- Early childhood care and education (Entry/Establishment ○ Financial operation ○ Quality of teaching and learning ○ Equitable access ○ Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability)
- Primary and secondary education (Entry/Establishment ○ Financial operation ○ Quality of teaching and learning ○ Equitable access ○ Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability)
- Tertiary education (Entry/Establishment ○ Financial operation ○ Quality of teaching and learning ○ Equitable access ○ Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability)
Main educational laws in Latvia are the 1998 Education Law, which covers all levels of education, and the 1999 General Education Law, which covers ECEC, basic and secondary levels of education. However, there are no specific regulations in Latvian legislation regarding non-state actors in education (except for the international schools, which may implement certain recognized international programmes). The operation of both state and non-state institutions is regulated by the same laws and regulations, which define personnel’s qualifications, hygiene, catering, building and other standards. Their implementation is controlled by a number of institutions but procedures are the same for both state and non-state educational establishments. All non-state actors in education are defined as “private” and official statistics reflect only three categories of institutions (state, municipal and private with no further specification).
The 1998 Education Law defines an education institution as an “institution established by the state, municipality, state universities or other legal or natural persons, with the purpose of implementing educational programmes, or a commercial company for which the implementation of educational programmes is one of the types of activity”. The 1999 General Education Law states that ‘’a general education institution (the Latvian legal term for a school) is established by the state, municipality, state higher education institutions, as well as private persons. State higher education institutions can establish a general secondary education institution’’.
The The 2020 International School Law specifies that “an international school [can be defined] as a private commercial company, foundation, or association [that can] be founded, reorganised, and liquidated by natural and legal persons”.
In Latvia, compulsory education includes pre-school (age groups 5-7) and basic education (integrated primary and lower secondary programme, age groups 7-16). Most schools in primary education (6 years beginning at age 7), lower secondary (3 years beginning at age 13) and upper secondary education (3 years beginning at age 16) are municipal schools (90.3%). There are also state schools that account for 0.3% of all schools in Latvia. Pre-school, basic and secondary education in a state or municipality founded educational establishment is funded from the national or municipal budget.
In state and municipal educational institutions, the language of instruction is Latvian. Education in other languages can be acquired in private educational establishments, as well as in state and municipal educational institutions where they provide educational (study) programmes for national minorities. Any student acquiring basic or secondary education in another language studies the state language concurrently and takes an examination in the state language following the nationally set procedure and scope.
Non-state managed, state schools
No information was found.
Non-state funded, state schools
No information was found.
Independent, non-state schools
Independent, non-state schools (9.4% under the category “private schools”) include international schools. They are defined in the 2020 International School Law as an educational institution “which implements an educational program in the Republic of Latvia recognized by another Member State of the European Union or the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Supreme Council of European Schools, or the International Baccalaureate Organization in the official languages of the European Union Member States and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization Member States”. International Schools in Latvia include King's college (the British school of Latvia), The Deutsche Schule Riga, L’École Française Jules Verne de Riga, International School of Latvia, Exupery International School, International School of Riga.
State-funded (government-aided), non-state schools
Most non-state schools in Latvia partly fall under this category (an estimated 10% of Latvian schools educating 4.5% of all students) and are entitled to per-pupil state subsidy covering teacher salaries. Municipalities may choose to participate in co-financing as well. The costs generally are covered by the State (around 50%), municipalities (1-5%) and parents (around 50%). Local governments at the city and municipal levels can finance private educational institutions, specifically teachers’ salaries, on the basis of mutual agreements.
In the list of non-state schools partly funded by Riga municipality in 2021, there are 40 pre-schools and schools, including a Christian School, Catholic Gymnasium, Habad Jewish Private High School, Free Waldorf School, Montessori pre-schools and primary schools.
Contracted, non-state schools
No information was found.
No official statistics were available, since the ministry considers only three categories for statistics: state, municipal and private.
In Latvia, the law requires every child who is five years old to be registered at a preschool, and every child who is age seven to be registered at a school. Education in the family” (homeschooling) is an available form of education for preschool and school (grades 1 through 6) based on the written application of the parents of a student. To do so, parents have to submit a written application to the preschool or school principal, which includes a written affirmation from parents that, because of the child’s health condition or for psychological reasons, the school is unable to provide the necessary learning conditions, and that suitable learning conditions have been created at home. One of the following must also be attached to the application: (1) a written conclusion of a health physician, or (2) a written conclusion of a psychologist.
