NON-STATE ACTORS IN EDUCATION

1. Terminology

2. Typology of provision

2.1 State education provision 

2.2 Non-state education provision 

2.3 Other types of schools 

3. Governance and regulations

3.1 Regulations by distinct levels of education

3.2 Multi-level regulations 

3.3 Supplementary private tutoring 

 

  1. Terminology

The 2001 Lei de Bases do Sistema de Educação which governed all education levels, established that education initiatives may belong to the central and local government or to public or private natural or legal persons. The basic education law was revoked in 2016 with the approval of the Lei de Bases do Sistema de Educaçao e Ensino (Lei no. 17/2016). The new law, establishes that the initiative to develop education is a responsibility of the State, complemented, complemented by the entrepreneurial initiative of private or public-private entities, regulated under a specific statute. Pre-school, primary and secondary institutions can be public, private, or public-private.

 

  1. Typology of provision

2.1 State education provision

State schools

 

Angola’s education system comprises 10 years of compulsory education: 1 year of pre-primary education, 6 years of primary education and the first cycle of secondary general education which comprises 3 years. The first cycle of pre-primary education for children aged 3-5 is not compulsory, as well as the second cycle of secondary education and tertiary education.

Gross enrolment at different education levels varies widely across the different education levels, with almost 100% of children enrolled in primary education, 70% in junior secondary, 47% in senior secondary, and over 10% in higher education according to the Plano Desenvolvimiento Nacional 2018-2022 de Angola. The share of students enrolled in public and private education in each education level is not specified in the plan.

According to the preliminary version of the Plano Nacional de Desenvolvimiento da Educaçao “Educar-Angola 2030”, there are 12,023 schools across the country, of which 8,437 are public, 2,044 private and 1,542 comparticipadas. The number of private and public schools varies depending on each province. Private and co-participated schools are concentrated in Bié and Luanda. The number of students per class is high, reaching an average of 43 students.

Non-state managed, state schools

No information was found.

Non-state funded, state schools

No information was found.

2.2 Non-state education provision

Independent, non-state schools

Private sector enrolment in primary education is relatively small and comprised 14% of all primary education enrolments in 2015. In this year, there were 12,907 primary schools across the country, of which 80% were public. However, it has grown steadily in recent years, particularly in Luanda where the majority of private schools in the country are situated. However, many teachers and education personnel risk losing their jobs due to the lack of financial capacity of private schools. In 2020, 170,000 teachers and education employees risked being laid off because private schools didn’t have the financial capacity to pay for their salaries. 

International schools. These schools which follow an international curriculum can be found in Luanda and are typically managed, funded and operated by a company or embassy with a presence in the country. These schools include the American School of Angola, the Escola Portuguesa de Lycée Français Alioune Blondin Beye de Luanda amongst others.

State-funded (government-aided), non-state schools

The Lei de Bases do Sistema de Educação establishes in its article 57 related to financing that the State may co-finance private institutions, as long as this is relevant from a public or strategic interest.

Contracted, non-state schools

No information was found.

2.3 Other types of schools

Homeschooling

No information was found.

Market contracted (Voucher schools)

No information was found.

Unregistered/Unrecognised schools

There is no evidence of the number of unregistered schools in Angola. During the pandemic, unrecognised private schools by the Huambo Provincial Office of Education registered for the school year as some owners were taking advantage of the demand and difficulties in public education, which led to parents accepting any educational offer available.

 

  1. Governance and regulations

According to the  Lei de Bases do Sistema de Educação (2001), the Minister of Education and Culture oversees defining the general norms of the education system. Private and public schools must be registered in the Management and Information System (SIGE, in Portuguese) of the Ministry of Education. Article 101 established that private education institutions are subject to the coordination, regulation, and supervision of the State and that the State, through the Executive Power, establishes the rules for the creation, organization, functioning, evaluation, supervision and closure of private and public-private education Institutions, under the terms of this Law and other applicable legislation. In the relationship with private and public-private education institutions, the 2001 law established that the President of the Executive Branch shall exercise specific competencies in the organization and management of the different education subsystems. Private and public-private education institutions must collaborate with the State in the formulation and execution of the National Policies of Education, Culture, Science and Technology and in the Local and National Development Programs.

With respect to governance, the Lei de Bases do Sistema de Educaçao e Ensino (Lei no. 17/2016) established in article 101 that private educational institutions are subject to the coordination, regulation and auditing from the State. The State, through the Executive powers establishes the rules for the creation, establishment, functioning, approval, audit and sanctions and closures of private and public-private institutions.  

The Associação Nacional do Ensino Particular defends the rights of private schools across the country.

