NON-STATE ACTORS IN EDUCATION

 1. Terminology

2. Typology of provision

2.1 State education provision 

2.2 Non-state education provision 

2.3 Other types of schools 

3. Governance and regulations

3.1 Regulations by distinct levels of education

3.2 Supplementary private tutoring 

 

  1. Terminology

The Federal State of Micronesia (FMS) Title 40 regulates primary, secondary state, and non-state educational institutions and public tertiary education in the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM); although no official definition is given, the chapter does mention the importance of private schools to the educational development of Micronesia. The Educational Digest 2018 describes the types of ownership and management of schools either by the government or by non-government agencies such as the Church and other private sectors, defining non-public schools or private schools as those managed by private entities.

 

  1. Typology of provision

2.1 State education provision

State schools

In Micronesia, most schools in primary education (grades 1st - 8th, beginning at age six) and secondary education (grades 9th -12th beginning at age 14) are state schools (88%). However, the number of years of primary and secondary education sometimes varies across states. Compulsory education covers from first grade to eighth grade (ages six- 14). The National Department of Education (NDOE) established a national curriculum, but States can modify it according to context.

Non-state managed, state schools

No information was found.

Non-state funded, state schools

No information was found.

2.2 Non-state education provision

Independent, non-state schools

Non-government schools or private schools are managed and financed by non-state actors such as private entities or denominational organizations. In 2018 non-state educational institutions represented 12% (21 educational institutions) of the educational institutions in Micronesia, with most of the schools being church schools, owned and managed by denominational organizations (19 educational institutions).

State-funded (government-aided), non-state schools

State-funded schools are those own, managed but partially financed by the state. In FMS, the state partially funds religious schools, including the Roman Catholic Church, the Seventh Day Adventist Church, the Calvary Baptist Church and Protestant denominations. These schools are regulated by the state, which exercises overall supervisory control. According to Title 40 on Education on Aid to Nonpublic Schools Fund, funds can be provided for health services, transportation services, textbooks, staff salaries, instructional materials, or other government-approved purposes.

Contracted, non-state schools

No information was found.

2.3 Other types of schools

Homeschooling

Homeschool is permitted in Micronesia. Parents must apply to the Secretary and the State Boards of Education and ensure the minimum standards for home learning will be met. If the minimum standards cease to be fulfilled, the Secretary or the State Board of Education may revoke its approval.

Market contracted (Voucher schools)

No information was found.

Unregistered/Unrecognised schools

No information was found.

 

  1. Governance and regulations

The Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) is composed of a central government and four independent states with their own government. At a central level, the National Department of Education (NDOE) is responsible for setting national standards for school accreditation, standards for teacher certification, and national overseen of the school system through the Division Formal and No-Formal Education and Schools responsible for Basic Education, Accreditation and Early Childhood Education, Primary and Secondary education for state and non-state schools. Tertiary Education is the responsibility of the Congress of FMS with cooperation with the National Department of Education for specialized educational recommendations.

At a regional level, each state government has its Board of Education which oversees the respective State Departments of Education (SDOE). Each SDOE is responsible for providing direct educational services to state and non-state educational institutions, including administration, curriculum development, scholarship schemes, and monitoring of the educational institutions in their jurisdiction. Each SDOE can also adjust the national standards set by NDOE to suit their context, keeping in mind that the national standards are the minimum standards, and the states cannot vary them below that minimum level.

Vision: The Education Sector Strategic Development Plan 2020-2024 includes fostering partnerships with all school communities and national and international stakeholders. The Education Sector Strategic Development Plan 2020-2024 includes the development and expanding ECE policy in FSM. ECE in the FSM is mainly financed through the US federally funded Head Start Program, each state adopted and modified Head Start Program rules and regulations to accommodate their unique dispositions in demographics, cultural context, and jurisdictions.

