).

Equitable access

Fee-setting: No information was found.

Admission selection and processes: No information was found regarding the admission and selection process to a private school. However, regulations dictate that when a child of compulsory age is suspended or expelled from a private school, the school's principal must inform the Director of Education.

Policies for vulnerable groups: According to UNICEF Situation Analysis of Children in the Turks and Caicos Islands (2016), due to public schools overcrowding and to assure universal access to education, TCI has subsidized private school fees to accommodate the children of parents who could not afford it, based on a need’s assessment.

Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability

School board: No information was found.

Reporting requirements: According to the Education Ordinance, the Ministry must create and manage a specific registry - the Private Schools Register – to record all private educational institutions established in TIC territory. Furthermore, it requires every private school to submit to the Director of Education at the end of each school term information accounting for the number of days the school was opened, the number of students' enrollment, students' monthly and yearly average attendance.

School inspection: Every educational institution is subject to inspection from the Director of Education and the Education Officer at any time during school hours.

Student assessments: Standardized assessments are performed through the Caribbean Primary Exit Assessment (CPEA) for public and private schools to measure and determine whether a student has the knowledge and skills necessary to enter secondary school. The Caribbean Secondary Education Certificate (CSEC) and Cambridge International General Certificate of Secondary Education (IGCSE) for students to access tertiary education.

Diplomas and degrees: No information was found.

Sanctions: Any individual who operates a private school without previous approval is liable to conviction of a monetary fine. When a school does not comply with the minimum requirements for operation, the Minister will serve the school a notice for the schools' deficiencies. When the school fails to rectify the shortcomings, the Minister will order for the school's closure. Upon canceling the school's registration, and if the institution corrects the deficiencies, it can reapply for approval.

The primary tertiary education institution is The Turk and Caicos Islands Community College government educational institution. Only one private university was found in the islands register through a non-profit educational institution's business license.

Entry/Establishment

Registration and approval: The 2009 Universities, Colleges and Training Institutes Ordinance (revised in 2014) specify that no private institution of higher education can operate in Turk and Caicos Islands without previous authorization from the state.

Licence: Upon compliance with the established requirements, the Minister's approval, and payment of the prescribed fee, the initial license is issued for one year. However, if it is the opinion of the Minister, a license may be issued for a shorter period.

Financial operation

Profit-making: No information was found.

Taxes and subsidies: No information was found.

Quality of teaching and learning

Curriculum and education standards: No information was found.

Teaching profession: No information was found.

Equitable access

Fee-setting: No information was found.

Admission selection and processes: The Universities, Colleges, and Training Institutes Ordinance (2014) require all students attending HEIs to be nationals or legal residents of the Islands. Any HEIs who contravenes this requirement is liable to summary conviction of a monetary fine.

Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability

Board: All institutions of higher education shall have a Higher Education Advisory Board.

Reporting requirements: Higher education institutions must provide to the Ministry annually information on students enrolled, teaching and administrative staff, and the institution's financial statements.

Inspection: All higher education institutions in Turk and Caicos Islands are subject to an inspection of the premises to assess compliance with the terms of its license.

Assessment: No information was found.

Diplomas and degrees: No information was found.

Sanctions: The Minister may revoke at any time, the institution's license if the minimum requirements for approval are not maintained. A notice will be given to the institution to improve the conditions within a certain period. If the institution does not remedy the established points, the Minister may revoke the operation licence.

3.2 Multi-level regulations

This section covers pre-primary education to secondary education, based on the Education Ordinance.

Entry/Establishment

Registration and approval: The Education Ordinance dictates that all private school providers must request state authorization and be registered in the Register of Schools to open and operate a private school in the Turk and Caicos Islands. An application must be submitted to the Director of Education, including a prescribed fee and required documents. According to the Education Ordinance, following an inspection of the school’s premises of the applicant, the Ministry will issue a resolution based on being satisfied with the school's premises and accommodations, suitability of the instructions, and proprietor or principal of the school. Regarding infrastructure, minimum infrastructure requirements must be met, such as "adequate and suitable premises for the pupils' number, age, and sex" to be approved.


 

3.3 Supplementary private tutoring

No information specific to private tutoring or private lessons registration or regulation was found at the Ministry of Education, Youth, Culture and Library Services (MoEYCLS) documents or webpage. Private providers are allowed to operate through a business license to provide educational services.

Entry/Establishment

No information was found. 

Financial operation and quality

No information was found. 

Teaching profession

No information was found. 

 

Dernière modification:

mar 07/12/2021 - 12:14