The administration of the school determines the procedure for the implementation of the educational program and the procedure by which the teachers assess the achievements of the child during the school year. State examination for all children (including those who are homeschooled) is required in grades 3 and 6.
In 2020/21, 313 students from grades 1-6 were registered in evening and distance learning courses.
Market contracted (Voucher schools)
No information was found.
No information was found.
In Latvia, the state is responsible for the regulation of all education provision at all levels. The same regulations are applied to state, municipal and non-state educational institutions, exception being a separate law, regulating the operation of international schools.
The Cabinet determines (also for private educational institutions): 1) the procedures by which the State finances the basic education and secondary education programmes implemented by private educational institutions 2) the quality criteria 3) the minimum and maximum admissible number of educates 4) the criteria and procedures by which the State participates in the financing of the work remuneration for teachers who are involved in the implementation of general education programmes in private general education institutions. At the same time, the Ministry of Education and Science is responsible for the development of models for general education programmes and subject curricula as well as for the organisation of the development of the content and methodology for general education.
The municipalities additionally regulate schools in their territory (both those founded by them and those founded by private persons and organisations). The founder (whether state or non-state) is responsible for ensuring the quality of education, but the municipality and the state are responsible for monitoring quality and compliance.
Monitoring and supervision procedures for private (i.e. non-state) actors are the same as for the state and municipal schools and are regulated by the 1998 Education Law and the 1999 General Education Law.
For higher education, the 1995 Law on Higher Education Institutions indicates that the Ministry of Education and Science shall supervise compliance with this Law in higher education institutions and colleges, and also shall be responsible for the state policy in the field of higher education.
Hygiene, catering, fire safety, building standards are the same for state and non-state educational institutions, regulated by separate laws and regulations and controlled by a number of respective institutions.
Vision: No additional information was found.
Pre-school education is available from the age of 1.5 years until the age of 6, and it is mandatory for five and six year olds to participate in pre-primary education. Pre-school education is provided by municipalities and if they fail to provide places in municipal pre-schools they cover the average cost (calculated by given municipality) for the child to attend a private institution. In 2020/21, private institutions were 23% of total pre-schools (covering 10% of all children attending pre-schools), and they were provided by “a legal or natural person”.
Registration and approval: Similarly to state institutions, non-state childcare service providers are registered by the State Education Quality Service which maintains a Childcare Register. Registration is free of charge. The registration takes place in accordance with the regulation of the Cabinet of Ministers “Requirements for Providers of Child Supervision Services and Procedures for Registration of Providers of Child Supervision Services”, which, in order to register, requires service providers to 1) be registered as a merchant, co-operative society, association, foundation, partnership or religious organisation 2) have entered into employment contracts or contracts for work performance with the persons involve 3) ensure the performance of primary health examinations and periodic health examinations for persons engaged in child supervision 4) receive a permit of the Food and Veterinary Service for a catering service 5) get drawn up and approved agendas and safety provisions, in which the rights, duties, responsibility of the service provider and service recipient and other essential norms are indicated 6) ensure conformity with the fire safety, labour protection and hygiene requirements during provision of the service 7) ensure medical first aid during provision of the service (medical first aid kit should be ensured at the place where the service is provided, and the content of the kit should conform to the requirements laid down in the laws and regulations regarding the minimum of medical materials contained in a first aid kit).
The State Education Quality Service, then, decides on the registration of a childcare service provider within one month of the day when the application was submitted. Upon the request of the service provider, the Service issues a certificate of registration. The issuing of the certificate is free of charge.
Licence: If a decision has been made to register a service provider, the State Education Quality Service assigns a registration number to the service provider and makes an entry in the register regarding the service provider. The Service publishes the decision regarding the registration of the service provider or the refusal to register within three working days after its adoption in the State Education Information System and grant the information the status of public credibility.