 

3.1 Regulations by distinct levels of education
 

In the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), the law does not require children under six to attend any educational institution. According to Title 40 on Education, Early Childhood Education (ECE) or preschool includes children ages three-five. Although the age range for children attending ECE in the FSM is stated as being from 3 to 5 years of age, there is some age variance across states, and each state is determined slightly different regarding the age for school attendance at the ECE level. In 2018 there were 24 ECCE schools in FSM and ECCE still has a low enrolment rate (in 2020 - 60% enrolment).

Entry/Establishment

Registration and approval: No information was found.

Licence: No information was found.

Financial operation

Profit-making: No information was found.

Taxes and subsidies: No information was found.

Quality of teaching and learning

Curriculum and education standards: The Education Sector Strategic Development Plan 2020-2024 includes within its goals for ECE a harmonized and standardized version of an ECE curriculum. ECCE is normally provided in the vernacular language until third grade.

Teaching profession: According to the 2016 FSM Teacher Certification Policy, ECE teachers must obtain a teacher certification to work and at state or non-state ECCE centers.

Equitable access

Fee-setting: No information was found.

Admission selection and processes: No information was found.

Policies for vulnerable groups: No information was found.

Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability

Reporting requirements: National officials follow up twice a year on the efforts of the program coordinator to monitor and evaluate the ECCE centers under their jurisdiction using specific toolkits, which include tracking individual child development.

Inspection: No information was found.

Child assessment: No information was found.

Sanctions: No information was found.

 

Entry/Establishment

Registration and approval: According to the FMS Education Title 40, to establish and operate a private school in FMS, an individual, legal entity, or religious affiliation must apply for authorization from the Secretary of Education or state governor. All applications must include the required documentation, including information on the staff qualifications, locations, course and language of instruction, financial statement, and state standards on sanitation. Applications will be reviewed by the State Director of Education and the State Board of Education of the State in which the school will be located.

Licence: Upon receipt and approval of the application by the Secretary, an annual license to operate the school, renewable by the Secretary upon a finding by the State Director of Education that the school is operating consistent with the terms of its charter and other applicable regulations. In the case of Pohnpei, a permit is granted for five years and can be renewed in the same manner as initially issued. Assisted schools are granted with a charter for up to 15 years in the form of a mutual agreement between the chartered school and the FSM authorizing the establishment of the school and an annual license to operate the school. Any person or persons who knowingly permit or engage in the establishment and operation of a private school within the FSM in violation of applicable laws or regulations shall be guilty of a violation of this section and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than $500.

Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH): The Kosrae State Code on private schools specifies that all schools must comply with personal hygiene and structural safety regulations.

Financial operation

Profit-making: No information was found.

Taxes and subsidies: According to the Aid to Nonpublic Schools Fund, aid can be allocated to nonpublic schools for secular purposes only, including, but not limited to, health services, transportation services, textbooks, instructors’ salaries, and instructional materials or support through an annual subsidy to church schools. The Code of the State of Pohnpei specifies that the State Department will notify non-state schools of the availability of funds for schools to apply for grants for infrastructure or other school projects. The national state pays a subsidy to private high schools to encourage the continuing provision of basic education.

Quality of teaching and learning

Curriculum and education standards: The Language Policy dictates that the local language may be used for lower levels, including ECCE until third grade. From fourth grade up, lessons should be taught in English as it is the official language of FSM. FSM Department of Education has a national curriculum, but states can accommodate it accordingly to the specific contexts. According to the Code of the State of Pohnpei private schools must comply with the curriculum established by the State Department of Education.

Textbooks and learning materials: No information was found.

Teaching profession: All teachers, from public and private schools, must obtain a National Teacher Certification from the FSM Department of Education and meet the qualification requirements to be employed at any educational institution. In cooperation with the state Directors of Education, the Secretary of Education establishes the minimum qualification requirements of the certifications. If the teacher ceases to fulfill the requirements established, the Secretary can revoke or suspend the certificate. Each State Department of Education can further establish specific requirements for state and non-state teachers, including additional training.

Corporal punishment: According to the Code of the State of Pohnpei, no physical punishment of any kind shall be inflicted upon a student. However, a department employee may use reasonable force to restrain a student, in attendance, from inflicting harm on self or others or damaging property.

