NON-STATE ACTORS IN EDUCATION

1. Terminology

2. Typology of provision

2.1 State education provision 

2.2 Non-state education provision 

2.3 Other types of schools 

3. Governance and regulations

3.1 Regulations by distinct levels of education

3.2 Multi-level regulations 

3.3 Supplementary private tutoring 

 

  1. Terminology

Private education institutions in Turkey are mentioned in the following main education laws although they do not define the term. The Republic of Turkey Constitution (1982) states that principles of private primary and secondary schools are regulated by law in accordance with the level desired to be achieved with public schools. There are two general education laws in Turkey. The Basic Law of National Education (1973) organizes the management of formal and non-formal education institutions. In relation to formal institutions, the law states that education-related activities of each public, private and voluntary organization are subject to an inspection of the Ministry of National Education (MoNE) in terms of compliance with objectives of national education. According to Primary Education and Training Law (1961), girls and boys who are Turkish citizens are obliged to complete their primary school education in public or private Turkish primary schools. In addition, the Law of Vocational Education (1986), which regulates the principles of regulates the principles of vocational education and training.

However, the Private Education Institutions Law (2007) defines private institutions and regulates the establishment and operation of private schools.

According to The Law of Higher Education (1981), the non-state actors in the provision of high education are foundations. Republic of Turkey Constitution (1982) states that foundations can establish higher education institutions and vocational higher schools, provided that they are not for profit purposes.

 

  1. Typology of provision

2.1 State education provision

State schools

In Turkey, most education in primary education (four years, beginning at age six), lower secondary education (four years, beginning at age 10) and upper secondary education (four years, beginning at age 14) are provided by the state (the share of public schools in primary education, lower secondary education and upper secondary education was 85.5% in 2021 ). Free and compulsory education covers primary education to upper secondary education.

Non-state managed, state schools

No information was found.

Non-state funded, state schools

According to the Regulation of MoNE School-Parent Association (2012), school-parent associations in every state school are responsible for purchasing goods and services to meet the needs of the school. The regulation states that the association can accept in-kind and cash donations to the school and generate financial resources by managing the school cafeteria and renting school facilities such as parking lots, gyms, and multi-purpose halls. School-parent association budgets are important for financing of state schools in Turkey since public resources distributed to state schools are limited. No specific data was found for the share of school-parent association budget on total financial resources schools. However, there are major differences in school-parent association budgets in relation to the socioeconomic status of parents in the school.

In line with the objectives in 2023 Education Vision (2018) and the Ministry of National Education 2019-2023 Strategic Plan, the MoNE has signed bilateral corporation protocols with foundations, associations representing multiple sectors and companies, leading companies, and sector leaders for vocational education and training (VET). These protocols can be considered public-private partnerships Although there are certain differences in each protocol, common agendas are establishing and/or equipping workshops in vocational and technical Anatolian high schools, on-the-job internships, scholarships, and job opportunities after graduation for VET students, professional development of teachers and educators, and curriculum development.

2.2 Non-state education provision

In 2006, the number of private schools at all levels from pre-primary to secondary education was 2,718 and the number of students studying in these schools was 335,939. By 2021, there are 13,501 private schools and 1,310,605 students studying in these schools.

Independent, non-state schools

In the second article of Private Education Institutions Law (2007), different types of private schools other than Turkish private schools are defined. These are foreign schools (0.2% of total schools), minority schools (0.4% of total non-state schools) and international private education institutions 1.8% of total non-state schools) in 2021. The differences between these types are based on owner’s citizenship, owner’s and students’ legal status and students’ citizenship, respectively. Only foreign students can attend international private education institutions while there is no such restriction for foreign schools, which can be established by foreign individuals. Minority schools refer to pre-primary, primary and secondary education private schools established by Greek, Armenian and Jewish minorities, guaranteed by the Treaty of Lausanne (1923), and attended by students from the Republic of Turkey who belong to their own minority group.