Profit-making: Profit-making depends on the type of registration. There are three options to register as a child care provider: as a natural person (who can register as an individual entrepreneur), a legal person (a company) or a State or local government institution. The first two types are private childcare providers. They can get state or municipal funding for providing childcare. State funding is per student, to pay for teachers’ fees and some other expenses for children starting with age 5. Municipal funding is for children below age five. The 1999 General Education Law (which includes pre-school education) states that “a general education institution may… perform economic activities and other types of activities if it does not interfere with the implementation of the general education programme”.
Taxes and subsidies: In cases where the municipality cannot ensure enough places in municipal pre-schools, the State covers the average fee for the given municipality in a private pre-school for children over 1.5 years. Parents may need to supplement the cost of a private pre-school.
Curriculum and education standards: Pre-schools may register to carry out a minority pre-school education programme but they are requested to promote Latvian language, culture and history. The Regulations Regarding the State Guidelines for Pre-school Education and the Model Pre-school Education Programmes states that "during the entire stage of pre-school education the acquisition of the Latvian language shall be promoted in an integrated study process through a bilingual approach which is implemented in cooperation among teachers, specialists, and other employees of an educational institution according to the development of a child, and the Latvian language shall also be used in daily communication. The Latvian language shall be the main means of communication in the play session for children from the age of five years, except for purposefully organised activities for the acquisition of a minority language and ethnic culture".
Institutions representing an officially registered religion in Latvia may open their own pre-schools and promote their corresponding religious values.
Teaching profession: Qualifications and certification must be in line with the standards set by the State, according to the Cabinet of Ministers (2018): “A founder of an educational institution (hereinafter - the founder) shall, in accordance with the Cabinet regulations which prescribe a list of pedagogical professions and positions, and the Cabinet regulations which lay down the requirements for the education and professional qualification necessary for teachers, ensure the personnel of teachers which corresponds to the implementation of the educational programme. “ In addition, the founder must ensure the minimum remuneration for the teaching workforce requested by the law: “The founder shall ensure work remuneration of teachers (including the number of hours worked to be paid and to be paid additionally for one position unit a week, and also the amount of work remuneration") in accordance with the Cabinet regulations regarding work remuneration of teachers. It may offer (and usually does) extra payments and incentives of its own choice.
Fee-setting: Fees are determined by the institution.
Admission selection and processes: Criteria and standards for selection can be determined by pre-school itself. In order to register their child for a private pre-school and find out the conditions and availability of free places, parents need to approach the institution directly. Conditions may also differ based on municipality. Municipality is obliged to co-finance places in private pre-schools for children older than 1.5 years if it cannot provide corresponding places in a municipal pre-school. For this, the child should be registered for a place in a municipal pre-school and the private pre-school should have a contract signed with the municipality.
Policies for vulnerable groups: No information was found.
Reporting requirements: All pre-schools must work in line with the “Regulations Regarding the State Guidelines for Pre-school Education and the Model Pre-school Education Programmes”. Quality control is ensured by the State Education Quality Service (IKVD) for the implementation of the educational programmes, and by a number of state agencies for other criteria (State Fire and Rescue Service for fire safety, Food and Veterinary Service for catering, Health Inspection for hygiene, etc.
Inspection: Non-state preschools, like municipal pre-schools, must conform with the requirements laid down in the Protection of the Rights of the Child Law, this Regulation and other legal acts according to the competence is controlled by the State Inspectorate for Protection of Children's Rights, the State Fire and Rescue Service, the Health Inspectorate and the Food and Veterinary Service. The State Inspectorate for Protection of Children's Rights, not less than once a year verifies the conformity of the service provider and the persons involved in the provision of the service with the requirements laid down in the Requirements for Providers of Child Supervision Services and Procedures for Registration of Providers of Child Supervision Services.
Child assessments: Criteria of assessment make part of the accreditation procedure. They are the same as in municipal pre-schools.
Sanctions: The State Education Quality Service can take a decision regarding the exclusion of a service provider from the register within ten working days from the moment when the regulations were violated.
Registration and approval: The procedure of registration is ensured by the State Education Quality Service upon submission of the application, the by-law and the documents attesting to the information referred to in the application (information on the founder, documentation on the premises, the appointment of the head of the institution. The registration is free. The hygienic requirements are checked regularly by the State Health inspection, standards are the same for all preschools in the Register and are determined by the Cabinet of Ministers.