Other safety measures and COVID-19: FMS, unlike other places, did not close its schools for a prolonged period of time but also created a contingency and recovery plan for the sector, which includes addressing learning loss, enabling environment for distance learning mechanisms and measures on socio-emotional skills, support parents and caregivers and teacher’s capacity.

Equitable access

Fee-setting: No information was found.

Admission selection and processes: The Code of the State of Pohnpei, establishes that no public or private school can receive any student who has previously attended a different school in the state without receiving a certificate of release from the school last attended unless such certificate is impossible to obtain. If the student is applying to enter a higher grade, a certificate of proficiency shall also be required.

Policies for vulnerable groups: According to the Code of the State of Pohnpei, no educational institution shall refuse admission or expel, discipline, segregate, deny participation, benefits, or services to a student or prospective student based on their actual, perceived, or believed HIV status.

Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability

School board: According to the Code of the State of Pohnpei, state and private schools must establish a Parent-Teacher Association for each school.

Reporting requirements: All public and non-public schools must go through an accreditation certification process that verifies institutional compliance with the minimum educational standards. All elementary and secondary schools must also follow the criteria accreditation with a standardized evaluation tool to ensure compliance with minimum standards, including organization, staff and teachers, curricular programs, student-teacher ratio, and school plant and physical facilities. Educational institutions obtain a score based on the level of fulfillment with the standards. Depending on the level of compliance, a special national certificate of achievement is provided for the next three years and is only required to prepare an annual self-study plan. Schools with lower scores undergo certification annually or must develop a recovery and re-start plan for three years. According to Kosrae State Code on private schools, the Department of Education may require private schools to submit regular reports on attendance and other matters of public concern. According to the State of Pohnpei Code, all schools, whether public or private, must keep a student register of the name, gender, age, nationality, entrance date, and place of residence and must submit an annual report to the Secretary of Pohnpei State Education.

School inspection: The accreditation process requires the institution to be inspected to certify compliance with educational standards and requirements for certification and approval annually or every three years.

Student assessment: The NDOE is responsible for implementing the national student assessment in Literacy and Numeracy is the National Minimum Competency Test (NMCT), which assesses student learning based on the standards of the FSM national curriculum. The test for reading is administered to all 6th, 8th, and 10th-grade students and the mathematics test is administered to 4th, 6th, 8th, and 10th-grade students. The Pacific Islands Literacy and Numeracy Assessment (PILNA) measures and monitors Grade 4 and Grade 6 students in Literacy and Numeracy across the Pacific region. The Code of the State of Pohnpei establishes that the Department administers standard achievement tests periodically at specific grade levels to measure the state and private schools' performance.

Diplomas and degrees: According to the Kosrae State Code, the government does not recognize any credit provided to a student from a school that does not follow the private schools’ regulations.

Sanctions: No information was found.

 

Tertiary education in FMS is provided by the College of Micronesia (COM-FSM), a public higher education institution with the main campus in Pohnpei and linked campuses in each state and open its first bachelor degree in 2019. The College of Micronesia has had several partnerships with foreign universities and a partnership with the University of Hawai‘i. Governance over higher education is under the responsibility of the Congress of FMS in cooperation with the National Department of Education.

Entry/Establishment

Registration and approval: No information was found.

Licence: No information was found.

Financial operation

Profit-making: No information was found.

Taxes and subsidies: No information was found.

Quality of teaching and learning

Curriculum and education standards: No information was found.

Teaching profession: No information was found.

Equitable access

Fee-setting: No information was found.

Admission selection and processes: No information was found.

Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability

Board: No information was found.

Reporting requirements: No information was found.

Inspection: No information was found.

Assessment: No information was found.

Diplomas and degrees: No information was found.

Sanctions: No information was found.

 

3.2 Supplementary private tutoring

Entry/Establishment

No information was found. 

Financial operation and quality

No information was found. 

Teaching profession

No information was found.  

Última modificación:

Vie, 26/11/2021 - 15:30