The majority of private education institutions in pre-primary to secondary education are Turkish private schools (97.9% of total schools). Considering the education levels, the private school rate is the highest in pre-primary education (40.8% of private schools). This level is followed by upper-secondary education (28% of private schools).

State-funded (government-aided), non-state schools

No information was found.

Contracted, non-state schools

No information was found.

2.3 Other types of schools

Homeschooling

The necessary legal mechanism for homeschooling does not exist in Turkey. Anything related to homeschooling is not mentioned in main education laws like The Basic Law of National Education (1973). The most similar application to homeschooling is open educational institutions which is a form of distance and non-formal education. Although students are enrolled in these schools, they do not receive face-to-face education. They follow courses through national channels or the internet and take exams from these courses at certain times of the year. Open educational institutions are available for students especially in lower secondary education, and in higher education. Regulation on Pre-primary and Primary Education Institutions (2014) states that students who are not completed primary education by the age of 14 are directed to the open schools in lower secondary level. All students who are graduated from a lower secondary education institution can enrol open schools in upper secondary level. A similar situation applies to students who graduated from upper secondary education. They can enrol open schools in higher education levels instead of universities in formal education.

Market contracted (Voucher schools)

No information was found.

Unregistered/Unrecognised schools

No information was found.

 

  1. Governance and regulations

MoNE is responsible for the execution, supervision and control of education services on behalf of the state in accordance with the provisions of The Basic Law of National Education (1973), including the education service provided in private schools. MoNE is the main responsible authority for early childhood education services, however 0-68 months old children can also have their education in institutions affiliated with Ministry of Family and Social Services (MoFSS). The opening, closing and supervision works and procedures of private Kindergarten and Day Care Centers are carried out by the Provincial Directorates of Family and Social Services located in 81 provinces.

The General Directorate of Private Education Institutions affiliated with the MoNE is responsible for determining the working procedures and principles, certification criteria and personnel qualifications, developing curricula, monitoring, evaluating, and supervising the activities of private educational institutions affiliated with MoNE. The building, layout plan of all private education institutions and the standard of the tools to be used in these institutions are determined by the Private Education Institutions Standards Directive (2020). The standards that school buildings should have are different for each education level.

Provincial national education directorates and governorships also have responsibilities for the opening of private education institutions. Applications for permission to open a private education institution are made to the provincial directorate of national education. The eligibility of the institution requested to be opened for the permission is examined by the governorships. There is a provincial directorate of national education and governorship in every province in Turkey.

All higher education activities are regulated by The Council of Higher Education. The Council of Higher Education is an institution that directs the activities of higher education institutions and has autonomy and public legal personality within the framework of the duties and authorities given to it by The Law of Higher Education (1981). According to The Regulation on Foundation Higher Education Institutions (2005), foundations that want to establish a higher education institution have to apply to the Council of Higher Education after preparing the necessary application documents.

Vision: five objectives in the goals related to private educational institutions in 2023 Education Vision (2018) are as follows:

  • The bureaucracy involved in the private education system will be reduced.
  • The system of inspection and guidance activities at private education institutions will be converted into one that focuses on improving learning.
  • New models and programs at private education institutions that are in line with accreditation standards will be structured in the form of new pilot schools or programs.
  • Joint projects and platforms will be developed to promote social solidarity and integration between private and public schools
  • To serve the objective of expanding Turkey’s area of influence in education, necessary measures will be taken to increase the number of international private education institutions that can be attended by foreign students living in Turkey.

 The Presidential Annual Program for the Year 2022 also supports non-state provision in education more broadly in its policies and activities.