Licence: Within one year of the day when the educational institution is registered, the educational programmes should be licenced and the implementation of the programmes should be commenced.
The State Education Quality Service is the licensing body for programmes of general education, professional basic education, vocational education, professional secondary education, professional orientation education, professional excellence and professional further education. The State Education Quality Service states: “An educational programme regulates the educating activity of an educational institution, which, in accordance with the level of education (pre-school education, basic education, secondary education, higher education), the type of education (general education, professional education or academic education), the target group (children of pre-school age, children and youths of compulsory school age, persons with special needs and adults) and the guidelines for State pre-school education or the State education standard (basic or general secondary education) and rules, is developed by an educational institution, co-ordinating such with the founder of the institution”.
Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH): The requirements regarding WASH are the same as for the municipal institutions and are regulated by “Hygiene Requirements for Educational Institutions Implementing the General Basic Education, General Secondary Education, Vocational Basic Education, Industrial Education, or Vocational Secondary Education Programmes”. They include: buildings and territory of the institution, water supply and sewerage (i.e. “In the institution, the drinking water shall conform to the mandatory drinking water safety requirements. The building of the institution shall be provided with the supply of cold and hot water, the sewerage system”, “27.3. toilet bowls and sinks shall be arranged in accordance with the requirements specified in the Latvian construction standard LBN 208-15, Public Structures.”), Heating and Ventilation, Lighting, Cleaning of Premises, Catering Unit, Arrangement of Dormitories of the Institution. The head of the institution is responsible for the conformity with the Regulation and the Health Inspectorate controls the execution of the Regulation.
Profit-making: The 1998 Education Law states that an educational institution can be “a commercial company for which the implementation of educational programmes is one of the types of activity” At the same time it is defined that a private education institution can be “a commercial company with a capital share of a State, local government, or state higher education institution, for which the implementation of educational programmes is one of the types of activity”. The 1999 General Education Law (which includes both basic and secondary education) states that “a general education institution may perform economic activities and other types of activities if it does not interfere with the implementation of the general education programme”.
Taxes and subsidies: The State and municipality can contribute to teachers’ salaries and teaching aids. The 1998 Education Law states that: “Private educational institutions shall be financed by the founders thereof. The State shall participate in the financing of work remuneration for teachers of private educational institutions in accordance with the procedures specified by the Cabinet if these educational institutions implement pre-school education programs for children from the age of five years until the commencement of the acquisition of basic education, accredited basic education and general secondary education programs”. Finally, local governments may participate in the financing of work remuneration for teachers of private educational institutions”.
Curriculum and education standards: State educational standards should be followed. International Schools can implement an educational program in the Republic of Latvia recognized by another Member State of the European Union or the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Supreme Council of European Schools, or the International Baccalaureate Organization in the official languages of the European Union Member States and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization Member States.
The 2020 International School Law prescribes the following for the international schools: an international school shall be reorganized and liquidated by its founder. While implementing an international educational program, an international school should at the same time provide the acquisition of the subject “Latvian studies” which includes the Latvian language, Latvian history and culture, Latvian nature and geography. The program of the subject Latvian Studies is to be developed by the international school in compliance with the guidelines stipulated by the Cabinet of Ministers. Education acquired at an international school should be in line with the respective level of general education of the Republic of Latvia. On its website the school should publish the regulations governing its operation, information on an international educational program it implements, its conformity with the level and type of general education of the Republic of Latvia and regulations regarding the enrolment and discharging of students.
Textbooks and learning materials: Textbooks and learning materials should be in line with State educational standards or with one of the above-mentioned programs for international schools.
Teaching profession: The requirements in private schools are the same as for state schools, but private institutions have the right to add requirements (e.g., advanced language skills for international schools). The Cabinet of Ministers (2018) identifies the qualifications and certification of teachers, which should be: a) higher pedagogical education and appropriate qualification of the subject teacher; b) higher pedagogical or higher education and qualification of a primary teacher or primary education teacher; c) higher education in the field of science corresponding to the subject and qualification of a teacher or acquired professional competence development program or a part of the study program related to pedagogy in the amount of at least two credit points or at least 72 hours (acquired within the higher education study program); 4) higher education and a master's or doctoral degree in education or pedagogy and scientific work related to the content and didactics of the subject. There are no specific regulations on teachers’ salaries in non-state schools, though it is decided individually by every school and this information is not publicly available.