Vision: The Plano Desenvolvimiento Nacional 2018-2022 de Angola sought to create an equitable Education system oriented to create equal opportunities for access to Education and training. However, there is no mention of the specific role of non-state actors for fulfilling this and other purposes. In the framework of the National Action Plan “Educação para Todos” 2013- 2020, the government of Angola implemented in partnership with various civil society organizations the School Acceleration and Literacy Programme which aims to provide adequate and equitable remedial education opportunities for children.   

 

3.1 Regulations by distinct levels of education
 

According to UNICEF, in Angola only 11% of children have access to Early Childhood Education. The Government of Angola is committed to improve access to pre-primary education for children across the country and delegated the Ministry of Social Action, Family and Women's Promotion (MASFAMU) with the support from UNICEF to draft a National Early Childhood Policy.

Entry/Establishment

Registration and approval: No information was found.

Licence: No information was found.

Financial operation

Profit-making: No information was found.

Taxes and subsidies: No information was found.

Quality of teaching and learning

Curriculum and education standards: No information was found.

Teaching profession: No information was found.

Equitable access

Fee-setting: No information was found.

Admission selection and processes: No information was found.

Policies for vulnerable groups: No information was found.

Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability

Reporting requirements: No information was found.

Inspection: No information was found.

Child assessment: No information was found.

Sanctions: No information was found.

Entry/Establishment

Registration and approval: Private Education was formely regulated under article 69 of the Lei de Bases do Sistema de Educação which establishes that natural or legal persons are granted the possibility of opening educational establishments under the control of the State under the terms to be regulated in a specific diploma.

The Lei de Bases do Sistema de Educaçao e Ensino (Lei no. 17/2016) regulates the provision of education in private educational institutions. These institutions should align to the principles that govern the education system in order to operate.

Licence: No information was found

Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH): No information was found.

Financial operation

Profit-making: No information was found.

Taxes and subsidies: No information was found.

Quality of teaching and learning

Curriculum and education standards: No information was found.

Textbooks and learning materials: No information was found.

Teaching profession: No information was found.

Corporal punishment: No information was found.

Other safety measures and COVID-19: No information was found.

Equitable access

Fee-setting: As a result of the COVID-19 crisis, the government of Angola stopped charging fees in all public, private-public and private institutions across the country.

Admission selection and processes: No information was found.

Policies for vulnerable groups: No information was found.

Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability

School board: No information was found.

Reporting requirements: No information was found.

School inspection: No information was found.

Student assessment: No information was found.

Diplomas and degrees: No information was found.

Sanctions: No information was found.

In 2009 the Government of Angola approved the Decree 90/09 which establishes the basic laws for the functioning of the tertiary education system. This regulation complemented the Resolution no. 4/07 which provided guidelines for improving the management of the higher education system. The Decree refers to the management, quality and establishment of private and public-private tertiary institutions.

Entry/Establishment

Registration and approval: The Decree 90/09 established that the Ministry of Education had the competences for establishing private and public-private higher education institutions.

License: The Minister of education   checks the compliance of requirements for the creation, licensing and operation of public-private higher education institutions. Article 84 of the Decree 90 establishes the general conditions for the licenses for the operation of private institutions.

Financial operation

Profit-making: A private promoter ensures the normal development of private universities, including their profit-making.

Taxes and subsidies: No information was found.

Quality of teaching and learning

Curriculum and education standards: The Ministry establishes general curricular and pedagogical norms and issues general methodological guidelines with the purpose of ensuring a harmonization of the syllabus and plans of studies.

Teaching profession: No information was found.

Equitable access

Admission selection and processes: No information was found.

Fee-setting: No information was found.

Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability

Board: The Ministry of Education according to the Decree 90/09 approves the designation of the heads of the management bodies of public-private higher institutions.

Reporting requirements: No information was found.

Inspection: No information was found.

Assessment: No information was found.

Diplomas and degrees: No information was found.

Sanctions: No information was found.

3.3 Supplementary private tutoring

Supplementary private tuition or shadow education is a widespread phenomenon in many African countries including Angola. Even though reliable statistics are scarce, it is estimated that 94% of surveyed students in grades 11 and 12 in Angola in 2015 were receiving or had received tutoring at some time. However, despite its prevalence, there is very little information available on the regulation of provision of tutoring by teachers in the country and there was no evidence of a law that was regulating supplementary private tuition at different education levels.

Entry/Establishment

No information was found.

Financial operation and quality

No information was found.

Teaching profession

No information was found.

 

 

Última modificación:

Jue, 25/11/2021 - 19:53