 

3.1 Regulations by distinct levels of education
 

Pre-primary education in Turkey is not within the scope of compulsory education. According to 2020 data from National Education Statistics (2021),56.89% of 5-year-olds receive pre-school education. The reason for the decrease in 5-year-old enrolment rate is due to the fact that pre-primary education is optional and the decrease in enrolments due to the Covid-19 pandemic.This rate is lower for children under 5 years old. However, the share of private institutions has decreased in recent years due to MoNE’s effort on opening state schools. According to the Regulation on Pre-School and Primary Education Institutions, preschool education is free of charge in public preschools, however parents and guardians are expected to pay for certain provisions such as catering (breakfast, lunch, and snacks), and other school expenses, such as learning materials (pens, pencils, glue, flashcards, etc.) and cleaning. The school management has also the possibility of not requesting any fees. According to recent data gathered, 31% of parents did not pay any fees for additional services. According to Regulation on Establishment and Functional Principles of Private Creches, Day Care Centres, and Children’s Clubs children under the age of 3 can enrol in private creches and daily care centres.

Considering non-state education provision, there are two types of private education institutions in early childhood and care education: Those affiliated with the MoNE and those that are not. The majority of non-state education providers are affiliated with the MoNE. All early childhood care and education institutions regardless of their affiliation are subject to the supervision of MoNE in terms of education-related matters. According to National Education Statistics (2020), there are private creches and care centres affiliated with MoFSS. In addition to this, some private creches are opened in accordance with the Labor Law (1971), which is not affiliated with MoNE. Also, there are daily care centres for 3-5 age group and 4-6 age group courses dependent to the Presidency of Religious Affairs, which is called “community-based institutions” in Turkey. Daily care centres for 3-5 age group can be operated by associations and municipalities. According to National Education Statistics (2020), community-based institutions are public but not affiliated to the MoNE or MoFSS.

According to the Regulation on the Establishment, Operation and Principles of Private Creches, Day Care Centers and Private Children's Clubs (2015), the education programs prepared by the MoNE are used in the early childhood care and education institutions affiliated to MoFSS, and their audits are carried out by the MoNE in terms of education services.

Entry/Establishment

Registration and approval: See Multi-level regulations.

Licence: See Multi-level regulations.

According to the Regulation on Opening, Closing and Naming Education Institutions, preschool classes should have 2.40 square meters for each child. In order to open a preschool, there must be 20 children registered.

According to Regulation on Private Education Institutions (2012), pre-primary education institutions are established in buildings with a garden of at least 1.5 square meters for each student. The regulation also states that class size cannot be higher than 20 in pre-primary education, however this number can be higher if there is demand and the indoor space is bigger. The same standards are also valid for private kindergartens and day care centers operating within the scope of the Regulation on the Establishment and Operational Principles of Private Kindergarten and Day Care Centers and Private Children's Clubs, numbered 29342, prepared in 2015.

Financial operation

Profit-making: See Multi-level regulations.

Taxes and subsidies: See Multi-level regulations.

Quality of teaching and learning

Curriculum and education standards: See Multi-level regulations.

In Turkey, there are two curriculum frameworks that are compulsory for settings enrolling children aged 3 to 5: the Preschool Education Programme for 36-68 months and the Special preschool education programme for 37-78 months (the latter implemented in special education preschool settings only). At ISCED level 01, there are also two compulsory curriculum frameworks in place: the Education programme for 0-36 months and the Special early childhood education programme for 0-36 months, which is implemented in special early childhood education settings. The Ministry of National Education is the responsible authority for developing and supervising implementation of curricula for both ISCED 01 and 02 levels, while the Ministry of Family and Social Services is the responsible authority for implementing the curricula in ISCED 01.

Equitable access

Fee-setting: See Multi-level regulations.

Admission selection and processes: See Multi-level regulations.

Policies for vulnerable groups:

“My Playbox” is implemented under the home-based early childhood care and education model, focuses especially on children aged 5 and their families living in underprivileged conditions with limited or no access to early childhood education services. Volunteer teachers are supporting children's home-based early childhood education by using My Playbox during visits to the children’s homes at least once a month.

Alternative models have also been developed for children living in disadvantaged areas to benefit from preschool education.