Corporal punishment: Security and psychological well-being are among the criteria for the accreditation of a school. No corporal punishment is allowed. It is regulated for all education institutions by the Law on the Protection of the Children's Rights, which states that “A child shall not be treated cruelly, tortured, or physically punished, and his or her dignity and honour shall not be violated”. (Section 9). The same law includes the descriptions of mechanisms ensuring its implementation in the Republic of Latvia (incl. educational institutions).
Other safety measures and COVID-19: Regulations on the Latvian construction standard LBN 208-15 state that educational institutions (both public and private) must follow fire safety regulations and evacuation rules. In 2020/21, COVID-19 regulations regarding distance learning were the same as for municipal and state schools
Fee-setting: Fees are determined by the institution.
Admission selection and processes: No information was found.
Policies for vulnerable groups: No information was found.
School board: The requirements regarding school boards in private schools are the same as for state schools.
Reporting requirements: Private schools should have accreditation for their programs. An educational program can accredited maximum for six years (if all the assessment criteria have been assessed with a quality assessment level of "good" or higher). Accreditation is carried by the State Education Quality Service and is based on the following criteria: compliance with objectives; competencies and achievements; continuing education and employment; equality and inclusion; quality training; teaching and learning; professional capacity of teachers; implementation of educational programs; inclusive environment; availability; security and psychological well-being; infrastructure and resources; good governance; administrative efficiency; management professional activity; and support and cooperation.
School inspection: Quality Assurance in Latvia is known as accreditation which evaluates the quality of performance of the relevant educational institution and/or the quality of implementation of the educational programme. This process grants schools the right to issue a recognised educational certificate of education relevant to a particular educational programme. A licenced educational programme should undergo accreditation within two years after the commencement of its implementation. Educational institutions are granted accreditation for six years (Section 27 of the 1998 Education Law), whereas educational programmes may be granted two or six years.
The State Education Quality Service grants accreditation to educational institutions (except pre-school educational institutions, institutions of higher education and colleges) and examination centres, and institutions of general education, professional basic education, vocational education, professional secondary education, professional orientation education, professional excellence and professional further education.
Corresponding state agencies (State Fire and Rescue Service, Food and Veterinary Service, Health Inspection etc) provide regular inspections to guarantee compliance with regulations on respective domains.
Student assessments: Student assessment is carried out according to the State general education standard which is “compulsory for everyone who develops and implements general education programs, except for pre-school education programs”. The educational institution shall independently develop the assessment procedures in accordance with the basic principles for the assessment described in the Regulations Regarding the State Basic Education Standard and Model Basic Education Programmes. The State determines examinations upon finishing grade 9, which at the moment are as following: the Latvian language; a foreign language; mathematics; an interdisciplinary State examination in which the content of the social and civic field or study, field of studies of natural sciences and technologies is included.
Diplomas and degrees: Licenced private educational institutions may deliver official diplomas, degrees and certificates (similar to the state and municipal institutions) for accredited programmes. The Cabinet of Ministers (2006) in the Procedures for Issuing State-Recognized General Education Documents states that: “The right to issue general education documents belongs to an educational institution which implements an accredited general education program in accordance with regulatory enactments regarding the procedures by which general education programs and educational institutions are accredited”. Official diplomas can be printed only by the manufacturer with whom MoeS has signed an agreement. Heads of private educational institutions with accredited programmes (or their authorized representatives) can obtain diplomas from the manufacturer.
Sanctions: The sanctions are the same as for state schools. The State Education Quality Service has the right to take a decision regarding the cancellation of the assessment of an educational institution, examination centre, accreditation of an educational program or the head of an educational institution in the following cases, including false or misleading information and violations specified in regulatory enactments in the field of education, protection of children's rights, epidemiological safety, construction or fire safety.