Children of martyr, war cripple, veteran and deprived parents as 1/10 rate of their capacity can benefit from public childcare centres free of charge provided that they certify their status (see Art 68(4) of the Regulation on Preschool Education Institutions of the MoNE). Families in these difficult situations can benefit from this provision, although there is a quota of 10% of the school capacity. Disabled children are given priority for the exemption.

Stationery expenses of the preschools in the neighbourhood having densely economically disadvantaged people are reimbursed from this allowance.

The families also receive cash support on the condition that the child has attended school regularly.

For more information, see Multi-level regulations.

Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability

Reporting requirements: See Multi-level regulations.

Inspection: See Multi-level regulations.

Child assessment: According to the Preschool Education Programme (2013);

  •  the process of monitoring the development of the child is recorded with the "Development Observation Form".
  • Progress Report: An assessment of the child's knowledge, skills, attitudes and habits covering all developmental areas is done twice a year, at the end of the semester, based on the "Development Observation Form".
  • A “Development File (portfolio)” is formed for each child that includes the works of children, documents such as letters from families, and children's development observation forms and development reports.

Sanctions: See Multi-level regulations.

Entry/Establishment

Registration and approval: According to Regulation on Private Education Institutions (2012), private primary and secondary schools must be opened in buildings with a total garden of at least 500 square meters, provided that there are at least 2 square meters for each student. Class sizes cannot be higher than 30 in VET opened in industrial zones and 24 in other types of schools in primary and secondary education. For more information, see Multi-level regulations.

Licence: See Multi-level regulations.

Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH): No information was found.

Financial operation

Profit-making: See Multi-level regulations.

Taxes and subsidies: Between 2014 to 2019, MoNE evaluated the applicants according to certain criteria, such as the priority level and development status of the region where the school is located, the income level of the student's family, the number of students in the education region, the success level of the supported student and the school the student will attend, and gave them education and training support at different rates according to their education level so that they can study in private educational institutions. In practice, the amount of support is not given to the student, but to the private education institution where he/she is educated. The application has problems in terms of social justice, especially since the support does not cover all the fees. In 2019, a decision was made to gradually remove the education and training support except for vocational and technical Anatolian high school students. The amount of support for vocational and technical Anatolian high school students varies depending on whether the school is inside or outside of the Organized Industrial Zones or on the vocational fields in which the students are enrolled. For more information, see Multi-level regulations.

Quality of teaching and learning

Curriculum and education standards: See Multi-level regulations.

Textbooks and learning materials: There is no information in the Private Education Institutions Law (2007) and Regulation on Private Education Institutions (2012) on this subject. This may indicate that there is no difference between private and state schools in this regard. Textbooks are provided free of charge to the students who study in public schools and private education institutions.

Teaching profession: See Multi-level regulations.

Corporal punishment: No information was found in the Private Education Institutions Law (2007) and Regulation on Private Education Institutions (2012) on this subject.

Other safety measures and COVID-19: Within the scope of the "Cooperation Protocol for the Improvement of Hygiene Conditions in Educational Institutions and Prevention of Infection" signed between the Ministry of National Education and the Turkish Standards Institute on July 27, 2020, "My School is Clean" certification program has been put into effect in order to improve hygiene conditions and to maintain infection prevention and control processes with a consistent, valid, reliable and impartial understanding. Both private and state schools can apply to the certification program.

Equitable access

Fee-setting: See Multi-level regulations.

Admission selection and processes: Private high schools can accept students according to the central high school entrance exam. For more information, see Multi-level regulations.

Policies for vulnerable groups: See Multi-level regulations.

Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability

School board: No information was found.

Reporting requirements: See Multi-level regulations.

School inspection: See Multi-level regulations.

Student assessments: No information was found.

Diplomas and degrees: No information in the Private Education Institutions Law (2007) and Regulation on Private Education Institutions (2012) on this subject. Private education institutions deliver diplomas and degrees that are recognized similar to the ones offered by public institutions.

Sanctions: See Multi-level regulations.

All higher education activities are regulated by a public institution called The Council of Higher Education. The Council of Higher Education is an institution that directs the activities of higher education institutions and has autonomy and public legal personality within the framework of the duties and authorities given to it by The Law of Higher Education (1981). Activities and rules binding foundation higher education instructions are regulated through The Regulation on Foundation Higher Education Institutions (2005). There are two types of providers in higher education, which are the state and foundations.

Entry/Establishment

Registration and approval: According to The Regulation on Foundation Higher Education Institutions (2005), foundations that want to establish a higher education institution have to apply to the Council of Higher Education after preparing the necessary application documents. All applications are evaluated and approved by The Council of Higher Education. According to the procedure stipulated by the Higher Education Law No. 2547, the Foundation Higher Education Institution is established.

Licence: The documents required for obtaining a license are included in The Regulation on Foundation Higher Education Institutions (2005). It is necessary to document the availability of sufficient financial resources and the condition of the education-training facilities and materials necessary for the establishment of a higher education institution. Also, information and documents regarding the board of trustees of the higher education institution are submitted to The Council of Higher Education. In addition to the license, institutions also need a permit to start education. Commission under the presidency of The Council of Higher Education examines institutions and prepare a report to submit the presidency. After this step, permission to start education is given.

Financial operation

Profit-making: According to The Regulation on Foundation Higher Education Institutions (2005), foundations cannot establish higher education institutions for the purpose of profit-making. They cannot obtain any income, gain or rights from the higher education institution they have established.

Taxes and subsidies: Higher education institutions to be established by foundations shall benefit from the financial facilities, exemptions and exceptions contained in Article 56 of the Higher Education law No. 2547 in the same way and they shall be exempt from property tax.

The rules for state aid to foundation higher education institutions are as follows:

  • The institution must be open to education for at least two academic years.
  • At least 15% of the students in the institution have a full scholarship.
  • Granting scholarships to doctoral students and employing Turkish national faculty members living abroad at least for one year.
  • The number of students per faculty member is equal to or less than the average of the number of students per faculty member of all public higher education institutions.
  • To be in the first half among all higher education institutions considering the number of publications in well-known scientific journals per faculty member.
  • Placement of students who are at top 5% according to central university entrance exam scores to the institution.
  • To be in the first half among all higher education institutions considering the university entrance scores of the students placed in the institution.

Considering the total number of students placed in the university's formal education programs that year and the university entrance scores of the students, they enter the first half of all state universities,

Quality of teaching and learning

Curriculum and education standards:. Core Education Programs for Medicine, Dentistry, Pharmacy, Veterinary Medicine, Nursing, Nutrition and Dietetics, Child Development, Language and Speech Therapy, Midwifery, Occupational Therapy, Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, Health Management and Audiology Programs have been established by the Council of Higher Education. State and foundation higher education institutions determine the curricula of the said programs, taking into account the core education programs. In other higher education programs carried out in state and foundation higher education institutions, the curricula are determined by higher education institutions, taking into account the core competencies and qualifications of the field.

Teaching profession: In addition to the conditions sought for appointments in public higher education institutions, the academic conditions deemed necessary by the foundation higher education institution may also be sought in the appointment of academic staff. The working principles of academic and administrative staff are the same as in public higher education institutions. However, salary and benefits are determined by foundational higher education institutions where academic staff is employed. No less than the amount of wages paid in state higher education institutions may be charged.

Equitable access

Fee-setting:  Fees to be charged to students are determined by the board of trustees.

Admission selection and processes: Students admitted through the central placement system based on their score in the central higher education entrance exam. The upper limits of the quota of the students to be enrolled in the foundation higher education institutions are determined by The Council of Higher Education, the placement procedures are done by the Measurement, Selection and Placement Centre. This process is the same for public higher education institutions. Candidates for programs that admit students with a special talent exam in state and foundation higher education institutions are accepted according to the results of the special talent exam held by the relevant higher education institutions, provided that it is not less than the minimum YKS (Higher Education Institutions Exam) score determined by the Higher Education Council.

Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability

Board: The board of trustees is the highest decision-making body of the foundation higher education institution and represents the legal personality of the foundation higher education institution. The Board of Trustees consists of at least seven members who are qualified to be civil servants and who have received higher education. Members are elected by the foundation's governing body for 4 years and can be re-elected at the end of their term. The Board of Trustees elects a chairman among themselves. The Board of Trustees makes the contracts of the administrators, lecturers and other personnel, approves the appointments, promotions and dismissals of the personnel other than the instructors, accepts the budget of the higher education institution and monitors the practices. It also determines the tuitions collected from students.

Reporting requirements: Foundation higher education institutions submit an annual report to The Council of Higher Education at the end of each academic year. A copy of the detailed budget of the foundation higher education institution and the decisions of the board of trustees regarding the implementation of the budget are sent to The Council of Higher Education.

Inspection: Foundation higher education institutions are subject to the supervision and control of the Higher Education Council in education, administrative, financial, and economic matters.

Assessments: No information was found.

Diplomas and degrees: Foundation higher education institutions deliver diplomas and degrees that are recognized similar to the ones offered by public institutions.

Sanctions: According to The Regulation on Foundation Higher Education Institutions (2005), conditions that cause license cancellation are as follows:

  • Failure of the foundation higher education institution to start educational training within three years from the date of its foundation,
  • The foundation higher education institution does not use its income from education, publication, consultancy, commercial and other activities, and donations to finance the academic activities, investment, and current expenses of the higher education institution.
  • Covering the expenses promised by the founding foundation at the establishment of higher education institutions from the revenues of the higher education institution.
  • Irregularities in buying, selling and tenders that harm the foundation of higher education institutions.
  • Administrators of foundation higher education institutions have committed crimes against the state.
  • The resources committed by the founding foundation during the establishment phase of the foundation higher education institution have been lost to such an extent that the foundation higher education institution cannot continue its activities.
  • failure to return the transferred resource within the period given upon determination that the resource has been transferred from the foundation higher education institution
  • Performing fraudulent and irregular transactions in the election, renewal and termination of membership of the foundation higher education institution board of trustees.

3.2 Multi-level regulations

From pre-primary to secondary education, private education institutions are the only non-state education providers in Turkey. All information about these institutions is included in the Private Education Institutions Law (2007) and the Regulation on Private Education Institutions (2012), regardless of grade.

Entry/Establishment

Registration and approval: According to Private Education Institutions Law (2007), an individual (national or international) or legal entity (national or international) must acquire a permit (licence) to open a private education institution. Applications are made to the provincial directorate of national education.

Applications that are deemed appropriate as a result of the examination made by the governorship of the province are sent to the MoNE, which will approve the application.

According to Private Education Institutions Law (2007), the same or similar private education institutions of military schools, schools affiliated to the police force and institutions providing religious education cannot be opened.

Licence: The documents required for obtaining a license are included in the Regulation on Private Education Institutions (2012). Although not limited to these, these documents can be summarized as follows: petitions, information and documents related to the founders, photocopy of the tax plate, photos of the school building, its deed or lease contract, a report that the building and its environment are suitable in terms of health, documents regarding the education program that the school will implement, written statement that all personnel work permit offers will be made. Apart from these, it is necessary to get a permit from the presidency to open an international school. Regulation on Private Education Institutions (2012) states that class size cannot be higher than 20 in pre-primary education.

According to Regulation on Private Education Institutions (2012), the buildings of the private education institution must meet the standards mentioned below:

  • Buildings with more than one floor must have elevators or transportation and transmission systems that ensure the accessibility of disabled people.
  • Schools must have installed security camera systems in the garden entrance and building doors.

According to Private Education Institutions Law (2007), the same or similar private education institutions of military schools, schools affiliated to the police force and institutions providing religious education cannot be opened.

Within the scope of the Regulation on the Establishment and Operational Principles of Private Kindergarten and Day Care Centers and Private Children's Clubs, natural and legal persons apply to the Provincial Directorates of Family and Social Services to open an establishment. The founding candidate who applies to open an establishment must be a Turkish citizen.