The work of HEIs is determined by the 1995 Law on Higher Education Institutions. The Ministry of Education and Science supervises compliance with this Law in higher education institutions and colleges and is responsible for State policy in the field of higher education. The Minister for Education and Science represents the interests of higher education institutions and colleges in the Saeima and the Cabinet. Higher education institutions are divided into university and non-university higher education institutions, universities being more focused on research and scientific work. Higher education institutions and colleges founded by private persons are commercial companies or foundations which operate in accordance with the Commercial Law or the Associations and Foundations Law insofar as they are not in conflict with the Law on Higher Education Institutions. In the State Education Information System, currently, 53 non-university higher education institutions (this includes branches and related institutions) are registered, of which 10 have founded as State institutions, 6 as derived public entities, 33 as commercial structures, 1 as a public agency, 3 as legal or natural persons. Universities include 54 entities, this is together with branches and related institutions.
Registration and approval: the registration is carried out by the State Education Quality Service (IKVD). An institution of higher education, as well as any of its branches, commences operation on the day when it is registered in the Register of Higher Educational Institutions. The Law on Higher Education Institutions should be observed in the founding of a higher education institution or the opening of any of its branches.
An application by an authorized person regarding the registration of a higher educational institution is to be submitted within two months of the foundation of a higher educational institution. A draft of the constitution of the institution of higher education should be attached to the application (pursuant to Section 10, Paragraph two of the Law on Institutions of Higher Education). The application should be signed by all of the founders thereof.
The registration of a branch in the Register must be facilitated by the higher educational institution which has opened it. Within two months o the day when a decision on the opening of a branch of a higher education institution has been made, an authorized person must submit an application for the registration of the branch to the Register. The by-laws of the branch approved by the institution specified in the constitution of the higher educational institution is to be attached to the application for the registration of the branch.
According to Section 24, Paragraph three of the 1998 Education Law, an application for the registration of a college must include the following documents, which certify the conformity of the resources of the college (for example, financial resources, material technical and information basis, academic personnel) with the criteria specified by the Cabinet of Ministers with regard to the commencement of the operation of a college.
Documents, on the basis of which entries or amendments thereto have been made in the Register, are valid if they have been issued not earlier than one month prior to submission to the Register. This provision does not pertain to court adjudications.
Documents on the basis of which new entries or amendments are to be made to the Register are to be submitted within 10 days of the day when the relevant decision is made (section 83).
Licence: Licensing for HEI programs is determined by the Law on Higher Education Institutions. A licence for the study programme should be obtained in order to commence the implementation of every study programme. Within one month after issuance of the licence for the study programme, the Academic Information Centre enters the study programme in the Educational Programmes Register. Within one year after licensing of a study programme, a higher education institution or college shall start the implementation of the relevant study programme.
Licensing of study programmes is organised by the Academic Information Centre. Expenditures for licensing of a study programme are covered by a higher education institution or college from the budget resources thereof. The price list of paid services of licensing process of study programmes is determined by the Cabinet.
The Higher Education Quality Commission is a collegial decision-making body in the composition of which shall be seven experts with experience in organising and ensuring higher education. The Higher Education Quality Commission decides to licence a study programme or a decision to refuse to licence a study programme within four months from the day when a submission of a higher education institution or college for licensing the relevant study programme has been received.
Profit-making: If registered as a commercial company, HEI can make a profit.
Taxes and subsidies: taxation regime depends on the legal status of HEI. If the HEI is a limited company it is taxed within the general framework of taxation for commercial companies. If the HEI is founded by a non-profit association or foundation it can claim public good status which would mean reduced taxes. However, there are a number of criteria it would have to meet in order to qualify.
Curriculum and education standards are the same as for state universities, defined by the the 1995 Law on Higher Education Institutions. Qualifications and certifications are the same as for state HEIs, description of academic staff makes part IV of the Law. Salaries and benefits are determined by the institution, there is no separate regulation. Working conditions are determined by the contract signed between NS NEI and the individual.
The 1995 Law on Higher Education Institutions states that the status of a state-recognized higher education institution or college is granted after successful accreditation (i.e. assessment of the work organization and quality of resources of a higher education institution or college. ). Study programmes must be licenced (i.e. HEI must get the right implement a specific study programme). Licensing gives legality to the programme, while accreditation ensures the quality of implementation. Both institutions and programmes must be accredited (1995 Law on Higher Education Institutions, Section 9 ). The accreditation procedure has strict regulations administered by the Academic Information Centre and carried out by a group of experts. State standards determine criteria for academic and professional study programmes.
Teaching profession: The 1995 Law on Higher Education Institutions stipulates that the qualifications and certifications are the same as for state HEIs. It states that salaries and benefits are determined by the institution. Working conditions are determined by the contract signed between the non-state institution and the individual.
Fee-setting: Fees are determined by the institution. Generally, fees at universities (also for non-budget places in State Universities) are quite high but candidates and students can make advantage of applying for so-called budget places (financed by the State). Private HEIs can apply for a small part of budget study places and receive state funding for high-quality and innovative study programs that are not offered in state HEIs.
Admission selection and processes: The admission selection process is determined by the institution.
Board: Higher education institutions are autonomous institutions of education and science with the right to self-governance. The main decision-making bodies of a higher education institution are the constitutional assembly, the senate, the rector and the academic arbitration court. The highest management body and decision-making body of a higher education institution in strategic, financial and economic issues shall be the founder thereof, but the highest representation and management body and decision-making body in academic and scientific issues - the constitutional assembly of a higher education institution.
Reporting requirements: The reporting requirements are determined by the accreditation procedure.
Inspection: same as for State Universities, it includes accreditation of the study field - an inspection to determine the quality of the resources of a higher education institution or college and the ability to implement a study programme corresponding to a specific study field in accordance with the laws and regulations. The process is organized by the Academic Information Centre and is carried out by a group of 7 experts and involvement of the Council of Higher Education. After the opinion of the Council of Higher Education on accreditation has been received, the Academic Information Centre issues the relevant document of accreditation. HEIs should also implement their own internal quality assurance systems.
Assessment: Principles and procedures of student assessment are outlined in “The Regulations on the State Academic Education Standard” (part IV, ‘’Basic principles and procedure of study program acquisition evaluation’’.
Diplomas and degrees: an institution has the right to issue degrees and diplomas recognised by the State if it complies with the accreditation procure. Received accreditation from confirmed by the decision of the Council of Higher Education grants the right “to issue State-recognised diplomas for the acquisition of an accredited study programme following approval of the constitution of the higher education institution in the Cabinet or the Saeima or the approval of the college by-laws in the Cabinet”.
Sanctions on institutional closures: The decision to revoke a licence for the study program is taken by the Higher Education Quality Commission.
Private tuition can be offered by teachers, who have recognized professional qualifications and either implement an educational programme at an educational institution or in certified private practice. State Education Quality Service (IKVD) issues certificates for private practice (to be renewed every 3 years ) and administers all related processes (renewal etc). The registry of teacher private practices is administered in the State Education Information System (VIIS) and is open to the public. Information on all licenced programmes (i.e. registered programmes which can be officially taught, e.g. in private tutoring centres) is publicly available at the National database of educational opportunities (NIID), administered by the State Education Development Agency (VIAA).
In order to issue a state-recognized diploma, the programme should also be accredited.
In order to establish a tutoring centre, the service provider should first choose its status (e.g. LCC) and register the Commercial Register (with educational activities being included in the statutes). After that, the educational institution must be registered with the State Education Quality Service (IKVD). Registration at IKVD is free. The application should be accompanied by the regulations of the educational institution approved by the founder of the educational institution and other documents certifying the information referred to in the application. Teachers who realize the programmes must have corresponding teaching qualifications.
In order to register as a private teacher, one needs to apply to the State Education Quality Service (indicating target groups, the name of the educational program, the planned location or places of private practice and providing documents on corresponding teaching qualifications and knowledge of the Latvian language). Upon issuing the certificate for private practice the State Education Quality Service (IKVD) enters information on in into the State Education Information System (VIIS).
If registered as a commercial company, private tutoring companies are taxed accordingly. All programmes must be licenced and if the programme is also accredited private tutoring company can issue state-recognized diplomas and certificates. No specific incentives detected for becoming tutoring companies.
Teachers realizing the programmes must have corresponding teaching qualifications, listed in the 2018 Regulations regarding the education and professional qualifications required for teachers and the procedure for the improvement of teachers' professional competence.