Financial operation

Profit-making: According to Private Education Institutions Law (2007), private education institutions cannot organize their activities just for profit.

Taxes and subsidies: Water, natural gas and electricity fees of private education institutions are determined at the same tariff as state schools. According to Decision on Government Aid in Investments (2021), private sector investments in kindergartens and daycare centres, pre-school education, primary, secondary and high school education can benefit from government aid, if the investment is made in provinces at the fifth development level (which are Bayburt, Çankırı, Erzurum, Giresun Gümüşhane, Kahramanmaraş, Kilis, Niğde, Ordu, Osmaniye, Sinop, Tokat, Tunceli, Yozgat) The least developed provinces are at the sixth development level.

 

Licence: The documents required for obtaining a license are included in the Regulation on Private Education Institutions (2012). Although not limited to these, these documents can be summarized as follows: petitions, information and documents related to the founders, photocopy of the tax plate, photos of the school building, its deed or lease contract, a report that the building and its environment are suitable in terms of health, documents regarding the education program that the school will implement, written statement that all personnel work permit offers will be made. Apart from these, it is necessary to get a permit from the presidency to open an international school. Regulation on Private Education Institutions (2012) states that class size cannot be higher than 20 in pre-primary education.

According to Regulation on Private Education Institutions (2012), the buildings of the private education institution must meet the standards mentioned below:

  • Buildings with more than one floor must have elevators or transportation and transmission systems that ensure the accessibility of disabled people.
  • Schools must have installed security camera systems in the garden entrance and building doors.

According to Private Education Institutions Law (2007), if the following conditions are met, the application for opening an institution will be positive:

  • The building is found to be suitable and sufficient for its establishment and the standards determined by the MoNE.
  • Determining with a report that the course equipment is sufficient for the aims and needs of the institution.
  • The administrators, teachers and other personnel of the institution are found suitable in terms of their number and qualification, and certification of those who will work in this institution.
  • The institution's regulations and curriculum have been reviewed and approved by MoNE.

Quality of teaching and learning

Curriculum or education standards: According to Private Education Institutions Law (2007), the curriculum and weekly course schedule to be applied in private education institutions are determined within the framework of the procedures and principles applied in state school at the same education level. If approved by the MoNE, different curricula and weekly course schedules can be applied.

Teaching profession: According to Private Education Institutions Law (2007), in order to be a teacher in a private school, one should have the necessary qualification and condition that is valid at least for an equivalent state school. The basic condition is to graduate from the faculty of education or to obtain a pedagogical formation certificate after graduating from a higher education institution. Work permits for teachers in a private school are given by the governorships. A teacher cannot start working in a private school without a permit. The permit of the teacher who is found to be unsuccessful in the inspection report twice is cancelled. Foreign teachers can also work in private schools if they have similar qualifications with teachers who have citizenship. Employment contracts are made by the administrators of the institution with the teachers. This contract may not last less than one year. Private schools have autonomy in determining salaries and benefits. Teachers can teach up to 40 hours per week.

Equitable access

Fee-setting: Regulation on Private Education Institutions (2012) allows tuition increase based on the domestic producer and consumer price indexes. Educational institutions are permitted to take the average of these two indexes and add a maximum of 5%. Other than this, Regulation on Private Education Institutions (2012) does not contain any information on fee-setting. However, each institution must notify the provincial directorate of national education and announce the fee to the public. It is forbidden to charge a higher fee than the announced rate.

Admission selection and processes: Regulation on Private Education Institutions (2012) states that except for the private high schools that accept students with results of the central high school entrance exam, private schools are allowed to select students according to the school regulations, within the framework of the principles of generality and equality.

Policies for vulnerable groups: Private Education Institutions Law (2007) states that each private school must have students who are exempt from tuition and the rate of these students in the overall student population in the school cannot be less than 3%. Children of those deemed disabled in war and duty and children under state protection have priority in being exempt from tuition. Private schools also can give scholarships to students according to the conditions they determine.

In line with the Regulation on the Establishment and Operational Principles of Private Kindergarten and Day Care Centers and Private Children's Clubs (2015), three percent of the capacities of the establishments are reserved for the free use of children to be determined by the provincial directorate. Within the scope of free quota; children of martyrs and veterans regardless of their economic status, children under protection in institutions affiliated to the Ministry of Family and Social Services, children staying with their mothers who are convicted or detained in prisons, children from families with insufficient economic power, and children, whose parents have died, in economic difficulties, children living with a single parent, children with a disabled parent, children of women who are in or leave the women's guest house benefit from Kindergartens, Day Care Centers and Private Children's Clubs.

Quality assurance, monitoring and accountability

Reporting requirements: No information in the Private Education Institutions Law (2007) and Regulation on Private Education Institutions (2012) on this subject.

Inspection: Private Education Institutions Law (2007) stated that private schools and the personnel in these schools are under the control and supervision of the MoNE, as in state schools. As it is stated in Regulation on the Inspection Board of MoNE (2017), the inspection of schools is carried out periodically every three years. Its main aim is to guide the teachers and administrative staff. It is a set of services covering all kinds of professional assistance and suggestions made to ensure compliance with the legislation for increasing the level of education and training, informing the officers during the supervision and guidance studies and also through with in-service trainings, guidance for public and private educational organizations and staff on effective use of resources in education and training.

Sanctions: According to Private Education Institutions Law (2007), conditions that cause license cancellation if repeated three times are as follows:

  • Failure to start operations within two years after the license is given.
  • Taking an unauthorized break for more than two years after starting the operations.
  • Making unauthorized changes in the school layout plan approved by MoNE.
  • Use of students' pictures and information in false or misleading advertisements.
  • Not employing the number of personnel specified in the legislation or employing personnel contrary to the legislation.
  • Losing any of the conditions for license.

3.3 Supplementary private tutoring

The institutions providing supplementary private tuition are called private education courses. As in private schools, the rules and permissions regarding these courses are regulated by Private Education Institutions Law (2007) and Regulation on Private Education Institutions (2012). The main function of private education courses is preparing students to university entrance exam. Other than these institutions, individuals can provide private tutoring services. However, there is no regulation regarding individuals’ private tutoring activities.

Entry/Establishment

According to Private Education Institutions Law (2007), an individual (national or international) or legal entity (national or international) must acquire permit (license) to open a private education course. Applications are made to the provincial directorate of national education and the application is approved by the governorship of the province. Only high school students can attend private education courses. Each institution can give courses only on one subject, which can be Turkish language and literature, mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, history, geography, and philosophy. Opening a course that focuses on more than one subject is prohibited by Private Education Institutions Law (2007). To establish the institution, the curriculum for the subject prepared by the institution must be approved by the General Directorate of Private Education Institutions.

Financial operation and quality

Regulation on Private Education Institutions (2012) does not contain any information on fee-setting. However, each institution must notify the provincial directorate of national education and announce the fee to the public. It is forbidden to charge a higher fee than the announced rate. Private Education Institutions Law (2007) stated that all private education institutions and the personnel in these institutions are under the control and supervision of the MoNE. Governorships also have the authority to inspect private education courses.

Teaching profession

 

According to Regulation on Private Education Institutions (2012), each course must obtain a work permit from the governor's office for the teachers who will work in the course. There is no information regarding qualifications of teachers in private education courses. Employment contracts are made by the administrators of the institution with the teachers. This contract may not last less than one year. Teachers can teach up to 40 hours per week.

 

This profile was drafted by the Network of Education Policy Centers (NEPC). It was reviewed by Süheyla DEMİREL YAZICI (Ministry of National Education), Seda KUZGUN (Ministry of National Education) and Merve Demir (social worker, Ministry of Family and Social Services).

Last modified:

Fri, 07/01/2022 - 19:21